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Full text of "Pioneer citizens' history of Atlanta, 1833-1902. Pub. by the Pioneer citizens' society of Atlanta.."

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1919 l-j 

OF ATLANTA, 1902. 

B. F. ABBOTT, - 
J. C. PECK, - - - 
W. A. FULLER, - 

- President. 

- First Vice President. 

■ Second Vice President., 

- Third Vice President. 

- Secretary-Treasurer. 



Majestic, beautiful, a shape of splendor. 

With Beauty's magic cestus chastely zoned, 
A Queen, to whom true hearts their homage render, 

Upon her hills Atlanta sits enthroned; 
How splendid is her smile ! like sunshine raying 

Its iridescent glory after rain. 
As she looks forth with sparkling eyes surveying 

The panorama of her vast domain; 

From mountains, which beneath the north star's beaming 

Sublimely lift to heaven their snow-crowned heads. 
To where the ocean's opalescent gleaming 

Illumes shell-jeweled shores, her empire spreads; 
The bird that farthest cleaves, with daring pinion. 

The azure spaces of empyrean air, 
Looks down upon no lordlier dominion, 

No richer realm, no heritage more fair. 

Our peerless Queen ! Behold her calmly sitting, 

Holding the reins of empire in her hand, 
With comely grace and stately mien befitting 

The sovereign ruler of a mighty land; 
With eagle eyes she scans the forward distance, 

And reads her happy future in the stars — 
To faith like hers, to such sublime insistence. 

Fate yields, and with a smile her gate unbars ! 

■i PioxEER Citizens' 

Still live the men who, in her urban borders 

Saw — where today they see a thousand spires — 
The Cherokees, our state's primeval warders, 

Chase the wild deer, and light their council fires; 
They heard the panther yell, the eagle screaming. 

The rattling snake, coiled for his deadly spring, 
Where now, with hosts of busy toilers teeming, 

A mighty city's clamorous voices ring. 

Out of the wilderness, a wildwood blossom, 

Fair nursling of the sunshine and the dew. 
Her dawning beauty brightening in her bosom, 

Through peaceful years in strength and grace she grew; 
But sudden came a change — the muttering thunder 

Burst into storm, the sky grew black with gloom. 
And like the bolt which rends an oak asunder, 

Destruction fell on her and wrought her doom. 

Grim in their cave in Pluto's ghostly regions 

Her life-thread spinning, sat the silent Fates, 
Beheld Bellona hurl her roaring legions, 

A sea of steel, against Atlanta's gates ; 
The silent Fates spin on; the earthquake rumbling 

Of bursting mines, the cannon's deafening sound 
Shake earth and sky; walls, towers and bastions tumbling, 

Shell-shattered, strew with smoking wreck the ground ; 

But grim and silent still, their distaff holding 

With steady hand, the sister Fates spin on ; 
Life's drama, with its mystical unfolding, 

'Tis theirs to watch till the last scene be done ; 
It was not in man's power to snap asunder 

Atlanta's life-thread, guarded by the Fates, 
Though she was smitten prone with bolts of thunder, 

And level with the dust lay all her gates. 

History of Atlanta. 

Out of the ruins, unto death defended 

By men as brave as Greece or Rome e'er bore, 
Behold our Queen arise, a Vision splendid, 

Her throne and scepter to resume once more; 
Her star of hope in cloudless skies is burning, 

No time or mood hath she for the idle tears ; 
The night is past, and brightly dawns the morning — 

To face the world and conquer it is hers ! 

The wreck, the dust, the smoldering ashes raking. 

That darkly hide the reeking, blood-stained soil, 
Hope and assurance for the future taking 

From her great past, we see her delve and toil ; 
With victory-compelling, empire-making, 

Napoleonic genius, pluck and art, 
Behold Atlanta once more grandly shaping. 

In stone and gold, the vision of her heart ! 

She hath no time for restrospective dreamings — 

Her life is with the future, not the past; 
Her victories of peace, with commerce schemings. 

Her bosom burns, her pulse beats loud and fast ; 
But yet, methinks, with smiles she still remembers 

Her humble cradle in the virgin wood, 
Or drops her tears upon the dust and embers. 

That mark her ordeal days of fire and blood. 

Men of rare brains and brawn were once her nurses. 

And safely brought her through her infant years; 
With pride the muse of history still rehearses 

Their trials and their triumphs, hopes and fears; 
Stern men of war, men of heroic fiber, 

In her defense have stood and bled, and died, 
Till with her classic sister on the Tiber, 

She hath in fame Ijecome identified. 

6 PioxEEK Citizens' 

And men of might who bravely from the nettle 

Of Danger oft have plucked its golden flower, 
Men molded out of nature's finest metal, 

Still guide her steps along the paths of power ; 
These with their lives, as with a shield, would cover 

Her life, her fame — like those who bled and died 
For her in former days, or as a lover 

Would shield the life and honor of his bride. 

And still they come, her Paladin defenders! 

Building a wall of hearts for her defence ; 
The living jewels in her crown of splendors. 

The corner stone of her magnificence ; 
She cares but little what, in rank or station, 

In race or creed, or birth, a man may be, 
So he but lays his heart as an oblation. 

Upon the altar of her destiny. 

Brave, proud, omnipotent in the innateness 

Of powers that know not deatli. nor dull decay. 
What bounds shall ever curb her growing greatness ? 

What adverse force resist her sovereign sway? 
Although the past and present of her story, 

Seem like some fairy-tale of Orient lands. 
What brains can dream, what tongue portray her glory, 

When on her future's summit crowned she stands? 

History of Atlanta, 


It is not without a degree of pride that the committee 
charged with the duty of presenting to the public this history 
take this occasion to felicitate themselves on the accomplish- 
ment of that task. It has been a labor of love, attended with 
a great responsibility in getting together so voluminous a 
record of persons and events. 

These pages are replete with the history of those who were 
participants in the founding of this great city; indeed, it is 
their record of the stirring events which occurred from year to 
year from the first settlement, along the formative period of 
the embryo metropolitan city of today. And largeiy to the 
older inhabitant is the reader indebted for this accurate and 
authentic history, to which they, as members of the Pioneer 
Citizens' Society, gave much thought and labor. 

The committee, in addition to the mass of information in 
its hands, have had access to various publications, and have 
availed themselves of every source of information which could 
be had. We could not be other than grateful to all who have 
willingly responded to every appeal made them in behalf of 
this undertaking. Especially valuable have we found the 
history of the "City of Atlanta," by Mr. Wallace Putnam 
Peed; the histories of Atlanta, by Colonel E. Y. Clarke, and 
also that of Colonel Isaac W. Avery. We have used their 
works wherever convenient to supplement the information 
furnished by the various committees of the Pioneer Citizens' 

To the press of the city we are grateful for its generous en- 
couragement; to our editor and compiler, Mr. Louis L. Par- 

8 Pioneer Citizens' 

ham, we are indebted for his painstaking care and patient en- 
deavor to so arrange this work as to avoid tediousness and 
glittering generalities— to arrive at facts— which, indeed, has 
been the aim of the committee. 

In conclusion, if we have added one pleasure to the friends 
of the pioneer, and contributed to the history of the past of 
Atlanta, this labor of love has not been in vain. 

John C. Peck, Chairman, 
John C. Hendrix, 
W. A. Fuller, 


Frank P. Eice, 
W. S. Everett, 
W. L. Calhoun, Ex-Off., 

History of Atlanta. 


"To rescue from oblivion the memory of former incidents, 
and to render a just tribute of renown to the many great 
and wonderful transactions of our progenitors," is the stimu- 
lus to the Pioneer Citizens' Society, of Atlanta, to produce 
this work. Like the great father of his country, whose words 
have just been quoted, we treat of times past, over which the 
twilight of uncertainty has almost thrown its shadows, and 
the evening of forgetfulness to descend forever. With some- 
thing akin to despair we have long beheld the history of this 
community slipping from our grasp, trembling on the lips of 
narrative old age, and day by day dropping peacemeal into the 
tomb. In a little while these venerable men and women of 
the days of the past will be gathered to their fathers — indeed, 
even now there are few left to tell the story. Their children, 
engrossed by the empty pleasures or insignificant transac- 
tions of the present age, will neglect to treasure up the recol- 
lections of the past, and posterity will search in vain for me- 
morials of the early settlers. Determined, therefore, to avert, 
if possible, the threatened disaster, we have gathered up all the 
fragments of our early history which still exist. Who shall 
say ^twill be love's labor lost? 

Fortunately for the early history of Atlanta, there have been 
preserved many facts which light up the pathway and enable 
the reader to travel the rugged road with the pioneer in the 
early dawn of this great city. More fortunate still, a few of 
those who laid Atlanta's foundations left with us the impres- 
sions^, received in their life-work, upon which the historian 

10 Pioneer Citizens'" 

could build a story replete with interest to the seeker after 
knowledge of the days of the past. 

The pioneers of Atlanta deserve to be remembered by those- 
who came after them; they laid the foundations deep and 
broad for this great city; they endured hardships, worked 
with crude implements — hoped almost against hope — in a 
land in which the aborigine had recently roamed at will, quite 
"monarch of all he surveyed," with no one his title to dispute. 
Here, in the forests wild, the earliest whites built their log 
cabins, tilled the soil, reared their families and inaugurated 
the building of a town which proved the nucleus for a great 
inland city — the "Gate City of the South." It has tDcen said 
of these pioneers that "they did not bring the infirmities of old 
age, or the weakness of impaired vitality, to linger for a few 
days in the settlement, and then bequeath their bones to the 
cemetery; but they came with a long future in front of them, 
bringing their wives newly married, and their furniture newly 
bought. They came to grow up with the place, to reap the re- 
ward of honest endeavor, and to purchase by dint of patient 
endeavor a few of the goodly "smiles of fortune." They left 
as an inheritance names that enrich the pages of the State's 
history — deeds that cause a halo to gather about their mem- 

In her infancy Atlanta was like many other border towns; 
it sheltered some dissolute characters. But, fortunately for 
her conservative citizenship, they were masterful in intelli- 
gence, patriotism, public spirit and in their love for law and 
order, and possessed the moral courage to risk everything, even 
their lives, in defense of their convictions. In proof of which 
may be cited three incidents occurring in those early days, 
namely: The rebellion against Mayor Norcross, the trial and 
execution of the murderers of old man Landrum, and the 
prevention of the execution of William A. Choice by a mol). 

History of Atlanta, 11 

There were other stirring incidents in her early life, but none 
more thrilling, nor exhibiting in a stronger light the true 
stamina and character of these sturdy pioneers. By and 
through them the escutcheon of the embryo metropolis was 
preserved pure and spotless. 

Such are the characters portrayed in these pages — such the 
men whose lives and deeds this book faithfully portrays. 




Hardy Ivy, the Pioneer, Buys a Large Body of Land — No 
Neighbors for Miles Around — Description of the Coun- 
try in 1833— The Prospective "State Road" — Driving the 
• Stakes for Its Eastern Terminus— Highways of Travel 
Through This Section— "Whitehall," the First Wayside 
Inn — The Red Man's Retirement Before the "Pale 
Face" — Primitive Homes of Early Settlers — Land at 
Any Price. 

The first white settler in the solitude of the forests in this 
immediate section was Hardy Ivy. He made his advent in 
1833, and built his humble home near where he little thought 
a great city would some day rise in its splendor, teeming with 
its thousands of inhabitants and busy marts of trade. What- 
ever may have been his speculations as to the future, this ad- 
venturous spirit could not have dreamed of a city such as At- 

12 PioxEER Citizens' 

lanta is today. He came to till the soil and reap the reward of 
honest labor. As land was of little value at that time, he 
purchased about two hundred acres on his own terms — agree- 
ing to pay for it in produce "as he could spare it." His pos- 
sessions lay in a body running from what is now Decatur 
street along Peachtree to Cain, and back towards Ponce de 
Leon. His cabin was in a little clearing about one mile east 
of Peachtree road. 

Far from this lonely habitation were his neighbors — several 
miles distant indeed. But undismayed, he began clearing up 
his farm, trusting the future, however precarious seemed the 
prospects he now encountered. It was not till several years 
later, however, that this pioneer was joined by others. 

The impetus given the settlement can best be understood by 
the determination on the part of the State of Georgia to build 
a railroad from the Tennessee river to a point east of the Chat- 
tahoochee river in DeKalb county, most suitable for the run- 
ning of branch roads thence to Madison, Athens, Milledgeville, 
Forsyth and Columbus. The act was passed by the general 
assembly in December, 1S3G. Active operations were not 
begun till two years later. But the news of this important 
step spread over the country and attracted attention. The 
new settlement began to grow slowly. 

In 1837, as travel through the settlement began to in- 
crease, it became necessary for some one to erect a wayside 
inn. This was done by Charner Humphries. This inn con- 
sisted of a number of shanties huddled together, planked up 
and painted white — the only painted house in the country — 
hence it was dubbed the ''•\^^lite Hall." It was a famous stop- 
ping place for travelers and headquarters for the general mus- 
ter, which took place at stated times, as the law regarding the 
militia provided. 

The writer recently conversed with a gentleman of ad- 

HiSTOKY OF Atlanta. 13 

vanced years, who when a boy traveled through this section 
with his father. He well remembers it was in 1838 they ar- 
rived at the "White Hall" and put up for the night, before 
proceeding in their buggy to their destination in Alabama. 

Let us turn now to a description of the country as it ap- 
peared when Ivy came. It was a dense forest of scrubby oaks 
and pines covering the gravelly hills, while the earth was hid 
beneath a thick, heavy growth of sourwood, gooseberry and 
chinquepin shrubbery. The sound of the woodman's axe had 
never been heard under the shade of the trees that spread 
their branches over the hills and gentle slopes beneath them, 
save that of the traveler when making his camp-fire, or the 
woodman in pursuit of his game. 

There were three public roads running through this woody, 
unbroken country — the road from Decatur to Newnan, a dis- 
tance of fifty-five miles, ran through this forest and nearly 
through what is now the center of the City of Atlanta. At a 
point near where the Seaboard Air Line depot now stands 
the road forked, the right-hand running mainly along what is 
now Decatur and Marietta streets to Montgomery's ferry on 
the Chattahoochee river, about half a mile above the railroad 
bridge. The road to Nelson's ferry, six or eight miles below 
Montgomery's ferry, left that road at a point near where the 
cotton factory now stands, corner of Marietta and Magnolia 
streets. Another settlement road ran to the Collier farm on 
Peachtree creek, and another through' what is now Westview 
cemetery, in the direction of Clark University (colored), in 
the western part of the city. 

The first settlement on the road to Nelson's ferry was 

that of Mr. Thurman, who owned a farm and also 

ran a mill on a small stream that coursed through his place. 
Among the families of that day living within a radius of 
about two to ten miles were, Benjamin Little, Charner Hum- 

14 Pioneer Citizens' 

phries, James Montgomery, Abner Conley (whose farm ex- 
tended down to what is now East Point) and Hornady, 

Hughie, Blackstock and Moses Trimble. 



The Earliest Name of the Present Atlanta — Events Which 
Stirred the Few Inhabitants — Some Who Came and 
Later Moved Away — Active Work Begun on the "State 
Road"— First Sale of Lots in 1839, in the Woods— One 
Lot on WTiitehall Road Brings $45 — Approach of the 
First Railroad — The First Locomotive, and Manner of 
Transporting it Thither. 

The metropolis of today had but a very humble and inaus- 
picious beginning. As has been stated, the "State Road" 
had been chartered, but not until the road's surveyor, Stephen 
H. Long, in 1837, had driven the stake in the woods where 
the eastern terminus was to be, was there anything on which 
to hang a hope for a town. This event was a momentous one, 
unattended, however, with any ceremonies. The stake was 
driven near the present union passenger station. This being 
the terminus of the proposed road, the natives could think of 
no more appropriate name for the settlement — and so it be- 
came "Terminus." This matter settled, they awaited re- 
sults, reasoning with themselves that the influx of prospectors 
would not be long in setting in — and so it proved. 

History of Atlanta. 15 

As active work on the State Eoad had been resumed 
in this year — 1838 — hope revived, and the future seemed 
brighter to the handfull of pioneers. 

Time wore along till early in the year 1839, when a lull 
came. Many became dissatisfied and impatient. Among this 
number was John Thrasher, who had removed from Decatur, 
purchased a large tract of land, built a storehouse and begun 
lousiness. He sold out very soon after, at a sacrifice, and 
moved to Griffin. Others in the settlement moved away also. 
Thus the much talked of town suffered from the impatient 
population, but only for a brief period. Soon another change 
came. A better day had dawned, a brighter sun had risen 
and shed its effulgent rays upon Terminus. The crucial test 
was soon to be made — a public sale of lots was determined 
upon. Surveyors were put to work and a number of lots 
staked off in the woods on Whitehall, between what is now 
Hunter and Mitchell streets. The sale proved successful and 
satisfactory — one lot bringing as high as forty-five dollars, a 
fabulous price in those days !. 

The year following was not noted for any startling events, 
although an occasional arrival was looked upon as a good 
sign for the future. 

The people at Decatur awoke to a realization of the fact 
that the new town six miles west of them was indeed a rival. 
True, they had refused the railroad terminal facilities, as the 
noise of the locomotives would interfere with their slumbers 
and the smoke dirty up the town, as they emphatically de- 
clared; but they soon discovered their mistake, too late, how- 
•€ver,'to remedy it. 

The approach of the first railroad to Terminus was hailed 
with delight by the town. As the Georgia road was to be 
completed in a short while, the road began the erection of a 
^epot, putting in the foundations in 1841. This action on 

16 PioxEER Citizens' 

the part of the railroad gave new impetus to business, and 
renewed the waning hopes of the doubting, of whom there 
were not a few. 

In 1842 the appearance of Terminus was considerably 
changed from that of the year previous. There was a cluster 
of houses' in and about the vicinity of the corner of Decatur, 
Peachtree and Marietta streets, through and about which two 
roads passed — the one called Whitehall, and the other ^lari- 
etta road. \Yhere the Kimball House now stands, a big forest 
of oaks gave shelter to the weary traveler, and also served the 
purposes of a natural park. Great things were in store for 
the town in this year — it was the attainment of things hoped 
for, yet unseen. A two-story building was erected by the 
State Eoad on the ground on Wall street opposite the present 
union passenger depot. It was used by the road for offices, 
and later it was converted into a boarding-house, principally 
for the emploj'es of the State Eoad. 

One of the arrivals this year was Willis Carlisle. He en- 
gaged in merchandising in a hut about opposite where the 
First Presbyterian church now stands, south side of Marietta 
street, near the corner of Spring street. To him the first 
white girl child in the town was born. 

A marked event of this year was the arrival of the first 
locomotive, which was to be used on the Western and Atlantic 
Railway, It was hauled in wagons from Madison, Georgia, 
sixty-five miles, and on its arrival the whole town turned oat 
to see the wonderful piece of mechanism. The engine was put 
together on the track of the road and made a trip to Marietta, 
Georgia, on December 2-lth. The engineer on that occasion 
was W. F. Adair. A number of citizens made the trip to 
Marietta, and that town furnished a large party of enthu- 
siastic citizens who came back with the excursionists. It is 
said that some of the party who went to Marietta on this occa- 

History of Atlanta. 17 

sion made the engineer promise to stop the train when it ar- 
rived at the bridge over the Chattahoochee river, and let them 
get off the cars and walk across the structure. This the en- 
gineer promised, and faithfully complied with the requests of 
the over-timid. 


Another Name Selected for the Embryo City — 1843 An Im- 
portant Year — Governor Lumpkin's Daughter Honored — 
One of the Characters of Those Days, the Mail Carrier — 
John C. Calhoun Visits the Town, and Predicts a Great 
. City Here — Jonathan Norcross' Ingenious Sawmill — Lo- 
cal Affairs Administered by Commissioners — The Trials 
and Tribulations of the Latter — How the People Lived. 

1843 — new arrivals this year, the approach of the 
lines of transportation, and the decided improvement in busi- 
ness, made it apparent that the town had outgrown its name. 
After much discussion among the citizens, and the rejection 
of many suggestions, it was decided to honor Governor Wilson 
Lumpkin, then on a visit to Terminus, by naming the town 
for his daughter, Martha. Thus by an act of the General As- 
sembly of December 23d, Marthasville was born. But, as will 
be seen later on, Marthasville was known to fame but a few 
years. The arrivals about this time began to increase. They 
came in the old-fashioned covered wagon, sometimes drawn 

18 Pioneer Citizens' 

by a yoke of patient oxen, generally bringing their earthly pos- 
sessions with them ready to set up housekeeping. They were 
welcomed by an eager populace. The new arrival looked about 
him, selected a spot on which to erect a house, either tempo- 
rarily or permanenth' — as his means would allow. 

One of the institutions of the times, before the advent of 
the railroad, was the mail carrier. This man was almost wor- 
shipped by the people, since it was he who, in the fierce wintry 
blast or 'neath a scorching sun "rode the mail" (on a mule 
generally), the nearest point being Madison, in Morgan coun- 
ty. When the first whistle of the locomotive was heard in 
Marthasville, this hitherto popular being became a rather 
uninteresting fellow. Like Othello, his "occupation was 

1844. — One of the marked events of the day — a red-letter 
day — was a visit to the town by Hon. John C. Calhoun, one 
of the South's distinguished statesmen. Xo doubt, the town 
thought it a mark of special favor. Mr. Calhoun, with proph- 
etic ken, spoke of the great future of the place, suggested a 
name, and his advice was followed later on. 

A much appreciated addition to the town was the saw- 
mill just established by Jonathan Xorcross. As timber was 
plentiful, the mill never suffered for material. It is related 
that this mill was the product of Mr. Norcross's ingenuity, 
and he endeavored to secure privileges by applying to the gov- 
ernment for an exclusive patent. Wlien he arrived in Wash- 
ington, however, he found, to his amazement, that another 
party, living in a different section of the country, had already 
conceived the very same design, and the government, of course, 
refused to give Mr. ISTorcross the patent, which appeared to be 
the prior right of another party. He nevertheless came back, 
with a good courage, and proceeded to work with a steady 
purpose. He entered into a contract with the Georgia Rail- 

History of Atlanta. 19 

road — then within a few miles of the town — to supply it with 
crossties and other timber needed in laying the track, and from 
the mill of Mr. Norcross was thus procured the material that 
completed the road to Marthasville. The sawyer for Mr. 
Norcross was William G. Forsyth. 

Mr. Norcross gave away a great many slabs, free of charge, 
to the poorer classes, which were utilized in the erection of 
houses around the mill. The settlement thus built acquired 
the name of "Slab Town" and retained the distinction for 
quite a number of years. 

"The local affairs of Marthasville were governed hy a 
board of town commissioners, or rather — to speak more prop- 
erly — its affairs were entrusted to their management, for it 
was little control that they exercised over the village," says 
L. L. Knight, in The Constitution. 

"The number of commissioners was five, and they were 
named in the charter as follows : Willis Carlisle, John Bailey, 
Patrick Quinn, L. V. Gannon and John Kile. They were 
appointed to remain in office until the 1st of March, 1845, and 
their successors were to be annually chosen thereafter. 
***** In order to carry out their duties — which 
were mainly to preserve the peace of the community and to 
open new streets for the better improvement of the village — 
they were authorized by the legislature to impose a slight tax 
upon the owners of property dwelling within the corporate 
limits, and were further allowed, by the same authority, to 
exact fines from such offenders as should violate their local 

"The first move of the commissioners was the opening of 
new streets, and a tax was thereupon levied in order to carry 
out the purpose. The citizens rose up in rebellion. 'Taxa- 
tion' was as foul a word to them as it was to the patriots at 
Bunker Hill, and they stubbornly refused to pay it. They 

20 Pioneer Citizens' 

did not quote from the 'declaration of independence/ nor from 
the popular 'Ode to Liberty/ but they told the commissioners, 
in very decided prose, that they did not care to pay any addi- 
tional taxes and moreover they would not pay a cent. They 
considered it quite unnecessary to open any more streets, for 
they already had enough — there was Marietta, Decatur, 
Whitehall, Peachtree, Pryor, Loyd and Alabama, seven 
streets, but if the commission wanted more they could hitch 
up their mules and plow the ground themselves; no money 
was to come out of their pockets. Such was the difficulty in 
opening the streets of Atlanta. 

"Again, the commissioners put on the judicial ermine and 
tried to resolve themselves into a court. The accused party, 
being notified by his friends, that the officers were after him, 
usually put out for the woods, and there remained, during 
the daytime, for quite a lengthy period. He managed, how- 
ever, to crawl back at night, enjoy a good supper, and to keep 
up A^ith the news of the village. ***** 

"The population of Marthasville, for the year 1845, was 
about two hundred inhabitants. The area of the place had ' 
grown considerably and many of the trees that stood watch 
over the village, in the year 1842, had long since been felled 
to the ground, and were either a part of the fence or the house, 
or else had been burned to ashes upon the 'blazing hearth.' " 

History of Atlanta. 21 



Early Services — The First Preacher and First House of Wor- 
ship — 1845, the First Newspaper Begins Existence — 
First School Opened — Judge S. B. Hoyt's Eecollec- 
tions — "Painter" Smith and His Peculiarities — New 
Storehouses and Hotels — The "^lonroe Road," from 
Macon, Completed in 1847 to Marthasville — Dr. Joseph 
Thompson's Hotel. 

1845. — As yet there were no church buildings in the place, 
although services were held in such places as offered room. 
The few hundred inhabitants were religiously inclined. The 
first edifice erected, devoted especially to the worship of .God, 
was a small log building, on North Pryor, near the corner of 
Houston street. In this building union services were held — 
the first preacher being Rev. J. S. Wilson, afterward pastor 
of the First Presbyterian church. 

So far, strange to say, no one had the courage to start a 
newspaper until this year; no doubt the villagers would have 
enjoyed a paper in which to read about themselves, what they 
were doing from week to week — not that they didn't know — - 
but it would have been so pleasant to read that "Our fellow 
townsman. Bill Jones, ever alive to the best interests of the 
city, had determined to replace the clapljoards on his house 
with shingles," etc. They were soon made happy. W. H. 
Fonerden established a weekly paper. The Democrat, which 
was later followed by others. 

In keeping with the spirit of the times, a school was 

23 Pioneer Citizens' 

opened this year, taught by Miss Martha Reed. The curricu- 
lum was not very extended, as may be supposed; it inchided 
"readin', writin' and 'rithmetic." In those days corporeal 
punishment was the order of the day ; the school-teacher kept 
a bunch of good wyths in sight of the whole school, and used 
them when occasion demanded it, and that was every day 
generally. Boys were not any worse — if as bad — as now, but 
teachers used the rod freely in those days. 

Judge S. B. Hoyt was among the number who came to 
Marthasville in 1845. In an interview with a newspaper a 
few years ago he says : 

"I came to Atlanta — or rather Marthasville, as it was then 
— in April, 1845, and rode on horseback all the way from mv 
home in East Tennessee. I came to clerk for Mr. Norcross, 
who was connected with my family by marriage, and I re- 
mained in the store about six months. I then left to return 
again in 1851, and ever since then have been a resident of 

"There were only two highways in the place when I arrived \ 
in '45, and they crossed each other at the artesian well, form- 
ing ^^^ntehall, Peachtree, Marietta and Decatur roads. 
Whitehall then came to the intersection of Marietta, and did 
not stop as it does at present at the railroad crossing. It re- 
ceived its name from a hotel kept by Charner Humphries 
along the route, and in the present neighborhood of West 
End. As an illustration of the way in which property has 
advanced, I will give you a single example. Samuel Mitchell 
was the owner of land lot Xo. 77, now including the central 
part of Atlanta and worth at least $15,000,000. He bought 
it for a small pony, or a shotgun, tradition is in doubt as to 
the exact consideration, The titles to the lot were afterwards 
involved in quite a lengthy dispute. IVIr. Mitchell executed 
a deed to the State for the land on which the passenger depot 

History of Atlanta. 23 

now stands, and also the block north of it, inculding about four 
acres, for the purpose of the Western and Atlantic Kailroad. 
The land lot was almost entirely covered with trees, except 
around the cross-roads. I have gathered chinquapins many 
a time on both sides of Whitehall street. 

"It was expected that all of the business houses would be 
erected on the north side of the town. It was also thought 
that the ground about the artesian well. would be used as a 
public square, as it was cleared for that purpose. I never 
thought that Atlanta would become a city of a hundred thou- 
sand inhabitants." 

One of the peculiar characters about the neighborhood of 
Marthasville was Painter Smith. He was a second edition of 
Eip Van Winkle. Though pretending to have an occupation, 
he was rarely seen employed, and only then did he sacrifice 
his leisure for the sake of his mad appetite and the revenue 
of the village grogshop. Ludicrous in appearance, he excited 
laughter whenever he went about the streets, and he was never 
in want of an audience when he felt in the humor to talk. It 
may be stated in this connection that whenever a circle gath- 
ered about him to hear his jokes or listen to his wierd songs, 
the crowd was always careful as to the length of the radius. 
Though Painter was a bad character, it may be truthfully said, 
he was a good example. No one desired to pattern after his 
ways, and though impulse excited laughter at his jokes, re- 
flection was sure to end in pity for his faults. Teni^^ance 
was stoutlv advocated whenever he drank to excess, and 
morality, from the crown of his hat, often preached a sermon 
of good advice to his followers. 

Improvements were the order of the day; and among those 
who had come to stay was Jonathan Norcross, who built a 
small store-room on the southwest corner of Marietta and 
Peachtree streets. "Cousin John" Thrasher, who had re- 

24 Pioneer Citizens' 

turned, put a store-room in the edge of a chinquapin thicket, 
on the north side of what is now Decatur street, about half 
way between the Air Line depot (now Southern) and the 
corner of Decatur and Peachtree streets. Lemuel Dean put up 
a two-story house on Marietta road, about two miles west -of 
the present union passenger depot. James Loyd, from whom 
Loyd street (now Central avenue) was called, erected a large 
frame building at *a point about where the old Markham 
House stood, east of the union passenger depot. He ran it 
several years thereafter as a hotel — the "Washington Hall." 
Mr. Loyd was a public-spirited man, and did mucli for the 
advancement of the town. Another hotel was soon to grace 
the town; Dr. Joseph Thompson, attracted by the likely new 
place, settled here and erected a very pretentious brick edifice 
on the ground now occupied by the Kimball House, on "Wall 
street. The house was opened as the "Atlanta Hotel," 

In 1847 the Monroe Eailroad, which was originally in- 
tended to run from Macon to Monroe, was changed to the 
name of the Macon & Western Railroad. It was completed 
and commenced running through to Atlanta about the latter 
part of the year. This road is now part of the Central of 
Georgia Eai]road. 

History of Atlanta. 25 



Third and Last Name of the Town — J. Edgar Thompson^ 
Suggests "Atlanta" — The Town Obtains a Charter in 
1847 From the General Assembly — The First Mayor and 
Council in 1848 — Officers Elected — Another Eailroad the 
Year Following — State Agricultural Society Located — 
Proceedings of Council for One Year. 

The year of 1847 saw the passing of Marthasville ; the 
town had grown and prospered, it is true, but the name did not 
seem to be in keeping with the march of events. Having been 
twice named, it was a puzzle to find one that would last. 
After various names had been canvassed, it was decided to 
adopt the suggestion of Mr. J. Edgar Thompson, chief en- 
gineer of the Georgia Eailroad, who named the town Atlanta. 
Accordingly, a charter was applied for to the General Assem- 
bly then in session; it was granted; Atlanta was born. The 
application was made by Jonathan Norcross, John Collier and 
J. Vaughn. 


[The records, in chronological order, following this, are 
based upon notes made by the late James E. Williams, mayor 
of Atlanta in 18G6-7-8, and president of the Pioneer Citizens' 
Society for many years prior to his death, April 9, 1900.] 

We come now (1848) to the beginning, proper, of the 
present metropolitan city: The first election for a board of 

26 PioxEER Citizens' 

mayor and council, which was held January 31. The result 
was as follows: Mayor — Moses W. Formwalt; Council — Dr. 
Benjamin F. Bomar, Jonas F. Smith, James A. Collins, E. M. 
Bullard, A. M. Walton and L. C. Simpson. The first meeting 
was held February 2, in the store of Councilman-elect Smith. 
They elected the following officers at that meeting: Marshal, 
German M. Lester; Deputy Marshal, Thomas Shivers; City 
Clerk, L. C. Simpson; City Treasurer, 0. Houston. 

The minutes further show that, on "February 8th, Simp- 
son declined, and Robert ]\I. Clarke was elected clerk. 

"At a meeting in j\Iarch, Gershom C. Eogers was granted 
license to use his tanyard as a slaughter-pen. It was located 
on a small stream of water at about where is now corner of 
Fors}i:h and Brotherton streets." 

[XoTE — About the same location, in later years, was occu- 
pied by Grenville's flour mill, and since the war by Stephens', 
and afterwards, Crankshaw & Eichardson's planing mills.] 

April 1, Dr. Joshua Gilbert and Jonathan Xorcross were 
charged with disorderly conduct. Gilbert was fined ten dol- 
lars, and the charges against Xorcross dismissed. 

"April 3, Councilman Walton resigned, and U. L. Wright 
was elected m his place. 

"April 15, permission was granted James and John LjTich 
to dig a well in the street at the crossing of Whitehall and 
Alabama streets; and U. L. Wright was authorized to buy a 
sixty-pound bell for the use of the town. John Collier peti- 
tioned for a road to run where Walker street now is. 

"July 3, a board of health was elected, as follows : Dr. X. 
L. Angier, James Boring, Sol. Goodall, John F. Mims, Rob- 
ert Carr, William Herring, James Loyd, Dr. J. Gilbert and 
Dr. G. G. Smith. 

"July 28, Eobert M. Clarke resigned, and Joseph B. Clapp 
was elected clerk. 

History of Atlanta. 37 

"July 31, R. M. Ballard resigned, and H. C. Holeombe 
was elected councilman. 

"October 23, J. A. Hayden and John Collier petition to 
have Walker street opened, and petition of William Kidd 
granted to grade (at his expense) Whitehall street from Ala- 
bama to railroad crossing. 

"November G, J. L. Harris was elected clerk. 

"Whitehall street was ordered opened to Humphrey's road, 
and the committee on pul)lic improvements instructed to put 
up a horse-rack at the postoffice. 

"November 11, Council ordered bridge on Hunter street 
to be widened and raised. [This bridge was between where 
Loyd and South Pryor streets now run, and was to cross a 
small stream of water which now flows in the large trunk 
sewer from the union passenger depot, south, nearly along 
South Pryor and Loyd streets.] 

"December 28, E. T. Hunnicutt was appointed deputy 

28 PiONEEK Citizens'" 




Treasurer Ordered to Issue $500 iu Bonds — Proceedings of 
Council Published in The Intelligencer, by Order of 
Council — Another Railroad Comes to Town — John 
F. Trout Puts Up a Hotel — Some Arrivals — Er. Lawshe, 
John F. Trout, Green J. Foreacre, John Silvey — 
Churches and Newspapers Multiplying. 

January 17, 1849, a new board of mayor and Council 
qualified, as follows: 

The following qualified as city olficials: Mayor, Dr. Ben- 
jamin Bomar; Council, Jonas S. Smith, Ira 0. McDaniel, ■ 
A. B. Forsyth, P. M. Hodge, Julius A. Hayden and H. C. 
Holcombe. Salaries of officials were fixed as follows: Mar- 
shal, $300 per annum; Treasurer, 3 j^er cent, for receiving 
and paying out; Tax Receiver and Collector, 3 per cent. 
Clerk to have fees of office. 

Committee on Police and Finance — Fors^i;!! and Hodge. 

Committee on Streets — McDaniel, Smith and Hayden. 

February 7, city tax fixed at 30 cents per $100, for 1849. 

February 14, 300 copies of City Ordinances were ordered 

April 14, the treasurer authorized to issue $500 six months 

July 30, Council proceedings ordered published in Daily 

October 4, Councilmen Bomar, Hayden, McDaniel and 

History of Atlanta. 29 

Forsyth were appointed a committee to select a place for a 

Another railroad ! The town begins to put on airs, even to 
to being a little haughty; the Atlanta & West Point Railroad 
was completed in this year — making the fourth line for the 
ambitious place. And yet more improvements, locally. Mr. 
John F. Trout moved to Atlanta and soon erected a very 
creditable building, three-story brick, on the southwest cor- 
ner of Decatur and Pryor streets, and opened it as a hotel, 
•calling it the ''Trout House." 

One of the additions to the town at this time was Er. 
Lawshe, whose subsequent career was marked by a life of en- 
ergy and devotion to his new home. Another was Mr. John 
Silvey, the former head of the large wholesale dry goods house 
of the John Silvey Company. 

1850 — JNot quite three years old, this bautling of a town 
began to crow lustily — a characteristic of the people ever 
•since. It j)roved a drawing card ; people everywhere talked of 
the rising young city in the mountains of North Georgia. 
Churches, schools and newspapers multiplied. 

One of the men destined to figure largely in the railroad 
world, as it afterward fell out, who came here in this year, 
was Colonel Green J. Foreacre, a conductor on the Macon 
■& Western Eailroad, afterward superintendent, and subse- 
vquently general manager of the road. 

30 Pioneer Citizens" 




Reuben Cone and Ami Williams Offer to Donate Land for 
' a "Graveyard" — Steps Looking to Holding an Agricul- 
tural Fair — Names of Residents in Atlanta in 1851 — A 
Great Many New Arrivals — Land Purchased by City for 
^ a Cemetery. 

A year having intervened since an election for Mayor and 
4 Councilmen, another was held, and, on the 23d of January,. 
1851, the new board qualified, as follows: Mayor, Willis 
Buell ; Councilmen, Joel Kelsey, H. C. Holcombe, J. T. Hum- 
phries, P. M. Hardin, S. T. Biggers and W. W. Roark. 

J. G. Trammel was elected marshal; J. L. Harris, city 

clerk; 0. Houston, treasurer; Boyd, tax receiver and 

collector. In February Marshal Trammel resigned, and G. M. 
Lester was elected to fill the position. 

April 10, the city offered ten acres of land to the State Ag- 
ricultural Society on Fair street, located where Fair street 
school was built in 1873. 

On June 10, the city bought six acres of ground at seventy- 
five dollars per acre for a graveyard, from A. W. Wooding. 

1851, the first fair. Not a very extensive one, it is true, 
but population considered, as good as any hold since in this 

Some of the best men in their various lines of business 
residents in this period, a list of whom is appended below. 
Among them all there was no better equipped citizen than 
James E. Williams, a former resident of Tennessee. 

History of Atlanta. 31 


Dr. James F. Alexander, practicing physician; IDr. Aaron 
Alexander, druggist; Joseph A. Alexander; Ezra Andrews, 
harness and saddlery merchant; Conch Alexander; C. Q. Ad- 
amson, general store; Julius M. Alexander; Dr. N. L. Angler, 
physician and eal estate dealer; Dr. Stephen T. Biggors, 
practicing physician; Dr. B. F. Bomar, merchant; Wm. 
Barnes, tin and coppersmith; Wm. Baldwin, master machin- 
ist W. & A. R. R. ; Mr. Baker, jeweler; Mr. Baker, animals 
(monkeys, etc.) ; John M. Boring, physician; A. J. Brady, 
merchant; Isaac A. Brady; J. B. Brantly (Lin & Brantly), 
cotton merchant; J. W. Bridwell, proprietor Atlanta Intelli- 
gencer; Zion Bridwell, printer; H. Braumuller, musical in- 
struments; Marcus A. Bell, lawyer; Logan E. Bleckley, clerk 
Western & Atlantic Railroad office; J. Boyd, merchant; Isaac 
E. Bartlett, conductor Georgia Railroad; William M. Butt, 
commission merchant; Michael Bloomfield, store; James 

Buchanan, machinist; A. J. Buchanan, hoilermaker; 

Buchanan, musician; Woodson Berry, railroad engineer; 
James Bowlin, Georgia Railroad supervisor; James Black- 
man, real estate trader; Josiah Bosworth; Thomas Boyd; 
Margenius Bell; Jo Bosworth; Gary W. Berry, railroad en- 
gineer; R. M. Bullard, cotton buyer; James Collins, mer- 
chant; John Collier, lawyer; Robert M. Clarke, grocer; H. W. 
Cozart, dry goods store; Rev. I. N. Craven, minister; Willis 
Carlisle, policeman ; James R. Crew, clerk ; Jesse Clarke, cab- 
inet shop; Thomas E. W. Crusselle, building contractor; W, 
T. C. Campbell, dentist; Jerry Conant, livery stable and sex- 
ton; W. H. Craft; David Crockett, merchant; Dr. H. L. 
Currier, civil engineer; Robert Crawford, grocer; Moses 
Crawford, railroad blacksmith; Elisha Crawford, railroad 
carbuilder; George Cook, merchant; Lewis H. Clarke; Dr. 

32 Pioneer Citizens' 

Noel D'Alvigny, surgeon; James C. Davis, grocer; James T. 
Doane, dry goods; John A. Doane, clerk; Terrence Doonan, 
cotton buyer; James L. Downing, foundry; E. S. Dunning; 
Volney Dunning; James Doonan; Charles D'Alvigny; Sam 
Downs; David H. Dougherty; Charles Ellsworth; Frank M. 
Eddleman, boots and shoes; P. J. Emmel; Augustus Eddie- 
man ; Mike Emmel ; Charles Elyea, railroad conductor ; Jacob 

Emmel; Evans, mechanic; Evans; A. B. For- 

sjth, cotton buyer; William G. Forsyth, cotton buyer; John 
H. FhTin, machinist W. & A. R. E.; X^^E. Fowler, railway 
mail agent ; Dan Ferguson, dry goods ; Moses W. Form- 
wait, ex-mayor; Harris Fuller; Colonel Jesse Farrar, ac- 
countant; Eobert :\I. Farrar; Thomas F. Grubb (Clarke & 
Grubb), grocer; Joseph Gatins, clerk Macon & Western Eail- 
road ; Dr. Joshua Gilbert, physician ; John Glen, clerk Georgia 
Eailroad depot; Dr. Thomas F. Gibbs, merchant; Horace 
Gillespie, merchant; L. P. Grant, topographical engineer At- 
lanta & LaGrange Eailroad; George Gunby, carpenter; John 
Gatins; Samuel B. Hoj-t, lawyer; C. E. Hanleiter, publisher; 
Julius A. Hayden, capitalist and trader; William Herring, 
clothing store; William F. Herring (William H. & Son), 
clothing; Edw. W. Holland, capitalist; Clarke Howell, cap- 
italist; 0. Houston, merchant; Eli Hulsey (McDaniel, 
Mitchell & Hulsey), merchant and cotton buyer; H. C. Hol- 
combe, merchant; Peter Huge, barkeeper; Moses, James and 
Newton Holland, brickmasons; Eeuben Haraes; Eichard 
Haynes; Augustus Ha}Ties; Thomas C. Howard, editor- 
lawyer; John L. Harris, lawyer; W. H. Harville, merchant; 
Cam. A. Harralson; Sid Holland; Wash J. Houston; Evan 
P. and Albert Howell; William H. Hulsey; Patrick Hodge; 
Paschal House; Darius Ho\i;; Singleton Howell; Henry P. 
Ivey ; Mike J. Ivey ; Allen E. Johnson, real estate trader ; Dr. 
B. 0. Jones, physician; John H. James, capitalist; James H. 

History of Atlanta. 33 

and John L. Johnson ; Adam W. Jones, lawyer ; F. Marvin, G. 
Wash and William F. Jack, candy and bakery; Jacob M. and 
John Johnson, painters; Jourdan Jolinson; John Kile; 
William Kidd, machinist; William Kay, book store; Thomas 
Kile, grocer ; William Kile ; James G. Kelley, carbuilder Geor- 
gia Railroad; Joel Kelsey, carbuilder Georgia Eailroad; John 
Kershaw, machinist; William Kicklighter, merchant; Chris- 
tian Kontz, boots and shoes; Fred Krog, machinist; W. Ken- 
nedy, boot and shoemaker ; W. J. Kilby ; Patrick Lynch, stone- 
mason; E. S. Lnckie (Guinea); James Loyd, Washington 
Hall ; James Lynch, general store ; John Lynch, general store ; 
James Langston; Jeptha Langston; Lewis Lawshe, merchant 
tailor ; Er Lawshe, jeweler ; Lewis L. Lanier, mechanic ; Willis 
Lanier, policeman; Rev. T. B. Lanier, minister; Austin Ley- 
den (Ley den & Dunning), foundry; Warner Lyons; Thomas 
Lyons; James W. and John H. Loyd; George Washington 
Lee; B. T. Lamb, grocer; Rees H. Lin, warehouse and cotton 
buyer; James F. Leonard; James Matthew Lester; Harrison 
Lester; German Lester; J. W. Manning, lawyer; Alex H. 
McWaters; James McPherson; William McConnell, marshal; 
Mr. McDuffie; James G. McLin, tyler Masonic Lodge; Wil- 
liam Mitchell, engineer; T. Angus Morris, engineer; Peter 
Malone ; Thomas J. Malone, clerk ; Daniel S. Miller ; Thomas 
McGahan ; Dan McDuffie ; John G. Martin, tinsmith ; Nathan 
Mangham, lawyer; John F. Mims, superintendent A. & 
W. P. R. R., and agent Georgia Railroad Bank; A. W. 
Mitchell, cotton buyer; Rev. Isaac Mitchell, minister; David 
Mayer, merchant; J. H. Mead; W. Tiff Mead; Joseph G. W. 
Mills; Z. Moore, railroad conductor; Horace Mitchell, clerk; 
I. 0. McDaniel, cotton buyer; Daniel Pittman; D. N. Poor, 
baggage master; James T. Peacock; Harrison Pettis, stable; 
J. A. Puckett; G. A. Pilgrim; Edward Parsons; Columbus 
Payne; Richard Pittman; G. W. T. Ferryman; Lewis Powell; 

34 Pioneer Citizens' 

Thomas Eeed, machinist Georgia Railroad; William Eushton, 
machinist Georgia Eailroad ; Elzey B. Eeynolds, agent W. & A. 
R. E. ; James F. Eeynolds, conductor ; Z. A. Eice, capitalist ; 
W. H. Eice, stonemason; George Eussel Eeneau, editor At- 
lanta Republican; Jesse Eeneau, editor Atlanta Republican; 
William B. Euggles, editor Intelligencer; W. W. Eogers, mer- 
chant; G. C. Eogers, butcher; James Eobinson, clerk; T. W. 
E. Ehodes, clerk; T. E. Eiple}', crockery; Charles C. Eodes, 
mechanic; Jett W. Eucker; Philip Eeed, mechanic; James 
Eobertson, mechanic; Jesse G. Eucker; S. J. Shackelford, 
merchant; C. H. Strong, merchant; James F. Seavey, con- 
tractor; Eev. D. H. Silvey; John Silvey, merchant; L. C. 
Simpson, lawyer; Jonas S. Smith, sheriff; Bluford D. Smith, 
clerk; P. E. McDaniel, cotton buyer; AVilliam Mitchell, cot- 
ton buyer; Thomas G. McHan, merchant; William Minims; 
H. Muhlenbrink, barkeeper; Pat McCulloch; Dr. W. C. 
Moore; William Mann, merchant; Edw. W. ]\Iunday; W. Tim 
Mead; T. Mead; Wheeler Mangum; George W. McDuffie; 
Jonathan Xorcross, merchant; Charles Xort, grocer; Ben 
jSTott, machinist; 0. Nichols, merchant; Peter Xort; Eeuben 
E. Oslin, preacher; William P. Orme, freight agent Georgia 
Eailroad; J. C. Orme, conductor Georgia Eailroad; Eichard 
Orme; Louis H. Orme; Aquilla J. Orme; Frank H. Orme; 
J. S. Oliver, merchant; Howell Oliver; Eev. Eeuben Osburn; 
J. E. D. Ozburn, clerk; Edwin T. Payne; Eichard Peters, 
farmer; Willis Peck, plastering contractor; John B. Peck, 
treasurer A. & W. P. E. E. ; Samuel G. Pegg, merchant; W. 
C. Parker, merchant; William G. Peters, merchant mill; Cap- 
tain Parker; Lewis J. Parr, merchant; Ben Parr; J. A. 
Puckett, lawyer; Windsor Smith, capitalist; John Snow, 
mechanic; John Spann, mechanic Georgia Eailroad; William 
Smith, painter; P. M. Sitton, merchant; Augustus Shaw; 
W. J. Small, freight agent A. & W. P. E. E.; John Swift, 

History op Atlanta. 35 

clerk; G. G. Smith, postmaster; Cornelius Slieehan; Dr. Jo- 
seph Thompson, Atlanta Hotel ; Harve^^ Joseph, Jr., and Ed- 
gar Thompson; John J. Thrasher, contractor; Thomas L. 
Thomas, justice of the peace; Thomas A. Thomas, clerk; Ben- 
jamin Thurmond, brickyard; John Tomlinson, tinware; 
James M. Toy, engineer A. & W. P. E. E. ; Jerry Trout, mer- 
chant tailor; James E. Williams, merchant; John Weaver, 
railroad engineer; Elhaney Wood, tinner; Walter S. Withers, 
moulder; Jerry Wells; M. Williamson, freight office W. & A. 
E. E.; Ed. A. Werner; Henry W. Wooding; C. W. Wells; 
Joseph Winship; Daniel Young, railroad conductor; M. 



F'irst Wells and Eeservoirs Built by City — Insurrection of 
Negroes Suspected — The First Market House — Council 
Determines to Build City Hall — Lamps Ordered Put Up 
At Certain Points — Mayor Miras Eesigns, 1853 — Com- 
missioners Appointed to Go Before General Assembly to 
Petition for Eemoval of State Capital to Atlanta — A 
Hospital Located. 

A change of officials took place at an election held in De- 
cember, and on January 23, 1851, qualified and was sworn in 
as follows: Mayor, J. Korcross; Council, J. T. Humphries, 
J. A. Hayden, Paschal House, W. W. Eoark, John Jones and 
D. McSheffrey. 

36 Pioneer Citizens' 

J. G. Trammel was elected marshal; J. L. Harris, city 
clerk; 0. Housfon, treasurer; Thomas Boyd, tax receiver and 

In February, Marshal Trammel resigned, and G. M. Les- 
ter was elected to the vacancy. 

February 9, Eeuben Cone and Ami Williams offered to 
give one acre for a graveyard, and sell four additional acres 
at one hundred dollars per acre. Offer taken under 3on- 

March 11, a committee was appointed to take steps for 
holding an agricultural fair at Atlanta, consisting of B. F. 
Bomar, William Ezzard, J. IST. Hayden, P. M. Hodge, Joseph 
Thompson and Luckie. 

April 10, the city offered ten acres of land to State Agri- 
cultural Society, on Fair street, located where Fair Street 
School was built in 1873. 

On March 18 Council ordered public wells, eight feet 
square, to be dug so as to contain fifteen feet of water, at cor- 
ner of Mitchell and Whitehall streets, corner of Hunter and 
Whitehall, corner of Marietta and Peachtree, and a reservoir 
in rear of the Holland House (rear of northeast corner of 
Alabama and Whitehall). 

July 4, a barbecue was given at city's expense. Benjamin 
Williford was directed to dispose of remains of the 'cue. 

July 29, an insurrection of negroes was suspected, and 
the following were placed under arrest: Henry Long, Peter 

Huff, Henry Humphreys, Burrell , Stephen Cammack, 

John Bostwick, bandy, Levi and Jim. 

August 19, the building committee was ordered to buy 
land between TJ. L. Wright and James Lynch for $1,500. 
(This was located at where is now the northeast corner of 
Broad and Alabama streets, extending from alley behind 
LjTich's corner (northwest corner Alabama and "WTiitehall), 

History of Atlanta. 37 

westward to west side of now Broad street, and included 
about an acre between Alabama street and the Central — then 
Macon & Western Eailroad — right of way.) / 

[ISToTE. — The first market house was located on this lot at 
corner of Alabama street and a street then called Market, ex- 
tending from Alabama to the railroad cut.] 

No minutes could be found of the proceedings of the 
Board of Mayor and Council for 1852. Following were the 
officials for that year: Mayor, Thomas Gr. Gibbs; Council, 
Stephen F. Terry, W. G. Gunby, I. 0. McDaniel, L. C. 
Simpson, J. Norcross and E. E. Manghum. 

1853. ^The board for this year was composed of some of 
Atlanta's best citizens: Mayor, John F. Mims, William 
Markham; Council, J. A. Hayden, W. M. Butt, J. Norcross, 
I. 0. McDaniel, L. C. Simpson, J. Winship and Jared I. 

Mayor Mims resigned October 29, 1853; William Mark- 
ham sworn in iSTovember 14, 1853. 

As will be seen from the proceedings, a great deal of busi- 
ness was transacted. 

On February 9, the mayor was requested to learn on whiit 
terms he could procure for the city a loan of $10,000, and 
also at what price the lot known as Peter's Eeserve could 
be bought. (This is fhe block now occupied by the Capitol 
of the State of Georgia, with some slight changes.) 

February 16, the mayor reported a proposition from E. A. 
Vincent, a civil engineer, to get up a map of the city, on con- 
dition the city pay him one hundred dollars, he reserving the 
copyright. The proposition was agreed to. 

Mrs. Dougherty was awarded six hundred and sixty dol- 
lars for land taken to open Market street, from the north side 
of the railroad to Marietta street. (This was the first exten- 
sion of Market street, afterwards Bridge, then Broad.) 

38 Pioneer Citizens' 

February 18, Mayor Mims reported that the "'Peters Re- 
serve" could be bought for $5,000, to be paid July 1, 1853, and 
Council instructed him to close the contract. ' At same time 
a committee, consisting of A. J. Brad}', A. B. ForsA'th and 
Stephen Terry, awarded Ami Williams two hundred dollars 
for land to be taken to open Market street (now part of Broad 

March — , a bill of Hiram Bowen was paid for work done 
on Holland Free Schoolhouse. Sixty dollars was also paid 
for filling Marietta street between ISTorcross' and Kile's (now 
Healey's) corner. 

A motion was at same time adopted to elect a city surveyor, 
to fix grades of streets, etc. 

Lamps were ordered to be placed at the Market street 
bridge and other points, provided private parties would pay 
for fluid to make the lights. 

Ordinances were also adopted for protection of the grave- 
yard; and exempting from taxation bacon, lard, corn, flour 
and all other provisions sold in the city. 

April 15, the report of A. W. Owens, teacher of Holland 
free school, was received and ordered published. 

July 1, Edward Parsons was authorized to build market 
stalls on ]\Iarket street. Julius A. ^ayden was appointed 
mayor pro tem. 

Number of deaths reported last quarter, thirty seven. 

July 16, Jared I. Whittaker was elected to Council in 
place of Norcross, resigned. 

July 22, a committee reported that Allen E. Johnson of- 
fered one hundred and five acres of land for $1,800, to be 
used as a hospital location, and the mayor was instructed to 
close the trade. A committee recommended the erection of a 
fire engine house on Market lot, near the bridge. 

July 29, A. Corry took the census of the town, which a 

History of Atlanta. 39 

eommitt€e from Council examined and approved. (No record 
appears which shows population.) 

Dr. Currier was elected city surveyor, and the mayor \ra.s 
authorized to subscribe for twenty copies of city map. 

August 12, William H. Crisp (father of Senator Charles 
F. Crisp) petitioned. Council for theater license, which wis 
granted, at ten dollars per day. 

Also, a petition was presented to open Wheat street, and 
an ordinance read, and ordered printed, containing market 

G. B. Haygood, at same meeting, was elected trustee of 
Holland Free School. 

September 10, The committee on public works proposed 
to commence the building of the City Hall, after having con- 
sulted the mayor. 

The committee on a market was appointed, consisting of 
L. C. Simpson, Jared I. Whittaker and William M. Butt. 

September 16, Market stalls were rented; and N. L. An- 
gler elected clerk of market — the fees to be his compensa- 

September 24, the Committee on Public Buildings was 
authorized to advertise for bids for building City Hall, as per 
plans dra-^vn by Columbus Hughes. 

October 29, Mayor John F. Minis resigned. 

October 31, Council ordered publication of one hundred 
copies of a memorial to the Legislature asking the formation 
of a new county (Atlanta being then in DeKalb county). 

November 4, the Committee on Public Works reported a 
contract with J. R. Swift for brick work of City Hall; also, 
contract for rock work at $2.95 a perch; with A. Powell, for 
certain woodwork. 

At same meeting a committee reported suitable resolutions 

40 Pioneer Citizens* 

of regret on the resignation of Mayor Mims. Committee: 
Whitaker, Simpson and Hayden. 

Nov 12, William Markham was elected, at a special elec- 
tion, successor to Mayor Mims for unexpired term, and im- 
mediately thereafter sworn in. 

November 25, a committee, consisting of McDaniel, Hay- 
den and Simpson, was appointed to propose amendments to 
the City Charter. 

November 28, Council appointed the following delega- 
tion to go before the Legislature, then in session at Milledge- 
ville, and petition for the removal of the State Capitol to At- 
lanta: William M. Butt, William Markham, A. G. Ware, 
Allen E. Johnson, Julius A. Hayden and I. 0. McDaniel. 

December 9, slaughter houses were declared a nuisance 
and ordered removed beyond the city limits. 



Population Six Thousand — City's Growth One Thousand a 
Year — City Declines to Take Stock in Gas Works — Hogs 
Not Allowed Privilege of Streets — Appropriation for 
Fire Hall Made— Another Effort to Get State Capitol- 
Brick Sidewalks Ordered On Certain Streets — Relief 
Given Savannah — Trout House Granted License — City 
Contracts (1855) for Gas Works — Ground Piirchased 
for Georgia State Agricultural Society — Council Pro- 
ceedings In Full. 

The Mayor and Council-elect, 1854, were as follows: 
Mayor, W. M. Butt; Council, Jared I. Whitaker, A. B. Rug- 

History of Atlanta. 41 

gles, L. C. Simpson, \V. W. Baldwin, Paschal House, John 
Farrar, John W. Glenn, J. B. Peck, J. E. Swift, J. F. xUex- 
ander, J. S. Oliver, John W. Thompson and Eli J. Hulsey. -^ ^ 

At tliis time the population of the town was 6,000, and the 
rate of increase was about a thousand a year. The business j^' 
men were constantly increasing their facilities and reaching 
out for new territory. The Council proceedings, as given^A 
below, afford a fair indication of the rapid strides Atlanta 
was making: 

On January G, the sexton reported for the quarter ending 
January 1, twenty-eiglit deaths (nineteen white, nine colored). 

January 16, Cltn-kejlowo]l_was paid $110.75 for his ser- 
vices and interest in the new county (Fulton). 

The Mayor appointed Councilmen Simpson, Euggles and 
Glen to rent a hall for \ise of the Council. 

Council fixed the marshal's salary at $150; deputy mar- 
shal, at $100. The Clerk of Council was empowered to act 
as tax receiver and collector, his compensation being two and 
one-half per cent, for receiving, and two and one-half per 
cent, for paying out. 

February 4, Market House and Police Ordinances passed. 

February 18, Compensation fixed of A. W. Owens, teacher 
of the free school. 

Jared I. Whitaker. chairman of committee, reported that 
it was deemed inexpedient to subscribe for stock in gas wov-kt 
company at present, and recommended an effort to get up the 
stock by private subscription. 

March 3, the Ordinance was passed requiring hogs to he 
kept out of streets. 

The Mayor was authorized to procure a suitable seal for 
the city. 

Board of Health elected: Doctors B. 0. Jones, B. F. Bo- 
mar. J. A. Hayden, T. C. H. Wilson and Mr. G. B. Haygood. 

42 PioxEEK Citizens' 

March 2-i, corporate limits were extended. C. R. Hanleitcr 
was emploj'ed to print City Code. 

March 31, the following delegates were appointed to at- 
tend the Commercial Convention at Charleston, South Caro- 
lina: I. 0. McDaniel, C. H. Strong, A. H. Stokes, IS". J. 
Brady, Jonathan Xorcross, James T. Doane, T. E. Ripley, 
Thomas Kile, William Markham, L. J. Parr and Robert M. 

April 8, eight hundred dollars was appropriated to build 
fire engine house on the north side of Market street lot. A 
petition was received from citizens asking that steps be taken 
to have the State Capitol moved to Atlanta ; Whitaker, Peek 
and Ruggles, committee. 

Contract let to fill Alabama street two and one-half feet. 

April 21, citizens' meeting held, and Mayor and Council 
asked to appoint a committee to attend the session of the 
Legislature at Milledgeville, and petition it to authorize the 
removal of the Capitol to Atlanta. Committee appointed: 
John F. Mims, John Collier, Allison Nelson, A. G. Ware and 
G. B. Haygood. 

Council offered Thomas Kile three hundred dollars to ex- 
tend Houston street. 

May 10, a committee of citizens was appointed to confer 
with justices of the inferior court in relation to using a por- 
tion of new City Hall for Superior Court and other county 
purposes. Committee: Alexander, Whittaker, Peck, J. B. 
Simpson and Farrar. 

May 12, contract with county agreed to by Council, and 

Accounts for expenses incurred, in connection with Fill- 
more reception, ordered paid. Also, a resolution was adopt- 
ed naming a delegation of fifty citizens, in addition to former 
committee, to memorialize Legislature, asking for the removal 

History of Atlanta. 43 


of the State Capitol to Atlanta. Committee : WofEord, Spur- 
lock, Gartrell, Grant, Hayden, Markham, McDaniel, Cal- 
houn, Cowart, Overby, Lanier, Dean, Doane, Kile, Bleckley, 
Loyd, Thompson, Trout, Johnson, Herring, Peters, Powell, 
Hook, Darnell, Coe, Copper, Harris, Powell, Brady, Ham- 
mond, Forsyth, Angier, Dr. B. 0. Jones, W. B. Jones, John 
Burr, Ivirkpatrick, Cozart, Clarke, Wilson, Jones, Caldwell, 
Eoark and Holland. 

June 30, a petition was received from the trustees of At- 
lanta Medical College to use part of City Hall for the lectures, 
which was granted; to be used during winter only, so as not 
to interfere with court sessions. 

Brick sidewalks were ordered to be put down on Whitehall 
and Alabama streets. 

July 15, rock paving (macadam) ordered on Whitehall 
street (probably from railroad crossing to Mitchell street). 

August 4, "Irish A^olunteers" (a military company) ex- 
empted from street (road) duty; also payment made to Willis 
Peck for plastering City Hall ; and census taken. (Population 
not recorded in minutes.) The subject of gas works was con- 
sidered, and petition received from Dr. Westmoreland and 
John F. Alexander for the establishment of an infirmary. 

September 11, four thousand dollars additional bonds au- 
thorized, to coihplete the City Hall. 

September 15, Council voted five hundred dollars, and pri- 
vate citizens subscribed three hundred and eighty-five dollars 
for relief of sufferers from yellow fever at Savannah. 

October 6, the census of the city was taken by Stephen 
Terry. (No record of result appears on minutes.) 

October 13, the congregation of the Second Baptist church 
asked, and were granted, permission to worship in City Hall. 

October 17, a fancy ball was given at City Hall (probably 
in honor of its completion). 

44 Pioneer Citizens' 

November 11, Aaron Gage petitioned Council for license 
for the Trout House (the first large hotel), situated on the 
northeast corner of Decatur and Pryor streets. 

December 29, a donation of books for the Holland free 
school was received from Mr. James L. Dunning. 

January 8, Council assumes balance of indebtedness of 
Fire Company ISTo. 1, on engine house on Market street (now 
No. 1 South Broad street), and tenders the thanks of the city 
to Fire Company ISTo. 1 for saving the city from destruction 
by fire on 7th inst. 

January 17, returns received of election. (Elections then 
took place on third Monday in January yearly.) 



Ofiicers Elected — Three Thousand Dollars Voted to Georgia 
State Agricultural Society — Mayor Nelson Resigns — 
John Glen Elected to Fill Vacancy in Mayor's Chair — 
The First Theater, the Athensum — Contract for Gas 
Works Delivered to William Helme — Atlanta Republican, 
Official Organ of City. 

January 19, 1855, a new board was sworn in, as follows: 
Mayor, Allison Nelson, John Glen; Council, John Glen, W, 
W. Baldwin, John Farrar, John W. Thompson, C. H. Strong, 
W. Barnes, U. L. Wright, Thomas Kile, C. Powell, Thomas 
M. Darnell, Robert M. Clarke, Thomas C. Wilson. 

History of Atlanta. 45 

Mayor Nelson resigned July 6, John Glen sworn in to /ill 

The board elected the following officials: Marshal, Ben 
Williford; deputies, Willis Carlisle and E. T. Hunnicutt; 
treasurer, Thomas N. Cox; sexton, G. A. Pilgrim. 

At the same meeting, S. B. Hoyt and Thomas L. Thomas 
asked for a room in City Hall for use of justice's court. 

A delegation from the Georgia State Agricultural Society 
went before Council and asked what amount the city would 
appropriate toward a fair, to be held in the fall of the year. 
The Mayor appointed a committee of Council, as follows, to 
consider the matter: Messrs. Barnes, Powell and Glen, and 
of citizens, Messrs. I. 0. McDaniel, Aaron Gage, J. A. Hayden, 

T. B. Daniel, McGinty, F. B. Trout, William Markham 

and J. Norcross. 

The fire company was granted the use of City Hall for the 
22d of February ball, in honor of George Washington's birth- 

Mr. James E. Williams, having fitted up the second story 
of his new brick building (on Decatur street, opposite the At- 
lanta Hotel) as a theater, at the solicitation of the actor, 
William H. Crisp, at the meeting of Council, February 16. 
The former was granted theater license for the Athenaeum. 

Council offered $3,000 to State Agricultural Society if the 
fair would be permanently located at Atlanta. 

March 2, the "Irish Volunteers" were granted use of City 
Hall for 0. A. Lochrane to make a speech on March 17, in 
celebration of St. Patrick's Day. 

March 16, a contract was agreed on between City Council 
and the State Agricultural Society, by which the fair was to 
be held in Atlanta in September, 1855, and annually there- 
after, when $5,000 has been expended by city in improvements 
on grounds. 

46 PioxEER Citizens' 

William Helme, of Philadelphia, addressed the Council on 
the subject of gas works, and a committee, consisting of Dar- 
nall. Glen and Barnes, was appointed to confer with Mr. 

March 30, Mr. Helme proposed to build a gas plant to cost 
$50,000, and furnish fifty street lights at $30 each per an- 
num, the city to take $20,000 stock, to be paid for in fifteen- 
3'ear bonds of $500 each. The proposition was accepted. Ten 
acres of land adjoining the Fair Grounds was bought of 
William Kay for $5,000. 

April 6, the contract was delivered for erection of the gas 
works by William Helme. Forty deaths reported for first 
quarter. The use of the Superior Courtroom in City Hall was 
granted to Drs. Westmoreland and Alexander for medical lec- 

May 4, a powder magazine lot was bought of J. F. Leonard. 
This was located near Davis Street Grammar School's pres- 
ent location (1900). 

May 18, Council paid E. E. Aldridge $799 for fencing 
City Hall lot. 

City Assessors were elected as follows : James ^McDonough, 
J. A. Reeves and X. L. Angler. 

June 21, Schofield Iron Works, of Macon, entered into a 
contract to furnish fifty castiron lamp-posts at $21 each. 

July 6, The Atlanta Bepublican, J. Xorcross, proprietor, 
contracted with Council to publish its proceedings at $25 per 

July 6, the Mayor, Allison Nelson, tendered his resigna- 
tion, no reason being given. Deaths for the second quarter, 

An election was ordered on the 19th inst. to fill this va- 
cancy in the Mayor's office. 

July 20, John Glenn (elected on the 19th) took the oath of 

History op Atlanta. 47 

offic'e as jMayor, and C. H. Strong was elected President of 
Council yro tern. 

Dr. T. C. H. Wilson was elected to Council, to fill Glenn's 

August 10, I. 0. McDaniel petitioned Council for use of 
City Hall during State Fair for sacred concerts. Also, a 
check for $1,000 was ordered delivered to James Caniak, sec- 
retary of State Fair. 

Sept. 7, eight assistant marshals and twelve extra police- 
men were ordered to be placed on duty during the fair. 


First Authorized Celebration of Fourth of July — Xegroes Xot 
Allowed to Congregate in Streets — Citizens Petition 
Council to Take Stock in Air Line Eailroad — The Cele- 
brations at Memphis and at Charleston on Opening of 
the Memphis & Charleston Eoilway — Mingling the Wa- 
ters of the Mississippi and the Atlantic Ocean — Council 
Agrees to Take Stock in the Air Line Eailroad. 

1856 — January 4, the salary of A. W. Owen, teacher of 
free school, was raised to $600 per year. 

Bonds were ordered to be delivered to William Helme for 
$20,000 stock in the gas works, he giving bond for completion 
of the works. 

48 Pioneer Citizens' 

Thirty-seven deaths vere reported for the fourth quarter. 

On January 25, the newly elected Board of Mayor and 
Council was as follows: Mayor, William Ezzard; Council, 
.L H. Davis, J. F. Albert, C. H. Strong, Ezra Andrews, T. L. 
Thomas, James L. Terry, C. E. Hanleiter, L. J. Parr,_ 
Thomas Kile, A. B. Forsyth, Green B. Haygood and J. B. 

Following othcers were then elected by the board: Mar- 
shal, B. X. Williford; Deputy, E. T. Hunnicutt; Clerk, H. C. 
Holcorabe; Treasurer, James McPherscm; Sexton, G. A. Pil- 
grim; Clerk of Market, John D. Wells. 

January 29, the use of the City Hall was granted to the 
Atlanta Medical College for lectures. H. W. McDaniel was 
elected overseer. Ihe salary of City Judge was fixed at $500. 

April 11, P. S. Gerald, through C. E. Hanleiter, presented 
to City Council a portrait of General Zachary Taylor, for 
which a resolution of thanks was voted, and the portrait or- 
dered hung up in Council chamber. 

April 11, a Board of Health was elected, as follows: Drs. 
John G. Westmoreland, Edwin J. Eoach, Thomas C. H. Wil- 
son. E. N. Calhoun and Mr. Stephen Terry. 

May 1, the Mayor and Council pass resolutions on the 
death of General John F. Mims, ex-mayor, and attend the 
funeral in a body. 

June 3, the petition of a negro to open an ice cream saloon 
was refused, as being "unwise." 

June 20, Council was asked by a citizens' meeting to take 
$3,000 stock in a bridge over the Chattahoochee river, to make 
more convenient access to the city for business from Cobb 

June 27, Councilmen Hanleiter, Parr and Simpson were 
appointed a committee to arrange for the celebration of the 
Fourth of July. 

History of Atlanta. 49 

A resolution was passed forbidding negroes to assemble 
after certain hours at night. 

Thirty-seven deaths were reported for the quarter ending 
June 30. 

The Mayor, by direction of Council, subscribed for $3,000 
stock of Chattahoochee Bridge Company. 

By resolution, it was ordered that stock in the gas works 
be not sold. 

September 19, on account of a political mass meeting, to 
be held, twenty extra policemen were ordered put on duty, and 
the ordinance suspended prohibiting encampments in the city 
from the 1st to the 3d of October, inclusive. 

Sixteen extra policemen were appointed by the Mayor for 
the 17th and 18th of October, also. (Supposed to be on ac- 
count of political mass meeting. ) 

A resolution was passed ordering $2,500 to be paid to the 
Southern Central Agricultural Society, when called for. 

Also, resolutions requesting saloons closed on national elec- 
tion day, November — , 1856. 

November 21, a memorial was received from citizens ask- 
ing the City to take stock in the Air Line Eailroad (to Char- 
lotte, N. C.) 

November 28, a committee, consisting of Haygood, Simp- 
son and Kile, reported in favor of taking $100,000 stock in 
Air Line Eailroad, and issuing 7 per cent, bonds for it. 

Councilman Hanleiter resigned, J. B. Peck succeeding 

Meclianics' Fire Company, No. 2, petitioned for $1,000. 
Council requested the organization of a Fire Department 
(which was done), embracing Atlanta Fire Company, No. 1, 
Mechanics' Fire Company, No. 2, and Hook and Ladder Com- 
pan}', No. 1. 

1857 — The Board of Mayor and Councilmen elected was 

50 Pioneer Citizens' 

as follows: Mayor, ^Yillia^l Ezzard; Council, W. W. Sharp, 
W. C. Lawshe, L. C. Simpson, H. C. Holcombe, J. B. Peck, 
John Glen, W. T. Farnsworth, J. F. Alexander and I. 0. 


The proceedings of the Board were as follows : 

January 6, Council passed an ordinance taking $100,000 
stock in Air Line Kailroad Company, 1 per cent, to be paid 
now, and, when $750,000 other lona fide stock is subscribed, 
the City to take remaining $99,000, issueing therefor 7 per 
cent, bonds, to mature $33,000 in 1873, $33,000 in 1878, and 
$33,000 in 1883, payable at the City Treasury, the whole 
amount of City's stock and credit of City being pledged to 
their redemption. 

January 9, Hurst & Jack applied to Council for retail 
liquor license, one of the applicants and F. P. Kice offering to 
go on the bond. 

Early in May the Mayor and Council received invitations 
to attend the celebration, on the 28th, 29th and 30th, of the 
opening of the just completed Memphis & Charleston Eailway. 
The Memphis & Charleston, the Nashville & Chattanooga, the 
Western and Atlantic, the Georgia, and the South Carolina 
Kailroad Companies extended an invitation to citizens, giving 
free passage. 

[The celebrations began at Memphis and at Charleston. 
Many Atlanta citizens went to both places. Mayor Williams 
went to Memphis. Judge 0. A. Lochrane responded at the 
banquet for both Atlanta and Macon ; his home was in Macon, 
but he spent a good deal of his time in Atlanta.] 

After the return home, Council passed resolutions thank- 
ing the railroads for free transportation to Memphis and to 
Charleston on the occasion of the celebration at both places of 
the opening of the new route from the Mississippi to the sea. 

June 10, acceptance was received by Council from the 

History of Atlanta. 51 

Soiithern Central Agricultural Society of the City's proposi- 
tion for holding the Agricultural Fair in Atlanta in the fall. 

July 17, Eev. Eichard Johnson, rector of St. Philip's 
Episcopal Church; Major B. C. Yancey, Amherst W. Stone and 
William T. Wilson were appointed by Council to attend the 
Convention of Episcopal Bishops. 

July 31, a report was received from the committee to the 
Convention of Episcopal Bishops, at Chattanooga. 

A communication was received from Jonathan Norcross, 
president of the Air Line Eailroad. 

A petition was presented from citizens residing on White- 
hall street for a crossing over the Macon & Western Eail- 
road. [This was about where the bridge now is, at McDaniel 
street, to connect Whitehall and Peters streets.] 

December 7, the fire limits were defined. 

December 21, an ordinance was passed forbidding any 
person discharginfg fire arms within two hundred yards of 
any residence. 

Also, an ordinance extending Houston street from Pryor 
to Peachtree street, at Wesley Chapel, now First Methodist 

52 PioxEER Citizens' 



Salaries of City Officials — Board of Health — Additional Sub- 
scription to Air Line Railroad — City Granted Use of 
Western & Atlantic Railroad Grounds for Park Pur- 
poses — E. W. Holland Fined for Letting Slaves Live on 
Separate Lots From His Own — City Wanted University 
of the South — Cattle Xot Allowed Street Privileges — 
Washington Street Created. , 

A new board having been elected, was inducted into office 
as follows: Mayor, Luther J. Glenn; Council, John Collier, 
F. H. Coleman. AVilliam Rushton, Thomas F. Lowe, James E. 
Williams, J, M. Blackwell, J. H. Mecaslin, George S. Alex- 
ander, Hayden Coe, J. A. Hayden and William T. Wilson. 
The new Council met and elected the following officers: 

Deputy Marshal, $600 per annum, on duty all day to 10 
o'clock p. m. * 

Lieutenant of Police, $600 per annum, on duty all day to 
10 o'clock p. m. 

Superintendent of Streets, $400 per annum. 

The Mayor appointed standing committees as follows: 

On Finance — Collier, Williams and Hayden. 

On Streets — Alexander, Lowe and Coe. 

On Public Buildings and Grounds — Williams, Rushton 
and Hayden. 

On Relief — Coleman, Lowe, Williams, Alexander and Coe. 

On Wells, Pump and Cisterns — Rushton, Mecaslin and 

History op Atlanta. 53 

On Cemetery — Blackwell, Lowe and Coleman. 

On Market^ — Love, Coleman and Collier. 

On Ordinances — Collier, Coe and Williams. 

On Lamps and Gas — Hayden, Mecaslin and Eushton. 

On Police — Lowe, Blackwell and Alexander. 

On Fire Department — Mecaslin, Eushton and Hayden. 

On Free Schools — Hayden, Collier, Eushton, Mecaslin 
and Williams. 

Night Watch (policemen), J. M. Lester, C. W. Brannan, 
J. B. Tanner, W. L. Burritt, Dennis Sullivan, G. W. Camp- 
bell, James Qarlisle and W. L. Burt; Clerk of Market, E. B. 
Eeynolds; Street Overseer, G. W. Crussell; City Surveyor, G. 
W. Fulton; Sexton, G. A. Pilgrim. 

A resolution was adopted — offered by Councilman Hay- 
den — ordering an election by the people to vote on issuing 
$100,000 bonds in aid of the Air Line Eailroad. 

February 5, Board of Health elected, as follows: Drs. T. 
S. Powell, J. F. Alexander, B. 0. Jones, T. C. H. Wilson and 
Judge Jared T. Whitaker. At same meeting Wilson J. Bal- 
lard and F. F. Smith were elected to police the passenger 
depot, the railroads agreeing to pay their salaries. 

The City daily papers were requested to publish City 
Council proceedings. 

Councilmen Coe, Hayden and Williams were authorized to 
employ legal counsel for the City when needed. Also, a spe- 
cial committee was appointed on building a bridge on Market 
street (now Broad). 

The Justices of the Inferior Court of Fulton county asked 
Council for a conference in regard to care of paupers in the 
County Poorhouse, These justices were Judges C. E. Han- 
leiter, William A. Wilson, Jethro Manning and Z. A. Eice. 

February 19, Dr. James M. Morris was elected City Physi- 

54 PioxEER Citizens' 

An additional subscription of $100,000 was made to Air 
Line Eailroad — authorized by vote of citizens. 

A petition was received from citizens calling attention to 
the matter of negro and slave mechanics (whose owners were 
not citizens, nor residents of City, and paying no taxes) work- 
ing against free white labor. Keferred to a committee, con- 
sisting of Collier, Rushton and Williams. 

Petition of certain citizens denied, asking permission for 
slaves to live on separate lots from owners, there being an or- 
dinance in effect forbidding this practice. 

March 5, An ordinance was passed authorizing the issue of 
additional $100,000 bonds to Air Line Eailroad; $25,000 to 
be delivered to the railroad company when each twenty miles 
was graded and ready for the iron. 

The Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds was 
instructed to confer with the authorities of the Western & At- 
lantic Eailroad Company, and ask the privilege of fixing up 
and decorating for public use as a park, the open square be- 
longing to the Western & Atlantic Eailroad, bounded by Pryor, 
Decatur and Loyd streets, and Western & Atlantic Eailroad 
right-of-way (now Wall street). Through their chairman, 
James E. Williams, the committee reported that through con- 
ference with Dr. John W. Lewis, superintendent of the West- 
ern & Atlantic Eailroad, the City was granted the privilege of 
improving, beautifying and using the square as a public park, 
the City to give a written paper showing that the railroad and 
the State of Georgia relinquished no claim and granted no 
right that would compromise the title of the State to the 
property. The report of the committee was received, and com- 
mittee was instructed to complete the arrangement with 
Superintendent Lewis in accordance therewith. [This park 
was, from 1858 to its absolute destruction by Sherman's army, 
in 1804, a spot of beauty in the heart of Atlanta. The square 


History of Atlanta. 55 

is now (1900) covered by business edifices, having, by act of 
Legislature during the reconstruction period of 1867, been re- 
turned to the heirs of Samuel Mitchell, who gave it to the 
State of Georgia for use as the southern terminus of the West- 
ern & Atlantic Eailroad.] 

Mr. E. W. Holland having been fined $10 in each of two 
cases for allowing his slaves to live on separate lots from him, 
their owner appealed from Mayor Glenn's decision to the full 
Board of Council, with the result of the fines being approved 
and increased to $20 in each case. 

March 19, an ordinance was passed prescribing a severe 
penalty for defacing tombstones in the cemetery. 

Thomas Kile was paid $400 for ground necessary to ex- 
tend Houston street from Pryor street to Peachtree street. 

The City Clerk was directed to weigh on city scales pro- 
duce or live stock, when demanded by seller or buyer; also, 
fees for same were fixed, and standard weights and measures 
established and published. 

The Mayor and Council received, and accepted, invitation 
from Atlanta Fire Company No. 1 to a banquet at their en- 
gine house on April 5, their fourth anniversary. 

An ordinance was passed fixing rate of tax, or license, on 
non-residents shipping in bacon, corn, flour, etc., on railroad, 
and selling themselves (not through regular business firms). 

The Air Line Eailroad directors asked a conference with 
Council, which was referred to a committee, consisting of Coe, 
Hayden and Williams. 

April 2, the Mayor was authorized to appoint delegates to 
a commercial convention to be held May 10. 

April 30, the election of a second lieutenant of police was 

May 6, houses of ill fame declared a nuisance, and fine 
of not exceeding $50 prescribed for violation of ordinance. 


May 14. President Jonathan Xorcross, of the Georgia Air 
Line Eailroad, petitioned Council to remove all restrictions 
upon City's subscription of bonds to that railroad. This was 
referred to a special committee, consisting of Councilmen 
Coe, Collier and Hayden. The committee reported adverse!}', 
and the petition was denied. 

June -4, Council declined to accept the resignation of Jolm 
Collier, member from First Ward. 

June 18, Mayor and Council invited to attend Masonic 
Festival June 2-1. C. E. Hanleiter, chairman of committee of 
invitation. Accepted. 

The Air Line Eailroad Company asked for $5,000 bonds, 
in part of City subscription, and they were granted at next 

June 25, by resolution of Council, Mayor Glenn appointed 
a delegation of six leading citizens, as follows: Messrs. John 
Collier, Basil H. Overby, AV. Pinckney Howard, Sidney Boot, 
Nedom L. Angier and Boiling Baker, to attend the conven- 
tion of Episcopal Bishops at Bersheba Springs, and in the 
name of Atlanta to offer a bonus of $25,000 in money and a 
site of 1,000 acres of land within three miles of the Cit}', pro- 
vided the location of the (Episcopal) University of the South 
could thereby be secured. 

W. T. Wilson was elected to the Council, vice George S. 
Alexander, resigned. 

July 9, a resolution by Councilman Williams was adopted 
to reimburse Fire Companies Xo. 1 and Xo. 2 the expense of 
entertaining Macon Fire Company on the 5th inst. 

Sidewalks were ordered laid, at the expense of land owners, 
on Peachtree from Xorcross corner to Walton street; on ^la- 
rietta. from Kile's corner (Peachtree) to Wadlcy (now For- 
SA'th) street, and on Decatiir, from Peachtree to Ivy. 

History of Atlanta. 57 

AYilliam McConnell was paid for rebuilding bridge over 
railroad on Market street (now Broad). 

An ordinance was passed requiring cattle to be kept up at 

Also, an ordinance ordering sidewalks laid at owners' ex- 
pense in all central portions of City. 

September 3, the Mayor -was authorized to appoint a free 
school commission. 

September 24, citizens petition to name street leading 
south, from Georgia Railroad round-house to corporate limits, 
Washington street, which was granted. Signers to this peti- 
tion were Sidney Eoot. James Clarke, Edward E. Eawson, 
John Bhea, John D. Wells, William M." Williams, W. G. Berry, 
Thomas Henderson, Jesse C. Farrar, G. A. Burckhardt, 
Michael Bloomfield, Dr. Thomas S. Powell and Alexander X. 

JSTovember — , the Mayor and Council accepted an invita- 
tion to the anniversary banquet to be given on December 10, 
by Mechanics' Fire Company 'No. 2. 

58 Pioneer Citizens' 



Whitehall Street, at Corner of Marietta, Widened — The Air 
Line Railroad in Distress — Free Persons of Color Must 
Pay License or "Travel" — Dentists Protest Against 
Badger (Colored) Practicing — Trustees of Mayson Fe- 
male College Refusced Aid — Fire Department Asks For 
and Receives Appropriation — Sidewalks Ordered Paved 
with Brick on Most Important Streets. 

January 19, an election was held for City officers — Judges: 
Jethro Manning and H. C. Holcombe. 

The lease of Holland Free Schoolhouse expired. 

January 22, the bonded debt of City was as follows : City 
Hall Bonds, due 1863, $16,000; Gas Works Bonds, due 1871, 
$20,000; Fair Groimd Bonds, due 1860, $3,000; Chattahoo- 
chee Bonds, due , $3,000. 

January 23, the new board for the ensuing year was 
sworn in : Mayor, Luther J. Glenn ; Council : First Ward, 
T. G. Healey and Thomas Haney; Second Ward, James L. 
Dunning and William Watkins; Third Ward, J. M. Black- 
well and Coleman F. Wood ; Fourth Ward, Alex M. Wallace 
and T. R. Ripley; Fifth Ward, C. H. Wallace and Bartley 
M. Smith. 

K check was ordered given 'No. 1 Fire Company, payable 
August 1, for $1,000. 

The outgoing Council tendered a banquet to the new Coun- 
cil and all ex-mayors. 

History of Atlanta. 59 

January 26, officers were elected by Council a^; follows: 
Marshal, Willis Carlisle; Street Overseer, John Hazlett; Dep- 
uty Marshal, E. T. Hunnicutt; First Lieutenant Police, G. 
W. Anderson ; Second Lieutenant Police, J. M. Lester ; jSTight 
Watch, Hiram A. White, W. W. Burt, J. A. Carter, J. A. 

Lowry, Berry Sullivan, Blackstock and C. W. 


March 14, City Assessors were elected, as follows: J. E. 
Williams, William McConnell, L. H. Davis. Williams and 
Davis declined to serve, and in their places were elected 
William Markham and Dr. A. C. Ford. 

An expenditure of $150 was authorized on the park. 

Four thousand and fifty dollars was paid to Jonathan Xor- 
cross for eighteen feet at the corner of Marietta and then 
Whitehall (now Peachtree) streets, to widen the street 

May 6, the directors of the Air Line Eailroad report to 
Council that work has progressed on the railroad in Hall and 
Hart counties, and say that the fate of the road depends on 

An ordinance was passed imposing a tax of $200 on free 
persons of color, to he paid within ten days after coming to 
the city, if allowed to remain. 

June 3, Council agreed to pay Ami Williams $500 for 
ground taken to open Market street, from Marietta street 
north, in spring of 1853. He was awarded $200 previously 
but refused to accept it. 

June 24, use of the City Hall was granted to the Fulton 
Band for an entertainment. 

June 8, a check for $15 issued to Thomas M. Jones for 
taking to Walton county, for interment, the remains of John 
Cobb, Jr., who was hung for being one of the murderers of 

60 PiONEEE Citizens' 

The Mayor was authorized to appoint a committee to con- 
fer with the Air Line Eailroad directors. He appointed Dun- 
ning, Smith and Wallace. 

A protest was received from dentists against allowing Eod- 
erick D. Badger, colored, to practice dentistry. 

■ July 15, $75 was paid J. W. Manning for taking census. 
(JSTo record of result.) 

[A City Directory, published in 1859, contains an inter- 
esting sketch of Atlanta, by Green B. Haygood, in "which it is 
stated that the population of. the city was then 11,500, by 
actual count. This was probably obtained from Manning's 

July 29, Eoswell bridge, over the Chattajioochee, pays 4 
per cent, dividend. 

August 3, the death was reported of Willis Carlisle, City 
Marshal. The 3Iayor requested business houses to close dur- 
ing services, and the city officials attended the funeral. 

Mayor Glenn, with Councilmen James L. Dunning, Alex 
M. Walhice and T. E. Eipley, as a committee, report resolu- 
tions of respect for deceased, and condolence with family. 

August 5, Messrs. Daniel Pittman, Moses Cole and Sidney 
Eoot, a committee from the Alexander H. Stephens Debating 
Societ}-, ask use of City Hall for meetings once a week, which 
was granted. 

Alabama and other streets ordered paved. 

The trustees of Ma3^son Female Academy ask Council to 
pay $3,000 for lot to build on. Petition refused. 

August 14, E. T. Himnicutt elected City Marshal ; G. W. 
Anderson, deputy. 

Petition of many citizens to change the name of Alabama 
street to Front street, declined. 

William H. Barnes. W. A. (Gus) Hajmes and Edw. A. 
Werner, members of Atlanta Amateurs (Concert and Dramat- 

History of Atlanta. 61 

ic Association), petition the Cit}' to pay for a metallic case to 
send home, to Baltimore, Md., the body of Levin S. Blake, 
who was killed while assisting firemen fighting a fire on Ala- 
bama street, near the present site of Atlanta jSTational Bank. 

A deed was given to Atlanta Fire Company No. 1 to their 
engine house lot on Market (now Broad) street. 

An ordinance was passed requiring license to be obtained to 
sell gunpowder, and a sign to that effect be posted on front 
of house selling it. , 

William Eushton, Fred F. Coulter, E. F. Maddox, J. M. 
C. Hulsey and George G-. Hull ask the city's aid to organize 
and equip a Hook and Ladder Company. 

January 13, the Mayor's salary increased from $500 to 



Atlanta the Objective Point of the Federal Army — Atlanta's 
Preparations for War — An Early Beginning — The 
Southern Confederacy and Other Newspapers — With- 
drawing Trade From Abolition Merchants in the North — 
Atlanta's Minute Men — Secession — Atlanta Under 
Fire — Scenes during Bombardment — Evacuation of the 
City by Confederates — Occupation by the Federals — De- 
struction of the City — Many Structures Saved From the 

The strained relations between the North and the South 
began to be felt early in Atlanta. Many of the citizens were 
inclined to believe that sooner or later there would be a sep- 

62 Pioneer Citizens' 

aration of the South from the North. Others there were who 
thought some means of compromise could be found which 
would avert the impending crisis. Both sides were equally 
earnest, both contending earnestly for their views. Feeling 
ran high as the days passed by — so intense was it that, on 
January 30, 1860, a meeting of the merchants of Atlanta was 
held, at the suggestion of some of the business men of the 
city, to take into consideration the subject of withdrawal of 
trade from certain Northern merchants. The meeting se- 
lected A. M. Wallace, chairman, and Dr. James P. Hamble- 
ton, publisher of the Southern Confederacy, newspaper, sec- 
retary. A committee, consisting of Dr. B. M. Smith, William 
Herring, Sr., William Gilbert, K. F. Maddox and William M. 
Williams, was appointed to draft and submit resolutions. 
This committee, after due consideration, offered a set of reso- 
lutions favoring the "cutting off of all trade from Abolition 
merchants in the North." They also favored a mercantile 
association for the purpose of ascertaining who were unsound 
on the slavery question. 

The meeting was adjourned to a future day, in order to 
get a more general expression from the merchants. On the 
26th of February, another meeting was held, with W. D. 
Young in the chair, and A. M. Eddleman, secretary. A com- 
mittee was appointed to draft resolutions, this committee 
being W. H. Barnes, Jonathan Norcross, William- M, 
Williams, L. C. Wells and J. B. Peck. The report was made 
to the meeting and was adopted. It recommended the form- 
ing of a "mercantile association" for mutual benefit and pro- 
tection; the building of Atlanta's trade; investigation of the 
discrimination in freights by Savannah and Charleston in fa- 
vor of Nashville, Tenn. ; making Atlanta a port of entry, etc. 
A committee on constitution and by-laws was appointed, and 
one ,also, on freight discrimination. The meeting then ad- 

History of Atlanta. 63 

journed, and the matter was for a time lield in aljeyance. 
But the first steps in Atlanta had been taken in the great 
struggle by the South to separate from the North, that short- 
ly followed. Meantime the agitation was kept up more or less 
steadily till October 31, of that year, when a meeting of citi- 
zens was held in the armory of the "Atlanta Grays," to form 
a "Minute Men Association." Dr. W. F. Westmoreland was 
called to the chair by Captain A. M. Wallace, of the Grays, 
and W. S. Bassford was made secretary. The object of the 
meeting was stated by Captain Wallace, and on motion a 
committee was apointed on resolutions; these were submit- 
ted; they asserted the right of any State to secede from the 
Union; believed an "abolition president" would be elected; 
and that "allegiance to the State was paramount to our alle- 
giance to the Federal Government." The resolutions were 
adopted. Colonel Thomas L. Cooper warmly supporting them. 
The speaker then offered a supplemental report to the resolu- 
tions, embodying the idea of a Minute Men Association. The 
resolution carried unanimously, every one in the house signing 
them. A committee on organization then reported, as follows : 
T. C. Howard, chairman; Columbus Hughes, B. C. Yancey, 
Fred A. Williams, B. M. Smith, Dr. J. F. Alexander, J. P. 
Logan, Thomas L. Cooper, A. A. Gaulding, M. E. Heggie, A. 
M. Orr, J. T. Bowman. On November 8, the Minute men 
held an enthusiastic meeting — everybody apparently for se- 
cession. The secretary reported the following preamble and 
resolution, which was adopted with a "whoop": "Whereas, 
News having reached us that Abraham Lincoln has been elect- 
ed president of the United States by a dominant Free Soil 
majority, whose sole idea is the destruction of our constitu- 
tional rights, and eternal hostility to our domestic institu- 
tions ; therefore, be it 

''Resolved, That, as citizens of Georgia and Fulton county, 

64: Pioneer Citizens' 

we believe the time has come for us to assert our rights, and 
we now stand ready to second every action that the sovereign 
State of Georgia may take in asserting her independence by 
separate State action, or in unison with her sister States of 
the South in forming a Southern Confederacy." 

The resolutions were seconded by Sidney Eoot in an elo- 
quent speech. John H. Seals. Dr. A. G. Thomas, F. S. Fitch 
and T. C. Howard also spoke for the adoption of the resolu- 

Enthusiasm being at fever heighth, meetings were held ev- 
ery few days thereafter, at which new members were elected. 
Everything led up to the inevitable, namely: the secession of 
Georgia from the Union. There were few dissenters, although 
some believed other remedies might be found than so rash a 
step as secession. The movement, like a tidal wave, swept 
away all opposition; even the women became enthused, as on 
December 3. at a meeting of the faithful. Colonel Cooper laid 
on the table of the chairman a donation of blue cockades pre- 
sented to the 'Olinute Men" by Mrs. John W. Leonard. Fol- 
lowing this, at another meeting was another donation of like 
character, by Mrs. Judge Lyons. 

The Legislature provided for a State convention to be held 
for the purpose of considering the action Georgia should take. 
Atlanta selected Luther J. Glenn, Joseph P. Logan and 
James F. Alexander to represent Fulton county. A l)ig dem- 
onstration was held in the city December 10 to ratify the 
nomination of these gentlemen. Dr. Alexander, in an elo- 
quent speech, said he was for peaceable secession, but that if 
Georgia seceded, and any power attempted to coerce her back 
into the Union, he was for war. Dr. Logan and Mr. Glenn 
spoke along the same lines. After the meeting adjourned, a 
big torch-light procession paraded the streets. In front of the 
Atlanta Hotel the torch bearers and other citizens gathered 

HisTOEY OF Atlanta. 65 

and were regaled with speeches by Colonel Cooper and 

Another meeting was held on the 15th — in the Athencinn 
— which was for the purpose of thorough organization for the 
coming secession campaign. A committee, composed of Dr. 
D. H. Connally, S. W. Jones and Dr. E. H. Roach, went to 
work to complete arrangements for a "grand demonstration," 
which was held on the 22d of December. At sunrise of that 
day a salute of fifteen guns was fired, and at 2 o'clock p. m., 
one hundred rounds were fired, under the auspices of the At- 
lanta Grays. In the forenoon a meeting was held at 11 
o'clock, which was opened with prayer by Rev. J. L. Rogers, 
of tlie Presbyterian church, after which the eloquent Howell 
Cobb addressed the assemblage, and at 7 o'clock they listened 
to an impassioned speech by Henry R. Jackson. A monster 
torch-light procession then paraded the streets, celebrating the 
secession of South Carolina. 

Thus it is seen that the people of Atlanta were ready for 
any step the State might take. Events from day to day 
pointed unerringly to a conflict. Military companies were 
rapidly formed. But it must not be supposed there were not 
those who deprecated a conflict. Among those who were for 
'"co-operation" were James M. Calhoun, George W. Adair, 
T. Moore and others. Their opponents in the race as dele- 
gates to the Milledgeville convention, who were for secession, 
were elected; they were L. J. Glenn, Joseph P. Logan and 
James F. Alexander. 

As usual, the press was a potent factor among the citizens. 
The Dalhj Intelligencer was the mouthpiece of the secession- 
ists. Its editors, Jared I. Whitaker and John Steele, were 
forcible writers, and daily fired the hearts of their readers 
with the beauties of a Southern Confederacy. In the course of 
time secession came, enthusiasm ran high, and business was 

66 Pioneer Citizens' 

generally left to run itself. Atlanta and Fulton count}^ con- 
tributed a large contingent to the Confederate army. The 
manufacture of guns and accoutrements for the government 
was largely engaged in; everything was subordinated to the 
war measures going on on every hand. 

In fancied security from Federal invasion, Atlanta pur- 
sued her way, undisturbed by "war's rude alarums." She was 
awakened from her feeling of security quite at the near end 
of the conflict; early in 186-J:, Atlanta became the objective 
point of the army of invasion, under General W. T. Sherman, 
and, on July 17th, were heard the first guns in the memorable 
siege of forty days, unparalleled in the alertness of the be- 
sieged city and its defenders, and the persistency of the be- 
siegers. Battered by the guns of the Federals night and day, 
hopeful yet heartsick, the few remaining citizens bravely met 
their fate. Many were wounded, in the streets and in their 
homes, while many were killed. Destruction reigned supreme 
— they fully realized the force of General Sherman's remark 
that "war is hell." 

On the 2d of September — the Confederates having evacu- 
ated the city the night previous — the Federal army marched 
in. When, later on, the Federals resumed their march to 
the sea, they left the city in the desolation of ashes. 

After the occupation, Sherman issued an order to citizens 
to depart from the town, as it was his intention to make At- 
lanta exclusively a military post. On the 11th of September 
Mayor Calhoun and Councilmen E. E. Eawson and L. C. Wells 
addressed the following protest to General Sherman : 

"Sir — The undersigned. Mayor, and two memliers of Coun- 
cil, 'for the City of Atlanta, for the time beincr tlie onlv local 

History of Atlanta. 67 

organ of the people of said city to express their wants and 
wishes, ask leave most earnestly, but respectfully, to petition 
you to reconsider the order requiring them to leave Atlanta. 

"At first view it struck us the measure would involve ex- 
traordinary hardship and loss, Init since we have seen the prac- 
tical execution of it, so far as it has progressed, and the indi- 
vidual condition of many of the people, and heard their state- 
ments as to the inconveniences, loss and suffering attending it, 
we are satisfied it will involve, in the aggregate, consequences 
appalling and heartrending. 

"Many poor women are in an advanced state of pregnancy ; 
others now having yoimg children, and whose husbands are 
either in the army, prisoners, or dead. Some say, 'I have such 
a one sick at home ; who will wait on them when I am gone ?' 
Others say, 'What are we to do? We have no houses to go to, 
and no means to buy, build or rent any — no parents, friends 
or relatives to go to.' Another says, 'I will try and take this or 
that article of property, but such and such things I must leave 
behind, though I need them much.' We reply to them : Gen- 
eral Sherman will carry your property to Kough and Ready, 
and General Hood will take it from there on. And they replj 
to that, 'But I want to leave tlie railway at such and such a 
point, and cannot get conveyance from there on.' 

"We only refer to a few facts to try to illustrate in part 
how this measure will operate in practice, and before your 
arrival here a large portion of the people had retired south, 
so that the country south of this is already crowded, and with- 
out houses to accommodate the people, and we are informed 
that many are now starving in churches and other out-build- 
ings. This being so, how is it possible for the people still here 
(mostly women and children) to find any shelter? And how 
can they live through the winter in the woods — no shelter nor 
subsistence — in the midst of strangers who know them not, 

68 PioxEER Citizens' 

and without the power to assist them, if they were willing 
to do so? 

"This is but a feeble picture of the consequences of this 
measure. You know the woe, the horror, and the suffering 
cannot be described by words. Imagination can only conceive 
of it, and we ask you to take these things into consideration. 

"We know your mind and time are constantly occupied 
with the duties of your command, which almost deters us 
from asking your attention to this matter; but thought it 
might be you had not considered the subject in all its awful 
consequences, and that on more reflection you, we hope, would 
not make this people an exception to all mankind, for we 
know of no such instance ever having occurred; surely none 
such in the United States; and, what has this helpless people 
done that they should be driven from their homes, to wander, 
as strangers, outcasts and exiles, and to subsist on charity ? 

"We do not know, as yet, the number of people still here. 
Of those who are here, we are satisfied a respectable number, 
if allowed to remain at home, could subsist for several months 
without assistance, and a respectable number for a much 
longer time, and who might not need assistance at any 

"In conclusion, we must earnestly and solemnly petition 
you to reconsider this order, or modify it, and suffer this 
unfortunate people to remain at home and enjoy what litt'o 
means they have. 

"EespectfuUy submitted, 

"James M. CalhotJn", Mayor, 
"'E. E. Rawson;, Councilman, 
"L. C. Wells, Councihnan.^' 

To the above General Sherman replied at some length, de- 
fending his position as necessary to the jDreservation of the 

HiSTOKY OF Atlanta. 69 

Union, and refusing to revoke the order for removal. There 
were removed, during the truce between the armies, four hun- 
dred and forty-six families, comprising seven hundred and 
four adults, eight hundred and sixty children and seventy-nine 
servants, with an average of sixteen hundred and fifty-one 
pounds of furniture and household goods of all kinds to 
each family. 

On the day following the surrender of the city (tieptem- 
ber 2), Colonel J. ]\I. Calhoun, mayor, with a committee of 
citizens, proceeded to seek an interview with General ^ Sher- 
man. The mayor and party met, about two miles west of the 
city, the Federals, under command of Colonel John Coburne, 
to whom the mayor said : "Colonel Coburne, the fortunes of 
war have placed Atlanta in your hands. As mayor of the 
city, I come to ask protection for non-combatants and for priv- 
vate property.^' To which Colonel ■ Coburne replied : "We 
did not come to make war on non-combatants, nor on private 
property; both shall be respected and protected by us." 
***** About the 10th of Septeml)er, General Sher- 
man issued an order requiring the evacuation of the city by 
all citizens, except those who engaged themselves as employees 
of the United States Government, as mechanics, clerks, watch- 
men, etc., allowing all to go south who wished to do so, and 
sending others beyond the Ohio river. An armistice of ten 
days was agreed to by Generals Sherman and Hood to accom- 
plish the work of removal. The Federals furnished trans- 
portation to Eough and Eeady and the Confederates from 
that point to Macon. In the hurry and confusion of the de- 
parture of the people, a great deal of their private effects were 
left unprotected, and was, of course, destroyed. But much 
was saved by being placed in the Second Methodist (Trinity) 
Church, which received military protection. 

70 Pioneer Citizens'" 


From his "Condensed History of Atlanta," Barnwell's At- 
lanta City Directory, for 1867, is taken the following graphic 
excerpts : 

* * * "To such as remained" (during the investment of 
Atlanta by the Federals) "for want of transportation, or for 
any other reason, until after the bombardment of the city by 
the United States artillery had fairly commenced, a scene at 
once fearful and sublime was presented. Huge bombs, and 
small shell, presenting in the darkness of the night the appear- 
ance of glaring comets or meteors flying in every direction, 
bursting and dealing death and destruction amidst zealous 
firemen, soldiers and citizens who were striving to extinguish 
the fiendish flames of a burning city, and driving, with precip- 
itate movement, our women and children into rude holes in 
the ground, hastily prepared for their preservation, is a sketch 
of the facts — much too feeble and inadequate — of one of a 
series of evening entertainments given the citizens of At- 
lanta during the month of August, 186-i. 

* * * * "During the siege there were thrown up by the 
contending parties, continuous lines of fortification around 
the entire city — a distance of at least eight or ten miles — in 
and near wliich were fought some of the most sanguinary bat- 
tles of the war. * * * * How quickly fade from the mem- 
ory of man impressions made by the contemplation of such a 
scene ! Yet, the citizens of this bustling city, however heed- 
less they may be, sleep nightly in the midst of one vast grave- 
yard. Friend and foe lie shoulder to shoulder, and will 
take up arms against each other no more; but must one day 
stand together before their Creator. Let us hope they died 
with such charitable feelings, and with such faith in their 

History of Atlanta. 71 

Savior as shall secure them the salvation of their immortal 

* * * * "Before the evacuation of the city, it was 
thought advisable, by otEcers commanding the forces, to de- 
stroy the city, which was almost completely accomplished. 
There was scarcely one stone left upon another. Some of the 
buildings, the Macon & Western depot, the car shed or union 
passenger depot (one of the finest in the United States), the 
Georgia Railroad bank agency building, the Georgia Eailroad 
depot and shops, and other buildings, required more powerful 
agents of destruction than fire, and were either battered down 
with battering-rams or blown up with gunpowder. 

"The churches destroyed were, Dr. Quintard's Episcopal, 
corner Bridge and Walton streets; the Protestant Methodist, 
corner Forsyth and Garnett; Evans' Chapel (Methodist 
Episcopal), on Xelson street; the Christian Church, on De- 
catur Street, and Payne's Chapel (Methodist Episcopal), on 
Marietta street. The Female College did not escape the 
flames. All the railroad shops and every foundry, machine 
shop, planing mill, etc., were completely consumed by fire or 
otherwise ingeniously destroyed. The Atlanta Gas Works 
built years ago, as if to make the dismal aspect more hideous 
by the darkness of night, were destroyed. In fact, such a 
destruction of public property has not been witnessed in any 
city during the war, except, perhaps, Columbia, S. C. 

"The Masonic Hall, a fine, three-story brick building, on 
Decatur street, by the interposition of members of the fra- 
ternity in the United States army, was preserved. Several 
good buildings on Alabama, east of Pryor street, were saved. 
To Major General 0. 0. Howard is said»to be due the preser- 
vation of the valuable residences left on Peachtree street. 
Through the instrumentality of Father O'Reilly and of Gen- 
eral Slocum, the Catholic Church (Immaculate Conception), 

72 PioxEEK Citizens' 

Second Baptist, Second Methodist (Trinit}*), Second Presby- 
terian and St. Philip's (Episcopal), much damaged, together 
■with the City Hall, and other valuable property in the vicinity, 
■were preserved. Dr. X. D'Alvigny interceded for the Medical 
College, which was also spared." 

During the time, 1862, to the occupancy Ijy the Federals 
in 1864, the Confederate Government impressed for service 
many buildings — for hospitals, government stores and other 
uses. Among them were- the American Hotel, the Empire 
House, the Medical College, Mayson's Female Institute, 
Kile's building, Hayden's Hall and Concert Hall, the Gate 
City Hotel being used later as a distributing hospital. Large 
hospitals were also established at the Fair Grounds, and a con- 
valescent camp near Mrs. W. A. Ponder's residence, on the 
Western & Atlantic Eailroad. The Confederate barracks was 
west of Peachtree street, not far from Walton Spring. It is 
estimated that from time to time during the Mar there were in 
hospitals at this place some 80,000 Confederate soldiers, and 
that of this number some 5,000 died, 4,600 being buried in the 
City Cemetery (Oakland). 

Let us turn back now to Council proceedings for the first 
year of the new decade, 1860, which show great progress dur- 
ing the year preceding the war period. 

History of Atlanta. 73 



STATES (1860). 

Atlanta Has Charter Amended — Streets Widened and 
Opened — Gate City Gnard Want Camp Equipage — Air 
Line Eailroad Wanting More Money — Subscriptions to 
the Georgia Western Eailway — New Masonic Hall Ded- 
icated — Hebrews Given Ground in Oakland Ceme- 
tery — State (Secession) Convention Invited to Meet in 

January 20, new officials go into office : Mayor, William 
Ezzard; Councilmen: First Ward, J. B. Norman and H. H. 
Glenn; Second Ward, P. E. McDaniel and James Clarke; 
Third Ward, M. T. Castleberry and J. E. D. Ozburn; Fourth 
AVard, J. E. Wallace and S. B. Sherwood; Fifth Ward, J. T. 
Lewis and Isaac Winship. 

The new Council was banqueted by retiring board, and 
new officers elected, as follows: C. F. Wood, Clerk of Coun- 
cil; Jabez E. Ehodes, Treasurer; G. A. Pilgrim, Sexton; G. 
W. Anderson, Marshal; E. T. Hunnicutt, Deputy Marshal; 
J. M. Lester, First Lieutenant Police; J. M. Blackwell, Sec- 
ond Lieutenant Police; Jaines Clarke, Mayor pro tern; Fi- 
nance Committee, J. T. Lewis, P. E. McDaniel and Isaac Win- 
ship. Salaries of Marshal and deputy were raised from $600 
to $700. 

Legislative amendments to the City Charter accepted, giv- 
ing Mayor and Council further power in opening and widen- 
ing streets, taking private property for public use, and pre- 

74 PioxEER Citizens" 

scribing manner of assessing damages; also, giving authority 
to tax barrooms $300 per. annum, and lotteries not less than 
$500 for every ticket sold; banks and bank agencies not ex- 
ceeding $500 per annum; itinerant traders, such amount as 
Council approved. 

February 10, a new liquor ordinance was adopted. The 
Merchants' and Planters' Bank was granted the privilege of 
establishing an agency at Atlanta. 

An ordinance was passed regulating the Fire Department 
and requiring any citizen when called on by firemen to assist 
in duty at fires. 

March 2, an ordinance was passed to beautify the park at 
railroad depot — the State Legislature having also granted the 

The Gate City Guard asked Council for money to buy 
camp equipage. 

A petition was received from sundry citizens asking that 
an additional subscription of $250,000 be made to the Air 
Line Eailroad. 

March 16, office of City Inspector created. 
April 13, a conditional new subscription was made to 
Line Eailroad ; amount not stated — supposed to be $300,000. 

A Board of Health was elected, as follows : Drs. Joseph P. 
Logan, Willis F. Westmoreland, William P. Harden, Elisha 
J. Poach and Henry W. Brown. 

An invitation was received to attend the annual celebra- 
tion and review of Fire Department on ]\ray 1. 

April 20, a check for $300 was ordered to be issued to the 
Georgia Western Eailroad, for contingent expenses, prelim- 
inary surve}', etc. 

The Mayor was instructed to appoint a committe to solicit 
subscriptions to the Georgia Western Eailroad. 

History of Atlanta. 75 

May — , Air Line Railroad Company declined proposition 
made by Council April 13. 

May 23, $300,000 was subscribed to Georgia Western Eail- 

June — , Marshall J. Clarke was employed to codify City 

June 24, Council attended the dedication of the new Ma- 
sonic Hall, on Decatur street, next east of the Trout House. 

July 6, the Georgia Air Line Railroad asked to suspend 

Roswell Bridge, over Chattahoochee river, declared 5 per 
cent, dividend. 

July 20, Council gave $300 to pay expenses of cadets from 
Georgia Military Institute, while in the city, on petition of 
citizens. A committee was appointed to arrange for the re- 
moval of the bodies remaining in the old cemetery, (located 
on Peachtree street between E. Harris and E. Baker streets^ 
to the new Cemetery (Oakland). 

James R. Crew was elected to Council from Second ward, 
vice James Clarke, resigned. 

August 16, By unanimous vote (except Winship and Wal- 
lace) Council passed an ordinance repealing subscription, 
made April 13th, 1860, of $300,000 to Air Line R. R. (origi- 
nal subscription undisturbed). 

September 7, T. J. Lewis resigned and N". L. Angier was 
elected in his place, to Council from 5th Ward. 

October 1, 75 deaths reported for this quarter. 

December 7, City bought the lot near corner of Walton 
and Bridge street (now Broad) and gave it to Fire Company 
No. 3, Tallulah; cost of lot, $1,000. 

December 7, At the request of David Mayer, President of 
the Hebrew Benevolent Congregation (Synagogue) the City 

76 Pioneer Citizens' 

donated six lots, each about 15x30 feet, to the Jews of iltlanta 
for burials in Oakland Cemetery, 

December 21, $1,000 was donated by Council to Tallulah 
Fire Company to put second story on their Engine House. 

January 4, 1861, $1,700 paid to Western E. E. Company 
to pay part expenses of preliminary survey. 

January 11, It being known that the Cotton States would 
secede from the Union, the City of Atlanta, by resolution of 
Council, asked all conventions to consider her invitation to 
meet here, promising that the City would do all it could in the 
way of facilities and accommodations, granting to all the 
freedom of the City. Copies of this resolution were sent to 
State Governments of all the Southern States. 

History of Atlanta. 77 


Delegates appointed to Southern Congress (Confederate 
States) at Montgomery — City Wants Capital of Confeder- 
ate States — Lee's Military Company Want to get into 
State Military — Preparations to receive Hon. Jefferson 
Davis — Also Hon. Alex. H. Stephens — City Proposes to 
Take Care of Families of Soldiers of Confederacy — Me- 
chanics Fire Company 'No. 2 Offer Their Services as 
Home Guards — Tallulah Fire Company No. 3 Also Takes 
Action— Macon & Western R. R. Gives $500 for Soldiers' 
Families — Council Takes Action on Immediate Measures 
for Taking Care of Wovmded and Sick Soldiers of Con- 
federacy — The First Atlanta Soldier Brought Home 
Dead — Patriotic Firemen of Atlanta. 

January 31, A Citizen's Meeting called to consider the 
sending of Delegates to Southern Congress to assemble in 
Montgomer)^, Ala., February 4, 1861, to select a place for the 
Southern Capital. 

On motion of Sion B. Eobson five Delegates were apjDointed 
and Mr. Thomas Kile suggested the following, who were ap- 
pointed: Mayor Jared Irwin Whitaker, ex-Mayor Wm. Ez- 
zard, Hon. Lucius J. Gartrell, Col. James M. Calhoun and 
Dr. Joseph P. Logan. 

This delegation was empowered to use all honorable 
means to secure the location of Confederate Capital at At- 

February 1, Officers of Captain G. W. Lee's Military Com- 

78 Pioneer Citizexs" 

pany ask assistance of Council to get the company into the 
State Military service. The Mayor appointed Messrs. Eob- 
son, Love and Kile a committee to petition Governor Brown 
to do this. 

February 1, In view of the meeting of Cotton Spinners' 
Convention in Atlanta on 12th of February, the Mayor ap- 
pointed Richard Peters, George G. Hull, Wm. F. Herring, 
Sidney Root and Jonathan Xorcross members of a Committee 
to make arrangements for the accommodation of the conven- 
tion, giving them discretionary powers. 

Jabez R. Rhodes, Deputy Marshal, resigned. 

February 1, Council elected Board of Health : Hon. 
Greene B. Haygood, and Doctors H. W. Brown, D. C. O'Keefe, 
W. F. Westmoreland and Thomas S. Powell. 

February 15, A committee was appointed as follows to re- 
ceive Jefferson Davis, who Avas expected to pass through the 
City February 16, on his way to Montgomery: Alexander M. 
Wallace, C. R. Hanleiter, A. A. Goulding, L. J. Gartrell, J. 
P. Logan, James P. Hambleton, B. M. Smith, W. F. West- 
moreland, John Collier, T. Flowers, G. B. Hall, William 
Barnes, John W. Duncan, Jno. W. Jones, E. P. Watkins. 

March 2, Resolution by Councilman Crew: That Messrs. 
James Ormond, Sidney Root and A. C. Wyly go to Montgom- 
ery and ask Confederate authorities to make Atlanta a port of 

March 7, A Resolution by Mr. Crew: That a Committee 
be appointed to take cognizance of Confederate Capital loca- 
tion conferences ; the Mayor appointed Councilmen Crew, Rob- 
son and Love. 

Council tendered the use of all public buildings to the Con- 
federate Government for either temporary or permanent use 
as a Capitol ; and requested the State Convention then in ses- 
sion to give the Confederate Government jurisdiction over 

History of Atlanta. 79 

any ground in the State they may see proper to accept and oc- 
cupy for Capitol or other purposes. 

March 11, Alexander H. Stephens, lately chosen Vice- 
President of the Southern Confederacy, heing expected to 
pass through Atlanta March 12, the following Committee was 
appointed to meel him : Hon. Wm. Ezzard, BenJ. C. Yancey, 
W. S. Bassford, Thomas C. Howard, Eobt. F. Maddox, Au- 
gustin C. Wyly, Dr. John G. Westmoreland, William Barnes, 
Elias Holcombe, F. M. Johnson, Dr. Wm. P. Harden, Jno. 
H. Flynn, S. B. Love, James P. Simmons ; Escort Committee : 
Frank Watkins, James P. Hambleton, Dr. Joseph Thompson. 

March 15, In view of the Direct Trade and Cotton Spin- 
ners' Convention which was to be held in Atlanta on the 19th 
inst., the Mayor was requested to appoint delegates to same; 
also a committee of three on Invitation and Entertainment, 
E. E. fares, etc. , the ]\Iayor to be a delegate, ex-officio. Com- 
mittee of Invitation, etc. : S. B. Eobson, Thos. C. Howard, 
A. A. Gaulding. 

Delegates: Benj. C. Yancey, Eichard Peters, Logan E. 
Bleckley, James Ormond, and George G. Hull. 

April 5, Haygood & Johnson were paid $225, attorney fees, 

April 12, The "Southern Confederacy" Publishing Com- 
pany was elected city public printers. 

April 19, The Mayor advised Council of Stockholders' 
meeting (of the Air Line E. E. Co.) being called. Council 
decided to have notliing to do with it. 

April 26, A communication from citizens asking that .pro- 
vision be made for the care of soldiers' families, was referred 
to the Eelief Committee. 

Mechanics Fire Company ISTo. 2 offered their services as 
Home Guards. Mayor J. I. Whitaker accepted the offer and 
in his acceptance referred to their past record as "good citi- 
zens and true to the public good, who will now be equally true 

80 Pioneer Citizens' 

in defending the lives and property of fellow citizens against 
Abe Lincoln and his mean and contemptible cohorts in this 
unlioly and wicked war." 

Tallulah Fire Company ISTo. 3 organized as a Military 
Company to resist insurrection and for patrol or any other 
service required of them. 

Atlanta Fire Company Xo. 1 tendered their services for 
military and patrol duty, through William Barnes, Chief of 
Atlanta Volunteer Fire Department. 

April 2G, The tender of all the Fire Companies was ac- 
cepted by the Mayor and Council with appropriate resolu- 
tions of appreciaton. 

May 3, Strong resolutions were passed by Tallulah Fire 
Company Xo. 3, stating that as loyal citizens of the Southern 
Confederacy they will drill and fully prepare themselves for 
military duty, and will tender their services when needed by 
the Confederate States. 

The Macon & Western E. E. Company gave $500 to the 
City for aid to needy families of Confederate Soldiers, who 
are in Virginia and elsewhere on duty in the army. Council 
requested Inferior Court to take steps to render aid to sol- 
diers' families. 

July 5, Governor Joseph E. Brown selected Atlanta as 
temporary headquarters of the Georgia State Military Affairs, 
the City furnishing offices. 

July 6, Mr. Seaborn B. Love, Clerk of Council, resigned 
his position to join the "Atlanta Grays'' (Military Company) 
with which he went to Virginia. 

July 26, The Mayor convened Council in special session 
to make immediate arrangements for the care of sick and 
wounded soldiers, calling attention to the battles of 21st and 
22d inst., in which many Atlanta citizens suffered, and de- 
clared the emergency must be met. The Council resjionded 

History of Atlanta. 81 

promptly and vigorously, and authorized the Mayor to take 
such steps, immediately, at his discretion. The County Court 
and Citizens were requested to meet. 

A communication was received from Dr. K. D'Alvigny re- 
garding sick and wounded soldiers. 

August 17, As a mark of respect and sympathy in his 
grief, the Mayor and Council officially met at the depot their 
fellow Councilman, Mr. Wm. Watkins, returning from Vir- 
ginia with the remains of his son who lost his life in his 
country's service. 

October — , The ]\Iayor appointed Sion B. Eobson, A. W. 
Hammond, and Thomas Kile delegates to a Commercial Con- 
vention to meet in Macon, Ga., October 14. 

November 25, Mayor Jared I. Whitaker, having been ap- 
pointed by Governor Brown Commissary-General of Georgia 
Troops, resigned the office of Mayor. 

December 13, Thomas F. Lowe was elected to fill the un- 
expired term of Mr. Whitaker. 

Council authorized the appointment, without compensa- 
tion, of volunteer police to serve in dangerous emergencies. 

82 Pioneer Citizens' 



A Very Important Council— The ^Ya^ Fever Engages Coun- 
cil's Attention— Confederacy Notifies City Hospital 
Quarters Would be Required— Confederate Armory Lo- 
cated in Atlanta— Public Arms Required to be Turned 
Over to Marshal — Councilmen Resign to Join Army 
— New Council For Following Year Elected. 

The Board for the year 1862 was as follows: Mayor, Jas. 
M. Calhoun; Council, Isaac E. Bartlett, Jas. R. Crew, Jno. 
F. Farrar, Wm. Barnes, C. W. Hunnicutt, E. R. Sasseen, Jas. 
Noble, Jr., S. B. Oatman, James E. Williams, James Y. Kel- 
ley, Wm. B. Cox, Jno. K. Flynn, F. D. Thurmond. 

The Board met in January and elected officials as follows : 
Clerk of Council, Henry C. Holcombe; City Treasurer, Jno. 
H. Mecaslin; Marshal, Benj. N. Williford; Deputy, Thos. 
Shivers; Finance Committee, W. B. Cox, Wm. Barnes, J. R. 
Crew; Relief Committee, J. E. Williams, W. B. Cox, Jno. Far- 
rar, S. B. Oatman, C. W. Hunnicutt; City Attorney, Green 
B. Haygood; 1st Lieut. Police, Wm. S. Hancock; 2d Lieut, 
of Police, Geo. Stewart. 

February 13, A Board of Health was elected as follows: 
Drs. Harrison Westmoreland, E. N. Calhoun, Wm. P. Har- 
den, Jno. W. Jones, Jas. F. Alexander. The "Common- 
wealth" Publishing Company was elected City Printers. 

March 4, Dr. Pim, Medical Director of the Army of Ten- 
nessee, C. S. A., notified the City authorities that hospital fa- 

History of Atlanta. 83 

cilities will be required; whereupon, Council took prompt ac- 

March 28, All public arms were required to be returned 
to the City Marshal. City Assessors elected as follows: W. 
L. Adamson, J. S. Smith, W. A. Powell. 

April 12, Dr. F. D. Thurmond was elected to fill vacancy 
vice John Farrar, in Council. 

June 18, E. E. Sasseen was elected Councilman, vice W. B. 
Cox, who had gone into the army. 

June 27, Col. Burton, C. S. A., came to Atlanta to select 
a place for the Confederate Armory. Mayor Calhoun and 
Councilmen Hunnicutt, Flynn, and Williams were appointed 
committee to confer with Col. Burton. 

July 18, Dr. Jno. M. Johnson and Austin Leyden memo- 
rialized Council regarding sanitary arrangements at the Sol- 
diers' Hospital. 

August 22, James Noble, Jr., was elected to Council, vice 
Wm. Barnes resigned, who had gone into the Army. 

October — , A Committee of Mayor Calhoun and Coun- 
cilmen Williams and Oatman were appointed a Committee to 
suggest amendments to the City Charter. 

A new Council for 1863 was elected on the first Wednes- 
day in December, 1862, the time of election having been 
changed by the Legislature making an amendment to City 

December 26, On motion of Mr. Williams, Chairman of 
Eelief Committee, a smallpox hospital was ordered built — this 
disease being very serious in its spread, becoming almost epi- 
demic. A Committee was appointed with power to act ; Mayor 
Calhoun and Messrs. Williams and Oatman, committee. 

84 PioxEER Citizens' 



Threatened Epidemic of Smallpox — City Deputy ^Marshal 
Cliivers Killed — Donations to the Poor — All Citizens Ee- 
' quested to Organize into Companies to Eesist Invasion — 
Gen. X. B. Forrest Tendered Freedom of City By Coun- 
cil — Preparations for Fortifying the City — City Police 
Organize into Companies — Eoswell Manufacturing Com- 
pany to the Eescue — Georgia Eelief Association — A 
House of Correction Wanted by City. 

January 2, 1863, The new Council went in as follows: 

Mayor, James M. Calhoun ; Councilmen, Isaac E. Bartlett, 
James G. Kelley, C. W. Hunnicutt, L. C. Wells, E. E. Eawson, 
James Xoble, Jr., James Gullatt, James E. Williams. A. C. 
Wyly, S. B. Oatman, F. D. Thurmond, Perino Brown. Z. A. 
Eice . 

They elected the following City Officials: 

Clerk, H. C. Holcombe; Treasurer, J. H. Mecaslin; Tax 
Collector, C. M. Payne; Marshal, B. X. Williford; Deputy 
Marshal Thos, Shivers; 1st Lieut. Police, W. S. Hancock; 
Engineer ,Dr. H. L. Currier ; 2d Lieut. Police, Geo. Stewart ; 
City Physician, Dr. Beach; Supt. Streets, H. W. McDaniel; 
Sexton, G. A. Pilgrim; City Hall Keeper, Pat. Fitzgibbon; 
Finance Committee ,Sasseen, Williams, Brown; Eelief Com- 
mittee, Williams, Oatman, Thurman, Sasseen and Brown; 
Fire Wardens, Wm. Eushton, Jno. H. Flynn. Dr. Cummings, 
of South Carolina, and Dr. Willis F. Westmoreland addresed 
Council on the subject of vaccination as a protection against 


History of Atlanta. ' 85 

the threatened epidemic of smallpox, and on motion of Coun- 
cilman Williams, a Committee of one from each ward was 
appointed to provide for immediate compulsory vaccination 
of all persons liable to take smallpox, not protected from hav- 
ing had the disease or having been successfully vaccinated. 
Marslial Williford was instructed to take charge of City's ef- 
fects in Chivers' hands, and the following resolution, offered 
by Councilman Williams, was adopted by Council: "Ee- 
solved. That the Mayor and Council do deeply regret the late 
sad occurrence that deprived our Deputy Marshal, Thos. 
Chivers, of his life, and this City of an efficient officer, and 
that his wife and children have our sympathies in this, their ' 
great bereavement." 

February 6, A resolution was adopted, offered by Council- 
man Williams, requiring a red flag to be hung at places where 
smallpox existed. 

February 13, Board of Health elected, consisting of S. B. 
Oatman, J. E. Williams, F. D. Thurmond, E. E. Sasseen, C. 
W .Hunnicutt. By resolution of Councilman Williams the 
Police Committee was authorized to employ as many secret 
police as they deem necessary for the public good. 

March 13, Mayor Calhoim notified Council that Mayer 
Jacobi & Company donated two tierces of rice (1,000 pounds) 
for distribution to the poor. 

April 17, The sale of whiskey at retail was prohiliited in 
the City by Military order. 

May 1, Councilman Thurman offered a resolution that the 
City buy not exceeding 150 acres of land from the Badger es- 
tate for a cemetery, at $100 per acre. The resolution was sec- 
onded by Mr. Williams and adopted. 

(The purchase was made but the land was never used for a 
Cemetery; it still (1901) belongs to the City, and is used for 
Stockade, Convict Camp and farm, and pest house hospital.) 


C. W- Hunnicutt resigned from Council^ and Augustus C. 
Wyly was elected to succeed him. 

Council approved the action of the Mayor in relation to 
mounted scouts. 

May 8, In view of the raid made by Yankees under Gen- 
eral Streight through northern Mississippi, Alabama and 
Georgia, almost reaching the City of Eome, Ga., before they 
were captured by Confederate General Forrest, a resolution 
was offered by Councilman Williams, and adopted, asking the 
Mayor to issue a proclamation requesting all citizens to organ- 
ize into companies and equip themselves to protect the City 
from raids . 

At the same meeting, the thanks of the City were voted 
to General Xathaniel Bedford Forrest for capturing the 
Streight raiders. 

May 15, Tallulah Fire Company Xo. 3 offer to serve as 
cavalry, for protection of the City, and petition Council for 
assistance in their equipment. 

May 15 ,City paid Badger estate $39,420 for land bought 

The Fire Department reported having organized as a Bat- 
tallion for Military duty when necessary. Councilman Wil- 
liams offered resolution, which was adopted, that Col. Lemuel 
P. Grant and Alexander M. Wallace be requested to examine 
the country surrounding Atlanta with the intention of forti- 
fying the City, and report to Council . 

May 23, A resolution by Mr. Williams, was adopted, ex- 
pressing pleasure and pride at the tender of Tallulah Fire 
Company to serve as a cavalry company, and requesting the 
Mayor to call on citizens to furnish horses, reporting them to 
Dr. James A. Taylor. 

May 27, Mayor's proclamation was issued calling on all 
citizens to enroll themselves into organized companies for 
home protection. 

History of Atlanta. 87 

June 19, James E. Gullatt was installed as Councilman 
from Fourth ward to fill vacancy existing therein. 

July 10, Levi C. Wells was installed to fill vacancy in 

July 17, Mr. Williams stated to the Council that General 
Forrest was expected in the City and proposed that a com- 
mittee, consisting of the Mayor and three members of Coun- 
cil be delegated to meet him and conduct him to a suite of 
rooms at one of the hotels where further hospitalities could be 
extended him. 

Council approved the suggestion and the committee, con- 
sisting of Mayor James M. Calhoun and Councilmen James 
E. Williams, Augustus C. Wyly and Stephen B. Oatman, 
waited on General Forrest as proposed. During the General's 
visit to the City, a magnificent charger completely caparisoned, 
was presented to him by a citizens' popular subscription. 

A small balance due on this ($826) was paid by Council 
July 31st, on motion of Councilman Williams, in response 
to a petition presented by Geo. W. Adair. 

July 31, The City Police force organized themselves into 
a military company, elected their officers and tendered their 
services to the City. 

August 21, By resolution of Mr. Williams the use of the 
City Hall was granted to Walthall's Mississippi brigade to 
give a concert. 

August 28, The use of the upper room of Police quarters 
was given to the Vigilance Committee for holding meetings. 
Councilman Wyly resigned from Fifth Ward; also Coun- 
cilman Sasseen, having removed from Fourth to the Fifth 
Ward, resigned from Fourth Ward. 

Z. A. Eice was elected in Sasseen's place, and Sasseen was 
elected from Fifth Ward. 

The Roswell Manufacturing Company, (cotton factory) 

88 Pioneer Citizens' 

donated to the City $5,000 for relief of sick and wounded sol- 
diers, and $500 to Mrs. Isaac Winship, President of Ladies 
Eelief Association for the same purpose. 

The City's donation was turned over to the Eelief Com- 

October 16, A resolution was adopted, offered by Mr. Wil- 
liams, that Mayor Calhoun, with two members of Council, be 
appointed a committee to meet President Jefferson Davis, as 
he passes through on his way to Eichmond, Va., and tender 
him the hospitality of the City; the Committee consisted of 
the Mayor and Councilmen James E. Williams and E. E. Sas- 

October 23, The Eelief Committee was authorized to rent 
store rooms for distribution of relief, and an Ordinance by 
Councilman Stephen B. Oatman was adopted defining duties 
of Agents acting in the provision store for the poor and needy. 

November 6, The Fire Department gave a ball for the ben- 
efit of soldiers' families. 

December 4, Mr. Williams offered a motion which was 
adopted, that the Mayor ask the Legislature, then in session, 
for an amendment to the City Charter empowering Council 
to establish a house of correction. 

History of Atlanta. ' 89 



War Drawing to a Close — Gen. John H. Morgan To Visit the 
City — Committee from Council Appointed to Meet Him 
— Relief Committee Actively at Work — The Military 
Take Precedence in All City Affairs, and Council Suc- 
cumbs in the Mid- Year— The Xext Council (1865) Fix 
Salaries of City Officials — Military and Council Co- 
operate— City Could Not Make a Loan of $20,000— 
Opening of Pryor Street North — Negroes Given Same 
Privileges as White People. 

In January, 1864, the last Council of the war period, save 
one, was installed as follows: Mayor, James M. Calhoun; 
Council, L. C. Wells, G. E. Ransom, Robt. Crawford, Z. A. 
Eice, Perino Brown, Thos. E. Powell, J. A. Taylor, Wm. Wat- 
kins, Jno. T. Jones, James E. Gullatt, Noah R. Fowler. 
' ' January 19, The Mayor was requested to appoint a com- 
mittee to meet Gen. Jno. H. Morgan, who was expected to be 
in the City. Committee : Mayor James M. Calhoun, Coun- 
cilmen Perino Brown, Robt. Crawford, James E. Gullatt, 
Noah R. Fowler and Levi C. Wells ; and Messrs. Wm. Ezzard, 

McKinley, Jno. W. Duncan, Stephen H. Shallcross and 

Sidney Root, citizens. 

(June 10, AVas observed as a day of Fasting and Prayer, 
in accordance with proclamation of Jefferson Davis, President 
of the Southern Confederacy.) 

The last meeting of Council was held July 18, the military 
(Confederates) being the supreme law, up to the evacuation. 

90 PiONEEK Citizens' 

September 2d, when the Federal army took possession of the 


January 6, 1865, The following Officers were installed for 
the new term: Mayor, James M. Calhoun; Council, First 
Ward, Benj. N. Williford, John Collier; Second Ward, Frank 
M. Eichardson, E. E. Sasseen; Third Ward, T. E. Eipley, 
Geo. W. Terry; Fourth Ward, L. S. Mead, Thos. W. J. Hill; 
Fifth Ward, J. N. Simmons; Marshal, 0. H. Jones; Deputy, 
C. C. Davis; Attorney, jST. J. Hammond; Treasurer, Jos. T. 
Porter; Surveyor, W. F. Harris; (it seems from the records 
that he first suggested the opening of Broad street from Ala- 
bama to Mitchell street, and laid it off) ; Mayor pro. tem., 
John Collier. Salaries fixed: Marshal, $5,000 per annum; 
Deputy, $3,500 per annum; Attorney, $2,500 per annum; 
Physician, $2,000 pe rannum; Treasurer, $2,000 per annum; 
Clerk Market, $1,800 per annum; Lieut. Police, $3,050 per 
annum; 2d Lieut. Police, $2,500 per annum; Supt. streets, 
$2,750 per annum; Messenger, $1,375 per annum. 

These officials were all paid in Confederate money. 

April 14, A resolution by Councilman Collier was adopted 
that the Mayor be authorized to borrow $30,000 to $50,000 for 
90 days for needed City expenditures. 

(It does not appear that this was carried out, as Confed- 
erate money was worthless. General Lee having surrendered, 
and no Greenbacks nor Specie to be had) . 

May 26, Mayor Calhoun proposed that salaries be placed 
on specie (Greenback) basis. Greenbacks being 50 per cent 
below par. 

The adjusted salaries were as follows: Mayor, $1,000; 
Clerk, $1,400 ; Marshal, $900 ; Deputy, $650 ; Treasurer, $500 ; 
Attorney, $500; Physician, $600; Supt. Streets, $500; Mes- 
senger, $250; Sexton, $5 each interment. 

The Mayor was authorized by resolution to borrow $20,000. 

History of Atlanta. 91 

Dr. N". D'Alvigny reported to the Council that the Military 
Department (U. S. A.) agreed to furnish hospital room and 
medicines, and furniture, for the sick and wounded, with 
himself and Dr. Willis F. Westmoreland to treat and look 
after them. 

June 7, Wm. F. Harris, Surveyor, proposed opening Bridge 
street, and Market street (or Broad street), from Peachtree 
to Mitchell street . 

June 16, F. M. Richardson, Chairman Street Committee, 
made a report on opening this street. 

Mayor Calhoun reported he could not succeed in borrowing 
money for the City . 

June 20, An Ordinance was adopted authorizing the issue 
of $35,000 in bonds of small denominations, payable (2) years 
after date, bearing interest from date and receivable at all 
times for all dues to the City.. The denominations were $10, 
$5, $2, $1, 50c, and 25c, and their issue was of great conven- 
ience to the citizsne, being largely used in the place of money 

June 29, A resolution by Councilman Sasseen was adopted 
providing that the Mayor confer with the authorities of the 
Macon & Western R. R. and Georgia R. R. about removing de- 
pot buildings from Pryor street crossing, and from Washing- 
ton street ; and the following committee was appointed : Mayor 
Calhoun, Councilmen Sasseen and Richardson, and of citi- 
zens, Sidney Root, James R. Crew, W. W. Clayton, — Brown 
and Alfred Austell. 

By resolution of Council the Finance Committee razeed all 
old unpaid outstanding City checks, issued before the surren- 
der (April, 1865), and placed on the books their value, as the 
Committee regarded them, in Greenbacks, and the City Treas- 
urer was instructed to pay them accordingly. 

July 3, Council passed an ordinance opening Market and 

92 Pioneer Citizens' 

Bridge streets, making one new continuous street and naming 
it Broad street. 

United States Quartermaster Winslow gave the City three 
army wagons and nineteen mules. 

July 3, C. F. Wood and Geo. "W. Adair were elected to 

July 3, L. P. Grant and Geo. "W. Adair were added to the 
committee to confer with railroads on opening Pryor street 
from Alabama street to Wall street. 

W. F. Harris, City Surveyor, reported the survey of Broad 
street completed. 

July 14, All ordinances were repealed, dealing with ne- 
groes different from white persons . 

0. H. Jones resigned as City Marshal. 



Council and Other Officials in Trying Times — Many of Them 
Had Served Their Country in War — Smallpox Epidemic 
— Fire Companies Reorganized — The Poor People Afraid 
of the Medical Men of the Atlanta Medical College — Ma- 
con & Western R. R. Donations for the Xeedy — The 
Country Responds to Atlanta's Appeal for Help — Chi- 
cago Refuses — Cholera in Town — Rebuilding the Order 
of the Day. 

January, 1866 — Mayor and Council installed into office: 
]\Iayor, James E. Williams; Council, First Ward, Anthony 
Murphy, Daniel P. Ferguson; Second Ward, P. E. McDaniel, 

History of Atlanta. 93 

Fraiilc M. Eichardson; Third Ward, James G. Kelley, Eobert 
Crawford; Fourth Ward, Bluford D. Smith, J. Henry Porter; 
Fifth Ward ,W. Tiff Mead, A. P. Bell. Committees : Finance, 
Porter, McDaniel, Bell; Ordinances, McDaniel, Smith, Mead; 
Police, Ferguson, Smith, Mead; Streets, Crawford ,Eichard- 
son ,Murphy; Market, Smith, Ferguson, Porter; Fire, Bell, 
Murphy, Kelley; Wells, Pumps and Cisterns ,Murphy, Kelly, 
Eichardson; Public Buildings, Mead, Porter, Ferguson; Gas, 
Eichardson, Mead, Porter; Cemetery, Kelly, McDaniel, Craw- 
ford; Eelief, Eichardson, Bell, Crawford, Mead, Smith; Tax, 
Smith, Bell, McDaniel; Clerk of Council, S. B. Love; Treas- 
urer, Jas. T. Porter; Marshal, G. Whit Anderson; Attorney, 
Saml. B. Hoyt; Deputy Marshal, W. P. Lanier; Physician, 
E. J. Eoach; Engineer, W. B. Bass; Sexton, G. A. Pilgrim; 
Tax Eeceiver and Collector, Columbus M. Payne; City Hall 
Keeper, Patrick Fitzgibbons; 1st Lieut. Police, L. P. Thomas; 
2d Lieut. Police, Wm. Y. Langford; Policemen, Thos. W. 
Keltner, D. C. Venable, David M. Queen, E. Dave L. Mobley, 
Jno. C. Head, J. H. McConnell, Saml. Gouedy, L. E. Lanier, 
A. G. Eice, Jas. F. Peacock, Jas. E. Love, J. P. Porter, E. B. 
Hutchins, Jas. D. Barnes, J. L. Crenshaw ,Jno. L. Johnson, 
J. A. Lang, C. F. Wood, J. A. Lanier, W. H. Jones, Ed. A. 
Center, Sid Holland, Geo .J .Stokes, ISTicholas Eooney, Eussell 
Crawford, J. M. Watson, J. M. Starnes, W. J. Holtzclaw, W. 
S. Hancock, George Bomar. 

(The names of these men constitute a roll of honor which 
all future citizens of Atlanta will point to with pride; with 
hardly an exception, they had served in the Confederate Army, 
many of them as officers of distinction and rank, and all with 
credit ; and to their courage, patience, and discretion, Atlanta 
owes it that there has never been any serious clash between the 
white and black races in our city. When the peace of the City 
was confided to their care it seemed that no human power 

94 PioxEEE Citizens' 

could avert conflict and bloodshed. The soldiers in blue were 
in force here ; negro regiments were paid off and mustered out 
of service here; the camp-followers — scum of cretation — were 
clinging to the offal of the Federal army, and the starving, 
desperate, paupers of the surrounding country, both white and 
black, were collected here by the distribution of rations 
through the Freedmen's Bureau. The history of those days 
has not, and may never be written; but the debt of gratitude 
due the noble little band of thirty-three men who preserved 
the peace of Atlanta in 1866 will never be forgotten by the 
mothers and fathers of the new city — themselves the faithful 
and brave survivors of the Atlanta of 1860-1864. — Ed.) 

January 19, Smallpox, which had broken out in 1865, had 
by winter become epidemic and was taxing to the utmost the 
limited resources of the ruined city; at this meeting of Coun- 
cil Dr. H. H. Tucker, a noble-hearted citizen, donated for the 
use of the City's sick, one hundred pairs of blankets, and upon 
the earnest request of the Mayor and Council, agreed to solicit 
help from others. 

Council ordered a temporary hospital built and placed 
$10,000 in the hands of the Relief Committee to meet the 

The fire department rej)orted that owing to the destruction 
of their engine and apparatus by the Federal army, thirteen 
thousand, three hundred dollars would be required to make 
their services to be of value. Engine Company jSTo. 1 asked 
for $2,000 ; Mechanic's Engine Company No. 2 asked for $7,- 
000; a new steamer being required, their old engine having 
been totally destroyed; Tallulah Engine Company No. 3, 
wanted $3,600, and Hook and Ladder No. 1 asked for $700. 
Another company No. 4, had been organized in 1863, but re- 
fused to join the organized department. 

Dr. Willis F. Westmoreland, on behalf of the Atlanta Med- 

History of Atlanta. 95 

ical College, offered to give free attention to the pauper sick, 
but Council declined because the ignorant poor people feared 
the College Surgeons wanted their bodies for dissection. 

Wm. Eushton and — Lowe were elected Fire Wardens; 
Messrs Moore, Wood, and Gabbett were elected Building In- 

The Mayor and the Police Committee were authorized to 
appoint secret police, (afterwards called detectives). 

January 23, The Macon & Western K. E. Company do- 
nated $300 for relief of poor. (Six hundred absolutely help- 
less paupers were without food, or necessary clothing; many 
came in from the surrounding country, not legitimately 
chargeable to the City, but drawn here by the distribution of 
rations by the United States army, which was stopped in mid- 
winter, and the care of the starving hundreds left to the City. ) 

Owing to destruction of their property and the strain upon 
the citizens to rebuild some semblance of shelter for their fam- 
ilies and business efforts, and with no outside aid (the money 
of the East and North not being then satisfied with conditions 
existing here) and no means open to our people to borrow, the 
income of the City from taxation was very small ; nothing, to 
compare with the urgent calls upon it; the Mayor and Coun- 
cil, in the discharge of their duty to their fellow citizens, pock- 
eted their pride and begged their more fortunate sister cities, 
of the West, particularly, for help. 

Louisville, Ky., and St. Louis, Mo., responded quickly and 
with open hearts; the former telegraphed a credit of $2,500, 
which was immediately turned into food and shipped to us, 
and St. Louis, through the city authorities, sent $5,000 or 
$6,000. Others helped liberally, and notably Col. Gibson, of 
Decatur, 111., raised by his efforts and brought to us a carload 
of provisions. He was of old Virginia stock. Chicago, alone, 
officially declined, going to the point of sending us their Coun- 


cil's action : ^TResolved, that we have no legal? right to appro- 
priate the funds of the cit^' to any such purpose." This was 
sent with no comment or word of regret or sympathy. This 
was the only unkind ofhcial reply from any part of the coun- 
try.— Ed.) 

City Council by resolution then petitioned the Georgia Leg- 
islature for authority to issue bonds. 

The need of a new codification of City Laws to meet the 
changed political conditions is also noted by resolutions, and 
steps proposed looking to this end. 

January 26, Dr. Eli Griffin was placed in charge of the 
City smallpox hospital, and a resolution passed requesting the 
Freedmen's Bureau to remove their negro smallpox hospital 
outside the city. 

Compulsory vaccination was ordered by Council. (James 
L. Dunning, in charge of Freedmen's ^Sureau, relieved the 
€ity Greatly by the care of sick and starving negroes.) 

At the same meeting of Council the City Marshal was di- 
rected to order the pulling down of all standing walls of 
burned buildings. (Many of these were a menace to pedes- 
trians, especially at corners; being constantly weakened by 
rains, frosts and winds, they were liable to fall at any time. 
Up to this time they had stood as monuments to the memory 
of valuable property destroyed by Sherman's torch. — Ed.) 

Also, by resolution, the sale was confirmed of the City 
property at corner of Broad street and Central E. E. right of 
way, to ex-Gov. Jos. E. Browp. This was the City Calaboose 
location from early in the oO's to 1865. 

The City agreed to furnish necessary lumber for building 
Freedmen's Bureau smallpox hospital for the negroes. 

Also appropriated $T00 to rebuild fence around the Ceme- 
tery, destroyed by the Federals. 

History of Atlanta. 97 

February 9, Council employed Hon. N. J. Hammond to 
codify the City Statutes. 

Council also passed a resolution allowing all regular phy- 
sicians $50 for vaccinating persons subject to smallpox, and 
the number of cases being too large to quarantine, ordered a 
red flag to be hung out at every house containing a smallpox 
case. At this meeting Council heard an appeal from a saloon 
keeper named O'Keefe, who asked relief from a fine of $10 
imposed by the Mayor for contempt of court. (The Mayor's 
daily court then was same as Police Court now, and O'Keefe 
had been fined $25 for keeping barroom open on Sunday; he 
was indignant and confronting the Mayor in open court, said 
he reckoned the fine could be paid in "Confed." or rebel 
money. ) Thereupon, the Mayor immediately ordered the 
Marshal to collect $10 for contempt of court. Council de- 
clined to consider the appeal, taking the position that from 
such a penalty no appeal could be sustained ; the court impos- 
ing the contempt penalty was the sole judge. 

August 10, The Eelief Committee reported expenditures 
to August 1st, including maintainance of smallpox hospital, 

(There were not more than one-fifth as many paupers here 
before the surrender as in the first part of 1866. A large 
number had smallpox, and relief was required by many during 
the whole year.) 

August 24, Dr. Holmes Sells applied for right of way for 
Street Eailroad. 

August 31, George Hillyer also made application for right 
of way for Street Eailroad. 

September — , The Committee appointed to confer with 
George Hillyer, President of the Street Eailroad Company, 
reported his proposition to Council without recommendation. 
(Maj. W. B. Cox, who was Secretary and Treasurer of Street 

98 Pioneer Citizens' 

Eailroad Company,) Council agreed to Eailroad Company's 
proposition and directed an ordinance to be drafted in ac- 
cordance. A committee was appointed to negotiate with Mrs. 
H. L. Currier for the maps and papers of her late husband, 
who had been City Engineer for many years. 

Wadley street was ordered to be opened to Peachtree street, 
and name changed to Forsyth street. 

April 21, Jno. W. Duncan, President Atlanta Gas Light 
Company, reported Gas Works rebuilt and really to furnish 

The Ordinance was adopted granting right of way to 
Street Eailroad Company. 

$1,500 additional was granted to Mechanics' Fire Com- 
pany No. 1 to finish paying for Steamer and improvements. 

A tract of land of City, east of the Cemetery, was turned 
over to the Military authorities for use as a quarantine station 
for cholera patients. 

A Committee of Council was appointed to confer with 
County Court as to poor house, to be supported jointly. 

October 19, A vote was taken on acceptance of amendment 
to City Charter, extending City limits to one and a half miles 
in a circle, in every direction from the center. (The fixed 
center is marked by a marble post near the east end of the 
Union Passenger Station — ^being also the statutory eastern 
terminus of the Western & Atlantic Eailroad). 

November 7, Fires having been frequent, and incendia- 
rism being suspected, Council offered $1,000 reward for arrest 
of incendiaries, and the Police were authorized to halt all per- 
sons on all streets after eleven o'clock at night. A special 
meeting was called by the Mayor and extra policemen em- 

November 9, Atlanta Fire Company No. 1 petitioned for 
$5,000 bonds to buy a Steamer. 

History of Atlanta. 99 

December 21, Streets and alleys named. Citizens ask for 
Crew street to be widened. 

At this time the agitation of a system of waterworks for 
the City was begun — ^notably by Mr. Anthony Murphy, Chair- 
of the City Council Committee of "Pumps, Wells and Cis- 
terns," who naturally observed the inadequate supply for fire 
protection, sanitary and other purposes. He made a report 
to Council on the subject, embodying his observations, but 
that body took no action until 1870, when, Mr. Murphy being 
again a member of Council, offered a resolution to investigate 
the matter, and was given authority to visit larger cities and 
gather information and report the same on his return. By 
determined efforts a charter was finally obtained, a board of 
commissioners was elected and Mr. Murphy made President 
of it. Bonds were issued, the works were commenced and 
completed — largely due to the unremitting efforts of Mr. Mur- 
phy and his co-laborers. Thus the present magnificent plant 
was given its initial, by the foresight of Council, although that 
body had previously refused to enter into the arrangement. 

100 Pioneer Citizens'' 



Board of Mayor and Council 1867 — Cliattanooga Flood Suf- 
ferers Helped by Atlanta — Eelief for Atlanta. Poor Still 
Coming, the City jSTot Asking For It — Military Authori- 
ties and the Civil — Lincoln Monument Proposed — City 
Hall Tendered the Constututional Convention — A Fe- 
male College Established — Oakland Cemetery Extended 
— Much Relief Given the Needy. 

January, 1867, New Officers were installed as follows: 
Mayor, James E. Williams; Council: First Ward, Richard Pe- 
ters, Thomas M. Castleberry ; Second Ward, Edward E. Raw- 
son, A. Weldon Mitchell; Third Ward, Geo. W. Terry, W. C. 
Anderson; Fourth Ward, James E. Gullatt, Wm. B. Cox; 
Fifth Ward, Julius A. Hayden, Edmund W. Holland. Com- 
mittees: Finance, Richard Peters, A. W. Mitchell, E. E. Raw- 
son; Ordinances, Mitchell, Hayden, Peters; Streets, Gullatt, 
Rawson Hayden; Police, Rawson, Cox, Anderson; Fire, Gul- 
latt, Terry, Cox; Salaries, Cox, Mitchell, Holland; Wells, 
Pumps and Cisterns, Cox, Anderson, Castleberry; Public 
Buildings and Grounds, Anderson, Terry, Peters ; Lamps and 
Gas, Hayden, Terry, Peters; Cemetery, Terry, Mitchell, Raw- 
son ; Tax, Holland, Rawson, Cox ; Relief, Castleberry, Rawson, 
Terry, Gullatt, Holland; City Clerk, S. B. Love; Attorney, L. 
B. Hunt; Marshal, L. P. Thomas, Sr. 

March 8, Saml. B. Hoyt resigned as City Attorney. 

March 15, A Committee of Citizens was appointed to so- 
licit contributions for relief of citizens of Chattanooga, Tenn., 

History of Atlanta, 101 

suffering from a flood in the Tennessee river. Committee: 
Joseph A. Wright, John L. Hopkins, Levi C. Wells, Saml. E. 
McCamy, James Lynch, Charles Beerman, A. K. Seago, Oliver 
H. Jones, John E. Wallace. 

City Council purchased $1,000 worth of provisions and 
sent them to Chattanooga. 

April 19, City Calaboose, (Police Station and Headquar- 
ters) located in rear of Masonic Hall on Decatur street about 
midway between Pryor and Ivy streets; the first floor of Ma- 
sonic Hall building being used for Council Chamber. 

Council subscribed $50 to Barnwell's City Directory. 

April 26, A Committee was authorized to contract for a 
map of the City. 

The thanks of the City and a check for $130 was given Dr. 
H. C. Hornady for assistance in relieving the destitute of the 

A lot in Cemetery was donated to Dr. J. S. Wilson. 

A Board of Health was appointed by the Mayor as fol- 
lows: Drs. Thomas S. Powell, — Jones, Chas. C. Pinckney, 
J. P. Simmons, and Col. Lemuel P. Grant. 

Leiper & Menifee, Murfreesboro, Tenn., contributed for 
relief of poor, 100 bushels corn and 180 pounds bacon. (The 
City was not asking help, at the time, but it was thankfully 
received. ) 

May 31, Council adopted an Ordinance prohibiting citi- 
zens from holding public meetings without first giving the 
Mayor, or Marshal, twelve hours notice before holding same. 

(This was passed because of an order from Gen. Jno. 
Pope, commanding this military department, demanding the 
presence of the Mayor, with the Marshal and a police force, at 
all such meetings, which made the Mayor liable to be tried by 
Court Martial if disturbance occurred at public meetings, if 
he were not present, in compliance with that order. 

102 Pioneer Citizens' 

The Mayor asked for the ordinance for his protection at 
that time, and it is still in the code. 

The Military order was strictly complied with during 
Pope's reign; hut when Gen. George G. Meade superceded 
Pope, Mayor Williams asked Meade to rescind the order; he 
said he would do so with j^leasure; but suggested that the 
Mayor continue to attend all such meetings, to which the 
Mayor assented, feeling it to be his duty, but did not like 
Military order standing over him. (Twelve hours was notice 
required. ) 

June — , Major James F. Cooper was emploj^ed to make a 
map of the City. 

July 5, Dr. Elisha J. Eoach was elected City Physician. 
Thanks were voted to Dr. H. C. Hornad}' for donation of 50 
sacks of corn and one box bacon. 

August 16, Gen. Pope issued a military order that printing 
for the City shall only be done by papers favorable to recon- 

September 6, C. W. Barry and J. W. Hinton were sus- 
pended from the police force by Military order. A proposition 
was received from W. A. Hemphill to receive, free of charge, 
three boys into his school, to be selected by Council. Eeferred 
to Eelief Committee, who reported the names of J. T. Barnes, 
Eush, and Oliver Jones. 

The City placed on sale some lots in a new part of the 
Cemetery; prices were fixed at $50, $30, $20 and $10. 

September 27, James L. Dunning, President of Lincoln 
Monument Association, asked the City to give ten acres of 
land near the City to build a Lincoln Monument and make a 
park. Eeferred to a committee consisting of Eichard Peters, 
E. E. Eawson and A. W. Mitchell. The committee reported 
favorable upon the donation when the association would give 

History of Atlanta. 103 

satisfactory guarantee that $750,000 to $1,000,000 would be 
spent on the monument and park. 

The ayes and noes were demanded by Gullatt, which was 
as follows : Ayes — Peters, Ea'wson, Hayden, Holland, Mitch- 
ell and Cox; noes — Gullatt, Terry, Anderson, and Castle- 

September — The naming of the streets was referred to a 
joint committee of councilmen consisting of Gullatt, Eawson, 
Hayden, Peters and Cox, and citizens James M. Ball, Lemuel 
P. Grant, George W. ildair, 0. H. Jones, Eobert M. Clarke, 
Joseph Winship, William Ezzard, Larkin H. Davis, John E. 
Wallace, William Eushton and Dr. F. D. Thurman. 

City checks were issued to L. P. Grant for $5,000, and to 
Mrs. L. L. Bolin for $1,233, for cemetery extension. This ex- 
tended the cemetery from near Hunter street north to Georgia 
Eailroad right-of-way. 

November 13, A committee from Council, consisting of 
Julius A. Hayden, Edw. E. Eawson and William B. Cox, were 
appointed to wait on General Pope, military commander, and 
tender the use of City Hall, together with suitable committee 
rooms for the Georgia State Constitutional Convention, called 
by authority of Congress to revise the Georgia Constitution. 

A committee was appointed, consisting of Eawson, Peters 
and Mitchell, to confer with Mr. Montgomery in reference to 
establishing a female college. 

[This was done, and the old "Lyons" residence, on the 
southwest corner of Washington and Mitchell streets, was 

November 15, the whole report made by special committee 
to name streets was laid on the table. 

Whitehall street, from Marietta to the railroad crossing, 
was changed to Peachtree. 

10-i PlOXllER CiTIZEXS' 

December 13, a contract "was made with the Inferior Court 
of Fulton county to use the almshouse jointly. 

E. B. Walker, superintendent of the Western (S: Atlantic 
Eailroad, donated two car-loads of crossties for distribution to 
the poor. 

An ordinance was adopted marking and naming streets. 

Dr. Eoach resigned as City Physician. 

Tim money, and others, petitioned Council to allow the 
building of a wooden church on the northwest corner of 
Himter and Loyd streets, this being inside the fire limits. 



Constitutional Convention of 1868 — Atlanta's Efforts for Se- 
curing the State Capitol — "Iron-clad Oath'' Prescribed 
by Military for City Authorities — Cit}' Provides Quarters 
for State House Officials — Kimball Fits Up His Opera 
House for the Legislature — City Subscribes $500 for 
''Experimental Surve}''' of the Georgia Western Rail- 
road — X'egro Vote Legalized— Citv- Subscribes $300,000 
to the Georgia Western Railroad. 

By order of the commandant of the post, no election for a 
new Council was held, and the 1867 board held over for the 
year 1868. 

January 3, Campl>ell Wallace, superintendent of the West- 

HiSTOBT OF Atlaxta. 105 

em A: Atlantic BailroacL donated the city fifteen carloads of 
wood for the benefit of the poor. 

Thanks of the City Cotmcil were voted to Br. E. J. Boach 
and W. T. Langf ord for special senic-es. 

L. P. Grant, superintendent of the Atlanta & West Pcin: 
BaDroad, donated to the city a train-load of wood for the 
suffering poor. 

Febmaiy 14, an ordinanc-e was adopted requiring that the 
fine for yiolating liquor laws, or selling without lic-ense, shall 
be not less tiian §25.00, one-half to go to the informer (Mayor 
Wniiams opposing). 

February .21, Council tendered the use of City Hall and 
other rooms to the Georgia Constitutional ConTention. 

February 2'o. special meeting of Coundl called to make 
a formal proposition to the Constitutional Convention, then 
in session in this city, of what the city would do, provided the 
removal of the State Capital from Milledgeville to Atlanta is 
incorporated in the new Constitution, in accordance with a 
resolution to that effect, offered in the convention by Air. 
James L. Dunning, one of the members from Fulton county. 

A proposition was agreed upon and submitted to the con- 
vention, and, on February 28, thanks of the Council were 
voted to the State Convention for its action embodying the 
removal of the Capital to Atlanta in the new Constitution, to 
be submined to the voters of the State. At same meeting the 
Mavor read a communication from B. C. Dunn, A- A. General 
IT. S. A.. authorizinsT Citv Council to elect Citv Assessors i for 
purposes of taxation) , provided they would take the iron-clad 
oath prescribed by act of Congress of July 19, 1S6T. 

March 6. the Mayor appointed a c-ommittee, consisting of 
Bic-hard Peters. Edw. E. Bawson and E. W. Holland, to take 
into consideration, and report to Council from time to time. 

106 ■ Pioneer Citizens'" 

such arrangements as appeared requisite to meet the contem- 
plated removal of the Capitol to Atlanta. 

At same time the Georgia Eailroad gave a train-load of 
wood to the City, for the poor. 

March 13, H. C. Holcombe, C. P. Cassin and E. D. 
Cheshire sworn in as City Assessors. 

April 3, Council gave $35.00 to assistant teacher of Fair 
Street School, by request of F. M. Kichardson. 

May 15, public meeting held in the interest of Atlanta in 
the matter of removal of Capitol of Georgia to Atlanta, includ- 
ing necessarily the ratification of the new Constitution by the 
voters of the State. Resolutions entered on minutes of Coun- 
cil. (A. E. Watson was secretary of the meeting.) 

May 22, Use of City Hall tendered to Commercial Con- 

Eeport of Capitol removal committee, and action of com- 
mittee approved, and committee entrusted with all necessary 

July 3, Eeport of tax committee received. Also, report 
of Thomas Haney, Chief of the Fire Department. 

August 5, Special meeting of Council held, at which 
Mayor Williams announced that it was called for the purpose 
of conference with the Legislative Committee, in regard to 
furnishing halls and offices for use of the Senate and House 
of Eepresentatives ; also, Governor's Mansion. This was to 
make temporary arrangements for first meeting of Legisla- 

August 14, at the meeting of Mayor and Council, State 
Senator Hungerford and Ex-Governor Joseph E. Brown, rep- 
resenting Eepresentative Ephraim Tweedy, chairman of the 
House committee, appointed by the Legislature to confer 
with City Council, appeared to receive proposition from City 
ior permanent quarters for State offices. 

History of Atlanta. 107 

Two propositions were made by the Council; one was to 
add to the old City Hall; the other, known as the Kimball 
proposition, to complete and fit np what was then known as the 
Opera House building, on Marietta street, corner of Forsyth. 
The latter was accepted, and a committee appointed to confer 
with Kimball as to terms. 

August 17, at meeting of Mayor and Council, Kimball's 
proposition received. The building to be fitted up just as 
specified by Mr. Kimball, at his own expense, and to be ready 
by January 1, 1869, for occupation by the Legislature. 

It Avould occuj^y the City Hall temporarily when it met in 

The City to pay $6,000 per year rental for five years, with 
privilege of ten years; it was expected that the State would 
huild Capitol within that time. 

On motion of Judge Julius A. Hayden, it was resolved: 
"That the Opera House be tendered the Legislature for a State 
House," and that fou.r hundred copies of the specifications be 
printed in handbill form. 

September — , resolution by Councilman Eichard Peters 
adopted, "That when the City subscribed to the Georgia West- 
ern Eailroad it paid one per cent., and as the completion of 
the road was of great importance to the city and county, asks 
that the City and Georgia Eailroad have an experimental sur- 
vey made, at a cost of not exceeding $500." 

September 11, contract made with John T. Glenn for codi- 
fying City ordinances. 

City relinquishes all claim to interest in the Eoswell 
iDridge over Chattahoochee river, at the request of Messrs. 
Ezzard and Dunwoody. 

November 26, at special meeting of Council a resolution 
was adopted subscribing $300,000 to Georgia Western Eail- 

108 Pioneer Citizens' 

Xovember 26, ordinance adopted legalizing negro vote. 

December 11, subscription to Georgia Western Eailroad, of 
$300,000, reaffirmed — this amount to take the place of $2oO,- 
000 subscribed in I860. 

Council desired to show their regard for Mayor Williams' 
services to the City by naming a street for him, and as there 
was already a street named "Williams," they named Fort street 
in his honor, "Fort" being the middle name of his oldest son, 
William Fort Williams. 

[Though a mere lad, at school, "Willie Fort," as he was 
familiarly called, attended, with his father, many Council 
meetings, and was well known personally to every member of 



Atlantians Returning to a Desolate Place — First Sermon by 
a Refugee — Rebuilding the Destroyed City — Georgia's 
Provisional Governor — State Constitutional Conven- 
tion — Negro Suffrage Opposed — Conservative and Radi- 
cal Elements Clash — Joseph E. Brown's Wise Advice — 
Bullock Elected Governor — The First General Assembly 
After the War — General Pope Removed, Succeeded by 
General Meade — Governor Jenkins Removed; Also, the 
Treasurer of the State — Georgia Reconstructed. 

We come now to consider briefly the last phaze, save one, 
of Atlanta's eventful career. It is the dark era of reconstruc- 
tion, following the close of the great war, which robbed the 
city of the flower of her manhood and scattered her citizen- 

History of Atlanta, 109 

ship over the land. It is not the purpose of this history to 
discuss political measures, save in a purely historical manner, 
and that only for the sake of connecting the story with the 
metropolitan city of today. 

Among the first exiled citizens to return to Atlanta were 
a number, who, assured of the fate of the Southern Confed- 
eracy, desired to do whatever in their power lay, to help re- 
trieve Atlanta's fortunes and gather their famiHes together as 
best they could. They began returning as early as December, 
186-i. They found the city in ashes and the military authori- 
ties in supreme command. With heavy hearts, but with 
matchless devotion to their loved city, they entered at once 
into the task of bringing order out of chaos. From this time 
forward the arrivals were on the increase. The first sermon 
delivered by a returned minister was by Eev. H. C. Hornady, 
in the First Baptist Church, on Christmas Day. 

During the remainder of winter, and in the early spring 
of 1865, the population increased very fast. All began imme- 
diately on their arrival to rebuild with what material could 
be found — plentiful, indeed, in the way of loose brick, which 
encumbered every street. Business houses were erected with 

On April 9 Lee surrendered to Grant in Virginia, and on 
the 26th Johnson surrendered the remaining Army of the 
Confederacy to Sherman in North Carolina. On the 4th of 
May the Federal authorities assumed command of Atlanta. 
On the 16th the United States flag was hoisted on the public 
square in front of the headquarters of the commandant, 
■ Colonel B. B. Eggleston. Two days before it floated at half 
mast in honor of President Lincoln. 

The first public meeting held in the city after the surren- 
der was on Saturday, June 24, 1865. It was for the purpose 
of considering the best measures to adopt to bring about the 

110 Pioneer Citizens" 

rehabilitation of the city. The call was signed by Mayor 
James M. Calhoun, John M. Clarke, W. E. Yenable, J. L. 
Dunning, J. W. Manning and John Silvey. Mayor Calhoun 
was made chairman and B. D. Smith secretary. 

A set of resolutions was adopted, expressing a desire for 
perfect reconciliation and peace, for unrestricted commerce 
and loyalty to the Union. ' 

In the meantime the President appointed a Provisional 
Governor for Georgia, in the person of Hon James Johnson; 
as judge of the United States District Court, John Erskine; 
James L. Dunning, United States Marshal, and A. W. Stone, 
District Attorney; all being former residents of Atlanta, save 
the Governor. 

On September 30, a mass-meeting was held for the pur- 
pose of nominating candidates to represent Fulton county in 
the State Convention, called for October 23. The best citi- 
zens participated, and in their adopted resolutions manifested 
their accord with President Andrew Johnson in his appoint- 
ments, but opposing negro suffrage. The delegates selected 
were IN". J. Hammond, Jared I. Whitaker and George W. 

On November 15 an election for governor and other offi- 
cers was held. Charles J. Jenkins was chosen for governor. 
Congressmen and senators were also chosen. This was the 
first step in Georgia's restored civil government. But there 
were many steps yet to be taken to restore her to her full 
rights in the Union, of which she had always — up to the war — ■ 
been a proud and loyal member. 

It would be strange, indeed, if Atlanta had not a serious 
problem to solve, at this time. Her people were impoverished, 
their property destroyed, the city treasury empty, and grim 
want, added to the horrors of a lawless class, who seemed to 
be drawn hither by the hope of plunder. The military aided 

History of Atlanta, 111 

the civil authorities in the efforts made to relieve the many 
indigent, and to suppress lawlessness; in fact, but for the 
armed forces here, the town would have suffered manifold 

So much suffering was there during the winter of 1866-7 
that a fair was held by the women of the city, aided by the 
Masonic fraternity, in whose hall it was held, the proceeds 
amounting to the goodly sum of $1,535.90. 

Meantime the pluck and energy of Atlanta made the city 
to assume a much more business-like appearance. Churches 
were opened up, hotels were plentiful, and the work of re- 
building went forward with much enthusiasm, 
of reconstruction of the Southern States, which produced 

The Congress at Washington City now began the process 
some alarm among the people. Atlanta took action on Feb- 
ruary 28, by calling a mass-meeting of citizens for March 4, 
to take into consideration the best measures to pursue. At 
this meeting there was a large attendance. Richard Peters 
was made chairman, and W. L. Scruggs secretary. A set of 
resolutions was proposed, avowing that it was the sense of the 
assemblage that Georgia should, without hesitation, accept 
the plan of restoration recently proposed by Congress. There 
was opposition to the resolutions. Among those who pleaded 
for their adoption were Colonel J. M. Calhoun, George W. 
Adair and others. While the discussion was going on, Colonel 
L. J. Glenn offered a substitute, which opposed any action. 
Colonel T. C. Howard then offered an amendment, which de- 
clared that the Act of Congress, in passing the "Sherman 
Military Bill," was unjust, etc. Much confusion followed an 
attempt to take a vote, when a motion to adjourn was made 
and prevailed. Immediately General L. J. Gartrell called 
upon all who favored the Glenn resolution to remain. A 
meeting was organized, by the selection of General Gartrell 

112 PioxEER Citizens' 

chairman, and John C. Whitner secretary. After discussion 
of the measures, they were adopted. 

Colonel H. P. Farrow then announced that the adjourned 
meeting of the morning would be held at 7 o'clock p. m. At 
that meeting the resolutions were adopted, and the meeting ad- 
journed. Thus two sets of resolutions, contrary in spirit, 
were adopted. As the assemblage was dispersing, GoYernor 
Joseph E. Brown came into the hall, and he was invited to give 
his views on the situation. In a calm and forceful speech he 
advised submission, giving reasons which to his clear judgment 
seemed sound, logical, and, as afterward proved to be the case, 
prophetic. Although he had authorized the Sherman measure 
of Congress, President Johnson, after its passage, determined 
to carry out its provisions to the letter. Major-General Pope 
was appointed by the President commander of the Third Mil- 
itary District, comprising the three States of Georgia, Ala- 
bama and Florida. General Pope arrived in Atlanta March 
31, 1867. He was met at the depot by a committee of citizens 
and escorted to the National Hotel. Here he was entertained, 
a large number of people calling upon him. He is said to 
have made a very favorable impression upon the callers. He 
left for Montgomery the same evening, where he issued his 
"General Orders, No. 1." Eeturning to Atlanta on the 11th 
of April, he was given a banquet on the 12th at the National 
Hotel. This was a most happy occasion and paved the way 
to a better understanding of the situation, both from a milita- 
ry and civil point of view. 

A citizens' meeting was held on the 20th, with W. W. 
Boyd for chairman, and Vamey A. Gaskill secretary. A report 
was adopted, strongly urging support of the reconstruction 

A general order for registration was issued May 21, by 
General Pope, the board for Atlanta consisting of Dr. Joseph 

History of Atlanta. 113 

Thompson and T. M. Eobinson. When ' completed, the reg- 
istry for Atlanta Was as follows: Pirst Ward, white 523, col- 
ored 396; Second Ward, white 280, colored 220; Third Ward, 
white 181, colored 203; Fourth Ward, white 343, colored 521; 
Fifth Ward, white 438, colored 281 ; total, white 1,765, col- 
ored 1,621 ; total registry, 3,386. 

A State Convention having been called by General Pope 
for October 29, a district convention was called to meet in 
Atlanta, by the "Conservative Union Executive Committee," 
for the 19th. When the district convention met on the day 
provided, it was organized by the election of Judge Echols 
chairman, and Henry Hillyer secretary. Delegates were then 
nominated to the "so-called" State Convention, "should such 
a body be called by the voice of the people of Georgia to as- 
semble." Fulton county's representatives were, James P. 
Hambleton, E. M. Taliaferro, T. T. Smith and James E. 

On November 19 General Pope issued an order for a con- 
vention to be called to frame a constitution and civil govern- 
ment for Georgia. Following on the heels of this, on the 23d, 
a meeting was held in the City Hall in Atlanta, to nominate 
candidates to the Georgia Conservative State Convention, 
Avhich was to assemble in Macon on December 5. Jared I. 
Whitaker, chairman, and Dr. Charles Pinckney, secretary. 
Thirty delegates were named. 

The Constitutional Convention, called by General Pope, 
assembled in the City Hall December 9. There were pres- 
ent 108 whi*te and 22 colored delegates. J. L. Dunning was 
made temporary chairman, and Walter L. Clift, temporary 
secretary. Delegates on the s.cond day numbered 140. J. E. 
Parrott was elected permanent chairman, P. M. Sheibly, per- 
manent secretary, and A. G. Marshal, assistant; M. J. Hinton, 
sergeant-at-arms ; William H. DeLyons (colored), door- 

114 Pioneer Citizens' 

keeper. Rufus B. Bullock made a motion that a committee 
of seven be appointed to invite General Pope to address the 
convention. The general responded in a brief speech. Shortly 
afterward General Pope was removed by President Johnson, 
and he left Atlanta on the 2d of January, 1868. The con- 
vention being adjourned for the holidays, re-assembled on the 
8th to complete its work. 

General George G. Meade, who superseded General Pope, 
arrived in Atlanta on January 6, and immediately assumed 
the duties of his position. His first official act was to ad- 
dress a letter to Governor Jenkins requesting him to draw a 
warrant on the treasurer for $40,000 to pay the expenses of 
the convention, which Treasurer Jones had previously re- 
fused to do for General Pope. Governor Jenkins declined in 
a letter, on the 10th, and on the 13th General Meade removed 
the governor and the treasurer, and appointed Brevet Briga- 
dier-General Thomas H. Euger, colonel of the Thirty-third 
Infantr}', to be governor of Georgia, and Brevet Captain 
Charles F. Rockwell, of the Ordnance Corps, United States 
Army, to be treasurer of Georgia, 

A Young Men's Democratic Club was organized during the 
winter of 1867-68, at the suggestion of Wallace P. Reed. 
Later it was addressed by Ben H. Hill on the issues of the 

The Constitjitional Convention adjourned March 11, 1868. 
Before adjourning, it nominated R. B. Bullock for governor. 
General J. B. Gordon was the conservative nominee. Bullock 
became governor. On June 25 he issued a proclamation call- 
ing the just elected Legislature together in Atlanta, on Satur- 
day, the Fourth of July. This body met on the day provided, 
and later ratified the Fourteenth Amendment as provided for 
by Congress. July 22, Governor Bullock was inaugurated. 
The general commanding having previously expressed his sat- 

History of Atlanta. 115 

isfaction at the procedure of the people, Georgia was now 
again a member in good standing of the Union of States. 

It is well now to glance backward on the scenes of early 
Atlanta — an epoch in her career marked by an energy and 
fortitude under disparaging circumstances, which stands out 
as a distinctive characteristic of Atlantians frojn the very 
birth of the town to the present day. 



Early Manufactories — The First Eolling Mill — First and 
Succeeding Newspapers — First Paper Published in 
1845 — ^Boarding Houses and Hotels — The Town Noted 
for Places Where the Inner Man Could be Eefreshed. 

As early as 1844 manufacturing began, in a limited way, 
but considering the size of the town, the first enterprise was 
creditable, both in size and importance. Fuel was at that time 
an item and the early manufacturer had that drawback to 
contend with, as well as the further fact that Atlanta had no 
foreign market, and of course had to depend largely upon home 

One of the industries which was established in 1857 was 
the Atlanta Eolling Mill. Having but limited capital, work 

116 Pioneer Citizens'' 

on the mill did not continue long and was suspended till the 
1st of Janiiary, 1858, when Louis Schofield bought an interest 
in it and took active charge. He soon got ever}i:hing running, 
and in a few months induced William Markham to purchase 
the other interest and the}^ soon got it on a pajing basis. 
Their business at first Avas confined to re-rolling railroad iron, 
but after the war commenced they rolled heavy plates to cover 
gunboats for the Confederate Xavy. The work was ver}' sat- 
isfactor}'. The famous ]\Ierrimac. which was such a terror to 
the Federal fleet in Hampton Eoads, was plated with product 
of this mill. Later the mill manufactured merchant bar iron, 
at a time when it was badly needed in the Confederacy. This 
rolling mill was situated near the Georgia Eailroad tracks, l^e- 
tween Oakland Cemeter}' and the Fulton Spinning Mills. 
The entire plant was destroyed by the Federals in 1864. After 
the Avar ]Mr. Schofield built another rolling mill, in the west- 
ern part of the city, Avhich did a large Imsiness for several 
3''ears. Mr. Schofield Avas one of the best rolling mill men in 
the South. 



In 18-11 a sawmill was erected by Jonathan Xorcross, on 
Decatur street, near the present Eichmond & Danville (now 
the Southern Eaihvay) depot, and Avas run Ijy horse-power. 

The first cabinet shop and coffin factory in Marthasville 
was established in 1815, by William Whitaker, who Avas a 
native of Buncombe county, Xorth Carolina. He died in 1866. 

In 1816 a factory for making eartheiiAvarc, such as jugs, 
churns, jars, etc., was operated by Mr. J. E. Craven. It Avas 
located on Gilmer street. 

HisTOEY OF Atlanta. 11''' 

In 1817, J. T. Xix manufactured tombstones, etc., on Loyd 
street,, near the Georgia Eailroad depot. 

In 1848 the first foundry and machine shop was erected 
by Messrs. Austin Leyden and Eobert Finley. Major Leyden 
afterwards bought the interest of Findley and run the shop 
himself for some time, finally selling an interest to James L. 
Dunning and others, who conducted the business very success- 
fully in the manufacture of steam engines, sawmills, water 
wheels, etc.. until controlled by the Confederate Government, 
which used the plant to manufacture war material. Located 
on the Georgia Eailroad, and known now as the Atlanta Ma- 
chine Works. 

1849 — W. F. Martin manufactured buggies, wagons, etc.; 
also made guns. Works near corner Decatur and Butler 

1850 — X. E. Gardner manufactured buggies and wagons, 
on the corner of Hunter and Forsyth streets. 

In the same year harness was manufactured by Miller & 
Andrews. Shop located on Whitehall street. 

William Whitaker manufactured furniture on corner of 
Spring and Walton streets. 

1851 — G. C. Eogers & Brother operated a tan-yard, and 
manufactured leather, on Forsyth street, south of Jewish 

TiuAvare of various kinds were manufactured by John 
Williamson, corner of Loyd and Decatur streets. 

Fred Williams & Brother manufactured furniture on 
Peachtree creek; salesroom on Peachtree street. They also 
manufactured matches. 

Emmel & Cunningham manufactured candy on Alabama 
street, between Whitehall and Bridge (now Broad) street. 

1852 — W. P. Orme and Dr. J. F. Alexander operated a 


118 PioxEER Citizens' 

sawmill and tan-yard on Alexander street — then known as 
Walton spring branch. 

Formwalt & Tomlinson manufactured copper stills, etc., 
on Line street (now Edgewood avenue). Afterwards Tom- 
linson & Barnes moved the shop to Whitehall and the railroad 
crossing, and manufactured tinware in connection with their 
copper work. 

Hats were manufactured by a Mr. Cain, on Decatur street, 
near the West Point Railroad depot. 

Freight cars and cotton gins were made by Joseph Winship 
in this vear : also sash and doors. The f actorv was located on 
Fors}i:h street and Western & Atlantic Eailroad. 

William Kay ran the first book bindery in Atlanta, on 
WTiitehalh near Alabama street, this year. 

Messrs. Eichard and William G. Peters erected a very 
large and fine flour mill on Butler and Hunter streets. 

1853 — Furniture was manufactured by Talmage & Kirk- 
patrick, between Washington and Loyd streets (now Waverly 

Fitzgibbon & Pendergrast carried on a cooper shop, manu- 
facturing barrels, principally for flouring mills. 

A planing mill and manufactory of bedsteads was built and 
operated by Gilbert & Strong; located on corner of Marietta 
and Simpson streets. 

1854 — Winship & Brother erected a foundry and machine 
shop, and continued it successfully for years. Located on 
AVestern & Atlantic Eailroad at crossing of Foundry street. 
Present location Winship Machine Works. 

1855 — Pitts & Cook manufactured cotton gins, horse- 
powers and wheat threshers. 

E. W. ^lunday was a manufacturer of buggies and 
spring wagons, on Pryor street, just north of the Equitable 

History of Atlanta. 119 

S. B. Oatman carried on a marble yard, making tomb- 

John Ficken manufactured cigars on Whitehall street. 

1856 — H. Muhlenbrink manufactured cigars on White- 
hall, between Alabama street and the railroad crossing. 

Soda water was manufactured by T. W. West. Works lo- 
cated on Loyd street. 

1857 — An attempt to build a rolling mill to manufacture 
iron, was made by a man named Dr. Douglas. He had secured 
the land for the purpose, and had some grading done, but 

Next year Louis Schofield and Blake bought the in- 
terest of Douglas and erected the first rolling mill. William 
Markham later l)ought the interest of Blake, and the firm of 
Schofield & Markham ran the mill successfully several years, 
finally selling to Trenholm & Company, of Charleston, S. C, 
who ran it in the interest of the Confederate Government 
until its destruction in 1864. 

A broom factory was Iniilt and run by Skates, 

who sold the building in 1858 to Stewart & Austin, who built 
and operated a flour mill on Marietta street, just west of North 

A distillery for making whiskey was built by T. C. How- 
ard and Thomas Lewis, on Houston street, near the crossing 
of the Kichmond & Danville Eailroad (now Southern Kail- 
way). It was afterwards run by Goodspeed & Bearse. 

Lager beer was manufactured by Kontz & Fechter; lo- 
cated on Western & Atlantic Eailroad, in rear of No. 

Marietta street. 

Pitts & Cook built a large planing mill, and made sash, 
blinds, doors, etc., on land adjoining the Winship Iron Works, 
near the old gas house. 



The early newspaper was a boon to the comniimit3\ It 
was an evidence of the faith the publishers had in the town's 
certain future. These moulders of public opinion did not have 
'^Dlanket sheets," like the papers of today, but they were 
ably edited and, if the old Washington Hand-press was prop- 
erly worked, and the rollers that inked the types were not too 
old and hard, these papers of old were readable. The editors 
of the papers of early Atlanta were men of ability, as a rule, 
and their utterances had great weight. Politics was the main 
feature, local news being very scarce. It would be impossible 
to find in this day and time better papers. For intelligence, 
high character and patriotism, the early editor will compare 
favorably with any of today, and this is meant in no dispar- 
agement of the newspaper writer of the present. 

Who that can recall C. R. Hanleiter, Dr. J. A. Ramsey, 
John H. and A. B. Seals, Colonel John L. Harris and others 
whose pens enriched the columns of early journalism, could 
for a moment thinlc of them other than as the equals of any 
of their successors in journalism. 

The following report on newspapers of early Atlanta was 
prepared by a special committee for the Pioneer Citizens' 
Societ}', consisting of C. R. Hanleiter and J. S. Peterson, the 
latter of whom is living at Hapeville, Ga., and whose pen has 
often been employed in newspaper and literary work to the 
delight of the reader. The report says: 

The Deviocrat, the first paper published in Atlanta, by 
Dr. W. H. Fonerden, was commenced in 1S45. After a brief 
period he converted it into an edjacational journal, and re- 
moved it and his family to Dalton, or Spring Place, Ga., 

History of AtlanTxV.. 131 

where he and his wife, both experienced teachers and worthy 
people, took np their abode. The office of The Democrat was 
in the upper (half) story of the building, afterwards owned 
and occupied by Hon. Jonathan Norcross, corner of Peachtree 
and Marietta streets. 

The Enterprise, by William H. Eoyal and Yar- 

brougli, both practical printers, was published nearly two 
years, embracing the year 1846, and portions of the years 
1845 and 1847. The office of The Enterprise was on White- 
hall street, east side, three or four doors south of Alabama 

The Luminary was commenced in the fall of 1846, or the 
spring of 1847, with a Mr. Clapp as editor, its office being on 
the west side of Whitehall street, about midway between Ala- 
bama street and Lawshe's (now Stevens') jewelry store. A 
few months later the concern passed into the hands of Mr. 
Charles L. Wheeler, and soon thereafter was closed by the 

The Southern Miscellany, by C. E. Hanleiter, was removed 
to Atlanta from Madison, Ga. (where it had been previously 
published and edited l\y him about six years), on the 2d day 
of July, 1847. Its office was in the east half of a double- 
tenement frame building on iVlabama street, about half way 
between Loyd and Pryor streets. The Miscellany was suspend- 
ed on the breaking out of the smallpox, in 1849. 

Tlie Tri-WeeJcly Miscellany, by C. E. Planleiter, was pub- 
lished as an experiment for three months, its motto being "Go 
Ahead;" but, being away ahead of the times, and having but 
one iona fide subscriber (the late Dr. Joseph Thompson), it 
was discontinued at the end of the term. 

The Atlanta Republican, an anti-Democratic weekly, by 
Eev. Eussell Eeneau, was commenced in 1851-52. Later Dr. 
J. E. Smith, of Sandersville, Ga., became its proprietor, and 

122 Pioneer Citizens' 

conducted it for a season. The office was in what was known 
as "Parr's Building/' southwest corner of "Whitehall and Ala- 


bama streets. 

The Whig Reveille, a Whig campaign paper, by C. E. Han- 
leiter, was published four months in 1852. General E. E. 
Mills was associated with the publisher in its editorial conduct 
during the last two months. The office was in the rooms of a 
building then standing on the site now occupied by Central 
Bank Block. 

The Atlanta Intelligencer. In 1851 C. E. Hanleiter sold 
the presses, type and fixtures of The Southern Miscellany to 
Messrs. Jonathan jSTorcross, I. 0. McDaniel, B. F. Bomar and 
Z. A. Eice, who changed its name to The Atlanta Intelligencer, 
and installed Eev. Joseph S. Baker, L.L. D., as editor. After 
a brief period, however, the establishment was bought by 
Johnson Bridwell and converted into a Democratic organ, with 
John L. Harris, Esq., as editor. Soon afterwards Mr. Brid- 
well associated his brother, Zion, with himself as co-proprie- 
tor. Some months subsequently the Messrs. Bridwell sold to 
William B. Euggles, who, in turn, sold to Colonels A. A. 
Gaulding and James H. Logan, by whom it was published 
daily, as well as weekly. Colonel Logan sold his interest in 
the establishment to V. A. Gaskill, who, after a while, dis- 
posed of it to Messrs. J. I. ^^liitaker and J. I. Miller. Messrs. 
Gaulding and Miller withdrew about 1859, leaving Judge 
Whitaker as sole proprietor at the beginning of the war, who 
installed John H. Steele as editor. 

The Examiner, daily and weekly, commenced publication 
in 1851, by William Kay, with Dr. J. A. Eamsey as editor. 
The office was in the Holland House, northeast corner Ala- 
bama and Whitehall streets. Dr. Eamsey removed to Ala- 
bama, where he suicided. He was succeeded by John H. Dan- 
iel as editor, and he by Hon. 0. A. Lochrane, who, as attorney 

History of Atlanta. 123 

for Kay's creditors, conducted the paper until its sale and 
merging with The Intelligencer. About this time John W. 
Duncan, who had been officially connected with the Western 
& Atlantic Eailway, became co-proprietor and co-editor of 
the combined interests, and so remained until just before 
the war. 

The Knight of Jericho, a weekly temperance newspaper, by 
C. H. C. Willingham, was commenced in 1855 and continued 
about one year, when its editor removed to LaGrange, Ga., to 
take editorial control of The Beporter, at that place. The 
othce of this journal was what was then Eipley's crockery 
store, on Whitehall street. 

The Discipline, by Messrs. Eddleman and Ware, was is- 
sued for a brief period in 1856. The office was on Alabama 
street, about midway between "Wliitehall and Pryor streets, a 
few doors east of the present site of the Atlanta National 

The National American. In 1856 C. E. Hanleiter pur- 
chased from Messrs. Eddleman and Ware the outfit of Tlie 
Discipline, and, adding it to his other plant, shortly after- 
wards commenced the publication of a conservative political 
tri-weekly paper under the above title. The office was over 
the store of E. M. Seago, southwest corner of Alabama and 
Pryor streets. The publication was continued until the pas- 
sage of the ordinance of secession by the State Convention, 
when the title of the publication was changed to that of The 
Gate City Guardian, and when, later. Dr. James P. Hamilton 
discontinued the publication of his paper, the title was pur- 
chased, and the title of Gate City Guardian was dropped, and 
that of The Southern Confederacy adopted as it was regarded 
as a more appropriate title. {"The Southern Confed&racy" 
was originally published in Chattanooga, but a year or two be- 
fore this transaction, had been removed to Atlanta.) In 1860 

124 Pioneer Citizens" 

C. E. Hauleiter sold an interest in the journal to Col. George 
W. Adair; and, later, when about to enter the Confederate 
army, sold his remaining interest to Mr. T. Henley Smith. 

"The Olive Branch'" a large and handsome religious jour- 
nal, -was published for a brief period in 1857, by Eev. 

Brewer, whose office was over the store of j\IcDaniel, Mitchell 
and Hulsey, (now Keeley Co's.) on the northeast corner of 
"\Miitehall and Hunter streets. 

''The Temperance Crusader" was removed to Atlanta from 
Penfield, Ga., by its proprietor, Col. John H. Seals, in the 
year 1858. Its office was in the Dougherty Building, where 
the National Hotel was, corner of Peachtree (then Whitehall) 
street, and the railway crossing. Later Col. Seals pul^lished, 
for a short time, "The Locomotive" a small daily paper, with 
his brother, Professor W. B. Seals, as Editor. 

"The Southern Confederacy" a weekly political journal, 
published by Dr. James P. Hamlileton, was removed from 
Chattanooga, Tenn., to Atlanta, about 1858. It suspended 
just after the adoption of the Ordinance of Secession by the 
Georgia Convention. 

"The Gate City Guardian" (daily) was now purchased 
from Col. C. E. Hall — later by Col. Geo. W. Adair, who asso- 
ciated with him J. Henley Smith, — who was editor-in-chief — 
and the name changed to "Southern Confederacy" by an ar- 
rangement with Dr. J. P. Hambleton. It was conducted with 
ability by these gentlemen until May 24, 1863, when it was 
by them sold. Associated with the editor as associate writers 
were Dr. B. C. Smith, a ])rother of the editor, and J. M. Car- 

"The Cherokee Baptist and Landmark Banner," which had 
been published at Eome, Ga., was removed to Atlanta in 1869. 
It was owned and edited by Eevs. Jesse Wood, H. C. Hornady, 

PTisTORY OF Atlanta. 125 

and Davis, and was snl)SL'quently merged with the 

"Cliristidn Index." 

(Among the war papers were the Memphis Appeal and the 
KnoxviUe Register, these papers having refugeed from their 
respective homes to follow the fortunes of the Confederacy. 
The Appeal was edited a part of the time hy Henry Watter- 
son, who had previously edited the "Daily Eehel." The Bcg- 
ister Avas l^ought from its owners, shortly after reaching At- 
lanta, hy Whitner, Brown & Co., Jno. C. Whitner being editor. 
His aids were Gen. Wm. M. Brown, L. Q. C. Lamar, Howell 
Cobb, Chas. H. Smith ("Bill Arp") and others, these being 
contril)utors to the editorial page "for the good of the Cause." 



The first boarding house in Atlanta was kept l\y the Misses 
Wells, two maiden sisters from Henry county, which ante- 
dated any hotel. A two story wooden dwelling was Iniilt on 
what is now called Wall street, about opposite the present un- 
ion passenger depot, and rented to the Misses Wells for a 
boarding house, principally for the accommodation of the em- 
ployes of the State road. Among the boarders Avere Jonathan 
ISTorcross and Wm. G. Eorsyth. Afterwards the house Avas 
moved into Avhat Avas known as the "Park Lot," and placed 
near No 43 Decatur street, and iised as offices for the road. 
Later this building Avas sold to Mr. Ed. Holland and moved 
to a lot Avdiich he then owned, on north side Peters street — noAv 
Trinity avenue — nearly opposite Trinity church. 

The first hotel, proper, erected in Atlanta, Avas built l)y Dr. 
Joseph Thompson, and Avas called the Atlanta Hotel. It Avas 
.a tAvo story brick, and Avas located on the ground noAv occu- 

126 Pioneer Citizens" 

pied by the Kimball House. The hotel was destroyed when 
Sherman evacuated the city in 1864. 

The second hotel was erected by Capt. James Loyd. It was 
a long wood and brick building, two stories in height, fronting 
the Georgia E. E. and Loyd street — now Central avenue. Af- 
ter a few years as proprietor, Capt. Loyd leased it to H. C. 
Holcombe and Z. A. Eice. The place was called "Washington 
Hall." When the lessees' lease expired, the owner renewed 
hotel keeping, associating with him his son-in-law, A. C. Pul- 
liam. On the latter's retiring a few years later, Capt. Loyd 
sold the hotel to "Cousin" John J. Thrasher, who later sold 
to Col. Ben. Yancey, and E. E. Sasseen became the landlord, 
until its sale to Wm. Markham. This historic house was also 
destroyed in the conflagration of '61. After the close of the 
war — '65 — Mr. Markham purchased a planing mill, which 
had been erected on the place, altered and added to it and 
opened it as the Markham House. 

The third hotel was built by Allen E. Johnson, on the east 
side of Whitehall street, about midway of the block between 
Hunter and Mitchell streets, called the Johnson House. Mrs. 

— ■ — Brown and Xash were the lessees for a few years; 

then it fell into the hands of Allen E. Johnson and Dr. E. N. 
Calhoun, who were in possession two or three years. Wm. 
Markham purchased the property in the early part of the war, 
and in 1863 it was pressed into service by the Confederate 
Government as a hospital, and was used as such till the evac- 
uation, when it went up in smoke. 

The fourth hotel built in the city was on the southeast cor- 
ner of Alabama and Pryor streets; was a three story brick, 
seventy feet on Atlabama and one hundred feet on Pryor; 
called the Fulton House ; was owned by Allen E. Johnson and 
by him first occupied. Its erection was commenced in 1852 
and completed the next year. The house had many occupants, 

History of Atlanta. 127 

among them Eev. Wycher, who was shot and killed in 

the hotel by his son, and L. J. Hilburn, A. E. Eeeves, D. L. 
Gordon and George Johnson. This hotel was used by both ar- 
mies as a hospital. Some of the tenants since the war were 
Sasseen & Whitaker, L. J. Hilburn, Vance & Son. 

The fifth hotel building in the City was erected by John 
Kile. It was located on the southeast corner of Loyd and De- 
catur streets; was a three story wooden structure with stores 
on the ground floor and the upper part used as a boarding 
house. In 1856 Lemuel Dean, of DeKalb county came to At- 
lanta and opened the house as the City Hotel. It was used as 
a hospital in 1862 by the Confederates, and burned in 1864. 

The sixth hotel was built about 1856 by Ed. W. Holland, 
on corner Whitehall and Alabama streets ; it was a three story 
brick, A. R. Kellam, landlord. Mr. Holland had a broker's 
office in the northeast corner, and the post office was in the 
building for awhile. The hotel was a victim of the fire fiend 
in 1864. 

The seventh hotel was erected by J. F. Trout on the north- 
east corner of Decatur and Pry or streets, in the year '55 ; was 
used as a hotel up to 1864, and destroyed when the city was 
evacuated by the Federal army. It was the largest and best 
hotel building in the City. 

The eighth hotel was erected by Mrs. Dougherty, on 

west side Peachtree street and W. & A. crossing, in 1857; it 
was two stories in height, the lower story being used for stores, 
and the upper story for hotel purposes. This shared the same 
fate as the others. Sometime about 1866 it was rebuilt, con- 
siderably larger, and used as a hotel, E. B. Pond being the 
first proprietor. It was known as the National Hotel, 

The ninth- hotel was erected in 1858 on southwest corner 
Pryor and Alabama streets, by Jacob Rokenbaugh, and was 
known as the Planters' Hotel. It was a brick building, two 

128 Pioneer Citizens" 

stories high ; Wm. O'Halloran, E. E. Sasseen and Wm. Whita- 
ker, proprietors. After the war the name was changed to the 
United States Hotel, and in 1873 B. J. Wilson bought it, 
made some changes in the building, and changed the name to 

the Wilson House, Keith, proprietor. The hotel was 

subsequently sold to the Gate City National Bank. The hand- 
some Temple Court now adorns the old hotel site. 



The "Bench and Bar" — Names of Earliest Jurists and Law- 
3'ers — Courts of Other Days — Atlanta's Early Schools — 
Movement for Public Schools — Some of the Teachers and 
Their Methods — First Telegraph Office and the Manipu- 
lator of the Instrument — Dr. Kane, the Celebrated Arc- 
tic Explorer — The First Messengers. 



A Judge, being an officer appointed by the sovereign power 
in a State to administer the law, should have an unspotted 
character, a clear and comprehensive mind, be learned in the 
law, self poised, entirely free from prejudice, or bias, with 
force of character sufficient to carry his judgments into effect, 
and, at the same time, temper them with mercy. From a per- 
sonal acquaintance with all the men who have worn the Er- 
mine and presided over the Courts in Atlanta, I can truthfully 

History of Atlanta. 129 

say that some of them reached this high standard, not one dis- 
graced the high position, all were competent and honest. 

Atlanta was originally in the County of DeKalb, of which 
Decatur is the County Site, and in the old Coweta Circuit. 
The following were the Courts and Judges : 

Supreme Court : The first Supreme Court of Georgia was 
organized under an Act of the Legislahire approved Decem- 
ber 10th, 1845, and held at Decatur, and its first Judges were 
Joseph Henry Lumpkin, Eugenious A. Nisbet, Hiram Warner. 
They were succeeded by a number of able men, and the present 
Court now sH^.ting in Atlanta is prsided over by Chief Justice 
Thos. J. Simmons; Associate Justices Samuel Lumpkin, Wil- 
liam A. Little, Wm. H. Fish, Andrew J. Cobb, Henry T. 

Superior Courts of old Coweta Circuit : Jvidges Hiram 
Warner, 1833-1840; William Ezzard, 1840-1844; Edward 
Young Hill, 1844-1853; Obadiah Warner, 1853; Orville A. 
Bull, 1853-1864; Benjamin H. Bigham, 1864-1865; Hiram 
Warner, 1865-1867; John Collier, 1867-1869. 

On the 20th day of December, 1853, the territory in which 
Atlanta is situated was cut off from DeKalb Coimty and a new 
County formed, designated as Fulton Count}^, and on the — 

day of , 1869, the Atlanta Circuit was created, 

composed originally of the Counties of Fulton, Clayton and 
DeKalb ; but now, alone, of Fulton County, and the Judges of 
the Superior Courts of this Circuit have been : John D. Pope, 
1869-1870; 0. A. Lochrane, 1870; Jno. L. Hopkins, 1870- 
1876; Cincinnatus Peoples, 1876-1877; George Hillyer, 1877- 
1882; Wm. E. Hammond, 1882-1885; Marshall J. Clarke, 
1885-1893 ; J. H. Lumpkin, 1893-1901. The last named still 
in oilieo, and presiding over First Division. 

Second Division : Judges Eichard H. Clarke, while Judge 

130 PioxEEE Citizens' 

Stone ]\Io-aiitain Circuit; Jno. S. Candler, now Judge Stone 
Mountain Circuit. 

Old City Court of Atlanta : Samuel B. Hoyt, was the first 
and only Judge, 1855. 

Present City Court, established in 1871: Judges Eobert 
J. Cowart, Samuel Lawrence, Eichard H. Clarke, Eufus T. 
Dorsey, Marshall J. Clarke, Howard Yan Epps, Harry M. 
Eeed, now presiding. 

Criminal Court of Atlanta, established in 1891. Judges 
Thomas P. Westmoreland, John D. Berry, Andrew E. Cal- 
houn, now presiding. 

Court of Ordinaries: Ordinaries Joseph H. Mead, 1854- 
1862; Eobert E. Mangum, 1862-1864; Daniel Pittman, 1862- 
1S80; ^Y. L. Calhoun, 1881-1896; Wm. H. Hulsey, 1897-1900; 
Jno. E. Wilkinson, 1901. 

Old Inferior Court. Judges:' From 1854 to 1868, when 
the Court was abolished, the following were the Judges : Ju- 
lius A. Hayden, Stephen Terry, C. H. Strong, who held the 
first Court. 

They were, succeeded by Samuel Walker, James Donehoo, 
Clark Howell, S. C. Elam, Z. A. Eice, C. E. Hanleiter, Jethro 
W. ]\Ianning, Solomon K. Pace, Wm. A. Wilson, Edward M. 
Taliaferro, P. Owen, Perino Brown, J. A. Simmons, Colum- 
busM. Pa}Tie, C. C. Green, Dan. P. Ferguson and Wm. Wat- 

The first County OflBcers were: Joseph H. Mead, Ordi- 
nary; Jonas S. Smith, Sheriff; Thomas 'J. Perkerson, Deputy 
Sheriff; Benjamin F. Bomar, Clerk Superior Court; C. M. 
Pa}Tie, Clerk Inferior Court; Eobert M. Clark, Treasurer; 
James Bartlett, County Surveyor; and Jno. K. Landers, Coro- 
ner, who were elected February 23d, 1854. 

Bar : During the half century of the existence of the At- 
lanta Bar only one, or two, of its members have been disbar- 

History of Atlanta. 131 

red for unprofessional conduct. As a general rule, our Law- 
yers have been honorable gentlemen and faithful to their cli- 
ents. Their leading characteristics have been unusual activity 
and perseverance. The most of them have been thoroughly 
competent, and some of them great lawyers. In point of abil- 
ity they have ranked equally, at least, with the best lawyers of 
the South. 

Leonard Christopher Simpson was Atlanta's first resident 
lawyer. He was a man of fine personal appearance and con- 
siderable ability. Prior to the formation of Fulton County, 
the lawyers of old DeKalb County principally, resided at 
Decatur, the County Site. Among them Avere Hines Holt, 
Charles Murphy, William Ezzard, James M. Calhoun, Wil- 
liam H. Dabnev, John Collier. John N. Ballenger, T. W. J. 
Hill, Eichard Orme, and Geo. Iv. Smith, the latter residing at 
Stone j\Iountain. the most of whom subsequently removed to 
Atlanta. Those residing in Atlanta in the early days were 
L. C. Simpson, John L. Harris, Ben F. Harris, Marcus A. 
Bell, Fred H. West, Jethro W. Manning, Michael J. Ivy, 
Hezeldah Wells, John T. Wilson, Samuel B. Hoyt, ISTat Man- 
gum, Samuel C. Elam, A. W. Jones, West Harris, John A. 
Puckett, and, perhaps, a few others. 

As the years passed on the following named lawyers came 
in : Basil H. Overby, Logan E. Bleckley, Amhurst W. Stone, 
Lucius J. Gartrell, Walter M. Hatch, Augustus Bates, Thomas 
Cox, Eoger L. Whigham, Harry Beerm'an, Edward F. Floge, 
Dennis F. Hammond, Benjamin H. Hill. Osljorn A. Loch- 
rane, CincinnatiTS Peeples, Luther J. Glenn, Thomas L. 
Cooper, S. S. Fears, A. W. Hammond, Nathaniel J. Ham- 
mond, Barton Thrasher, Albert Tlirasher, Edwin jST. Broyles, 
Prior L. ]Mynatt, Joseph E. Brown, Eichard H. Clark, Henry 
Jackson, Eobert Baugh, Marshall J. Clarke, John T. Glenn, 
Martin Arnold, H. J. Sprayberry, John Milledge, James A. 

133 Pioneer Citizens' 

Gray, Ben S. Daniel, John A. Stephens, Samuel B. Spencer, 
John L. Cunningham, Adolph Brandt, Greo. T. Fry, John 
Erskine, Green B. Haygood, John M. Clark, Wni. H. Under- 
wood, Wm. F. Wright, Walter S. Gordin, L. J. Winn, Eobert 
W. Sims, Augustus B. Culberson, A. C. Garlington, Jared I. 
Whitaker, M. M. Todwell, Chas. A. Collier, Howell C. Glenn, 
Eobt. N. Ely, Hinton P. AVright, Walter H. Ehett, John S. 
Bigby, Thomas K. Daniel, Marshall De Graffenreid, Daniel 
P. Hill, George S. Thomas, K. S. Jeffries, W. A. Tigner, Eob- 
ert P. Trippe, Thomas W. Latham, Jno. L. Conley, Madison 
Bell, Henry W. Hilliard, and Tom Cobb Jackson, all of whom 
are dead. 

Of the older living members are Logan E. Bleckley, W. L. 
Calhoun, John L. Hopkins, Samuel Weil, ]\Iilton A. Candler, 
Wm. T. Newman, John B. Gordon, Ben. F. Abbott, Thos. P. 
Westmoreland, Alex. C. King, Wm. S. Thompson, Eeuben 
Arnold, Sr., George Hillyer, Howard Van Epps, Z. D. Harri- 
son, John C. Eeed, Wm. J. Speairs, Wm. H. Hulsey, Clifford 
L. Anderson, Wm. E. Hammond, Chas. W. Smith, J. K. 
Hines, W. M. Bray, Hooper Alexander, Albert H. Cox, Jno. 
T. Pendleton, Wm. F. Albert, Walter E. Brown, Samuel Bar- 
nett, John B. Goodwin, Wm. D. Eliis, P. H. Brewster, Luther 
Z. Eosser, Eufus C. Dorsey, Lewis W. Thomas, Julius L. 
Brown, Hoke Smith, Chas. D. Hill, Jack J. Spalding, Jas. A. 
Anderson, Evan P. Howell, W. I. Heyward, Win. F. Moj^ers, 
Jas. L. IMayson, Wm. A. Haygood, Thos. F. Corrigan, Henry 
Hillyer, Hubert L. Culberson, Alonzo A. Manning, Thomas 
Finley, Jerome M. McAfee, Joseph H. Smith, J. C. Jenkins, 
Augustus M. Eeinhardt, Henry B. Tompkins, Jerome E. Sim- 
mons, Howell E.Erwin , IMalcolm Johnson. 

Among those who have practiced here, are still living and 
have removed to other places are Olin Wellborn, J. J. Eckford, 
Wm. H. Pope. Patrick Calhoun. W. A. Brown. Wm. P. Cal- 

History of Atlanta, 133 

houn, Jas. B. Baird, S. A. Darnell, Henry P. Farrow, T. Stobo 
Farrar and S. D. McConnell. 

A number of Atlanta Lawyers h^ve occupied high judicial 
positions. Logan E. Bleckley, Joseph E. Brown, Eobert P. 
Trippe, Henry Kent McCay, and Osborn A. Lochrane, were 
Judges of the Supreme Court of Georgia. John Erskine, 
Henry Ivent McCay and Wm. T. Newman, Judges of the 
United States District Court. Wm. H. Underwood, Wm. Ez- 
zard, John Collier, Wm. F. Wright, Dennis F. Hammond, 
Cincinmitus Peeples, John S. Bigby, John L. Hcpkins, George 
Hillyer, Kichard H. Clark, Marshall J. Clark, and Wm. E. 
Hammond, were Judges of the Superior Court. Eobert J. 
Cowart, Marshall J. Clarke, Eufus T. Dorsey, Eichard H. 
Clarke, Howard Van Epps, were Judges of the City Court of 
Atlanta. Thomas P. Westmoreland and John D. Berry were 
Judges of the Criminal Court of Atlanta, and E. A. Calhoun is 
now its judge. Many, also, hav6 held high political offices. 




Educational facilities in the early days of Atlanta were 
limited. The old school house was slimly attended, as in those 
days there were but few of tender age. When the first school 
was opened in Marthasville in 1845 the prospect was not very 
bright for the teacher, the first of whom was a lady. This 
temple of learning was a rude shanty situated near Dunning's 
Foundry and the Georgia E. E. Miss Martha Eeed, who 
opened this school, taught it for a year or two. 

In 1847 Dr. N. L. Angier, a noted man in affairs, later on 
in Atlanta, came to the young town and opened a school in a 

134 PioxEEE Citizens'' 

building erected by himself for that puriDose ; it was known as 
Anffier's Academy. The doctor was a fine instructor and his 
school was a noted one, as long as it was in existence. 

In the same year Wm. L. White, of Xew York, became a 
resident, and he also opened a school. 

In 1848, Dr. and Mrs. William H. Fernorden taught in 
what was known as the "Academy" for a brief period. Pro- 
fessor W. N. Jones also instructed the young in this period. 

As Atlanta had begun to be widely known, its growth was 
quite rapid, and these schools seemed to l)e in keeping witli 
the march of events, the academies and other advanced institu- 
tions supj^lanting the more j^rimitive ones of the iDrevious 

It was not till 1851 that new schools were opened. In this 
year Mrs. T. S. Ogilby, a cultured lad}"^, opened a school at 
the corner of Hunter and Pryor streets, the location of the old 
City Hall. 

Another instructor, in the .person of 3Iiss Xevers, tauglit 
a school in the J. W. Bridwell House, on Marietta street. 

In August, ]\Iiss C. W. Dews opened a school for females 
in the academy on Marietta street, formerly occuj)ied by ilr. 

Eev. T. D. Adair also taught in a building of his own, 
which he called the "Academy," beginning at the same time. 

The Atlanta Military Academy was another candidate for 
favor opened this year, taught by G. A. Austin; succeeded 
later by Alex jST. Wilson,' A.M. 

These numerous schools seemed to meet full}^ all the needs 
of the day; and it was not till 1858 that there were any addi- 
tions. Professor Wilson removed to the Markliam Iniilding, 
corner of Whitehall and Mitchell streets. 

The next venture was a "select school" by ]\Iiss E. S. Peed 
and ]\Irs. A. L. Wright. This was located in the basement of 

HiSTOEY OF Atlanta. 135 

the (now) First Presbyterian cllureh, on Marietta, near cor- 
ner of Spring street. 

Up to 1852 there had never been a movement for a free 
school. The average parent regarded the idea as rather a 
common one, and when an attempt was made to engraft it on 
the public, opposition was active. However, the plan tri- 
umphed, largely owing to the efforts of Mr. Edward W. Hol- 
land. This public-spirited citizen gave a house and lot to 
the town for the school, and the Council accepted it, thus in- 
augurating what proved to be a boon to the community. This 
school-house, generously donated for so laudable a purpose, 
Avas located near the present Jewish S3''nagogue, corner of 
Forsyth and Garnett streets. 

In order to test the public feeling on the subject, a mass- 
meeting was called on October 6, in the City Hall. Mr. Wil- 
liam Markham presided and J. S. Peterson was made secre- 
tary. A set of resolutions was adopted, calling upon the peo- 
ple to assemble at a later date to discuss more fully the matter. 
When that meeting was held it was found that the majority 
were averse to the project, and it fell through at that time. 
But a college for the education of girls in the higher branches 
was determined upon and became a success. This institution 
• was located on the corner of (now) Ellis street and Court- 
land avenue, with Professor J. E. Mayson principal. It was 
opened in 1860 and continued, with great success, till 1863, 
when it was pressed into service by the Confederate Govern- 
ment for a hospital. The money for this college was raised 
by private subscription, the amount being $15,000, Council 
having refused an appropriation of $4,000 asked for by the 

The present system of public schools of Atlanta was es- 
tablished in 1869, largely through the efforts of Dr. S. H. 
Stout and Dr. D. C. OTveefe. The latter, who was alderman 

136 Pioneer Citizens' 

at that time, introduced a resolution in Council in the fall of 
18G9, calling for a committee of that body to act with a num- 
ber of citizens to .investigate the subject of public schools. 
Hon. W. H. HiTlsey,, Mayor; Dr. D. C. O'Keefe and E. R. Carr 
were appointed such committee, and they selected the follow- 
ing citizens to co-operate with them : Dr. J. P. Logan, W. 
M. Janes, J. H. Flynn, E. E. Eawson, David Mayor, L. J. 
Gartrell awd Dr. S. H. Stout. 

On the 26th of November, Council adopted resolutions de- 
claring its purpose to establish public schools. On December 
10, following, a board of education was elected by Council. 
In November, 1870, Council passed an ordinance defining 
powers of the board, and December 8 the whole subjec-t of 
public schools was submitted to the people for ratification, or 
otherwise. The proposition having carried in September, tlusee 
school buildings were begun, and by January, 1873, com- 
pleted. Mr, Bernard Mallon, of Savannah, was elected super- 
intendent, and twenty-one ladies and six gentlemen were elect- 
ed teachers. 




Report of Special Committee, A. Leyden, chairman : 
The Macon & Western Branch Telegraph Company was or- 
ganized in 1849, and the line built to Atlanta about May of 
the same year. Colonel C. R. Hanleiter was the first operator, 
and his son, William R., and Augustus Shaw, the first mes- 
sengers. The office was in the Macon & Western Railway 
building, southwest corner Pryor and Alabama streets. The 
first dispatch received here was to Mr. U. L. Wright, agent 



History of Atlanta. 137 

of the Central Eailway. Soon after the line was opened for 
business, Dr. Kane, the celebrated arctic explorer, was passing 
through Atlanta. He sent a message to his father at Philadel- 
phia, Pa., asking that certain articles necessary for his voyage 
be gotten ready for him by the time he should arrive at home. 
Shortly afterwards the line from Chattanooga to Augusta was 
completed. In this connection, tlie following article, taken 
from tile Macon Journal and Messenger, of February 7, 1849, 
will prove of interest : 

"Telegraph to Atlanta. — At a late meeting of the 'stock- 
holders of the Maeon & Western Branch Telegraph Company, 
held in the city of GrifEn, Emmerson Foote, Esq., was chosen 
president; Beuben Cone, Kichard Peters, Miles G-. Dobbins 
and B. E. Berrian, directors. The work of erecting the posts 
lias already been commenced, and it is supposed that the line 
will be in operation in two or three months." 



In the early days of Atlanta banking facilities were lim- 
ited to agencies, through which exchange and loans could be 
made by tlie citizens when so desired. As cash or barter had 
been the custom from the first, and as exchange was prac- 
tically unknown, banks were not deemed necessary. But as 
the town grew and funds accumulated, it became necessary to 
have places of deposit, other than the agencies, which were 
established by outside parties; in fact, the town deemed it a 
reflection upon its enterprise not to have a bank of its own, 
the first one being established in 1852, as below stated. 

Report of Special Committee, John H. James, chairman: 
The first bank was begun on a small scale by the agent of the 

138 PioxEER Citizens' 

Georgia Eailroad depot, Mr. John F. Minis, in the year 1847. 
His principal business was to sell exchange on Augusta, as 
that city at that time was Atlanta's chief market. 

In the year 1818, Messrs. Scott, Carhart & Company, 
hankers, of Macon, established an agency here, with U. L. 
Wright, manager, and 'Mv. W. J. Houston, cashier. Among 
the first depositors was J. B. Lofton, who came into the bank 
with his money in a pair of old-fashioned saddle bags. 

The Bank of Atlanta was established in 1852. S. C. Hig- 
ginson, president, and J. E. Valentine, cashier. 

The Georgia Eailroad and Banking Company established 
an agency in 18'51, with Perino Brown as agent. 

The Bank of Fulton was established in 1855. A. W. 
Stone, president; William M. Williams, cashier. In 1857 E. 
W. Holland and Alfred Austell bought the bank and assumed 
control of all its affairs. Ed. Holland, Jr., was the office boy 
and collector at that time. 

The Atlanta Insurance and Banking Company began busi- 
ness in 1859. John W. Duncan, president; Perino Brown, 

The Central Eailroad and Banking Company, of Savan- 
nah, established an agency in 1859. Adam Jones, agent. 

John H. James began the banking business in 1860. 

The Bank of Einggold established an agency in 18G2. 
Walker P. Inman, agent. 

The Atlanta Xational Bank was chartered in 1865. Alfred 
Austell, president; W. H. Tuller, cashier. 

History of Atlanta. • 139 




First Services — Then and Xow — ^Yorsllipping God in the 
Woods— X^o Church Edifice Till 1845— Union Services 
in a Schoolhouse in 1843— Old "Wesley Chapel"— First 
Presbyterian Church Organization — The Baptists Early 
on the Ground — Eev. John S. Wilson Preached First 
Sermon — Some of the Early Ministers and Members of 
Churches — Temples of Worship in 1901. 

The first building erected as a house of worship in early 
times was Wesley Chapel, on what is now Xorth Pryor and 
the junction of Peachtree street. But previous to that a 
small log house was built by private subscription, which was 
used for union services. This was in 1843, A day school was 
taught there also. Before this event, however, services were 
occasionally held in the roundhouse of the Western & Atlantic 
Eailroad, situated on Loyd street, about the southAvest corner 
of the present union passenger depot. Following this services 
were held in the Wheat warehouse, which was situated on the 
southeast corner of wliat is now Xorth Pryor street and Au- 
burn avenue. Anterior to this, however, it is known that on 
one occasion services were held in the open air — the earth for 
a footstool, the blue canopy the covering. This was in the 
earliest days, when perhaps a dozen persons were considered 
quite a congregation. 

In the first edifice (Wesley Chapel), above alluded to, Eev. 
John S. Wilson, D.D., preached the first sermon. This holy 

140 PioNEEK Citizens' 

man lived at Decatur; and on the completion of the church 
here he was invited to deliver the first sermon. He afterward 
became pastor of the Presbyterian Church, which was organ- 
ized later. 


By Feaxk p. EiCE. 

Eemarkable as the historj^ of the city is, the liistory of the 
church has been no less remarkable. In the year 1847 a 
small log house was erected near the junction of Pryor and 
Houston streets, where it is more tlxan probable the first di- 
vine services were held by the Methodists of Atlanta, and in 
a few months there was organized what was known as Atlan- 
ta's first Sunday-school. It was organized on the second Sun- 
day in June, 1847. All denominations united in it, and it 
was known as Atlanta's Union Sabbath-school. Roliert M. 
Clarke was appointed secretary and treasure. Among the 
persons who organized this school were Edwin Payne, A. F. 
Luckie, E. A. Johnson and others, and they were made a 
committee to solicit subscriptions, and a large number of citi- 
zens contributed to the fund for organizing the Sunday-school 
and to build a house to hold the same in. A building was 
erected with these subscriptions on the lot immediatel}' in 
front of where the First Methodist Church now stands, in the 
triangle bounded by Peachtree, Pryor and Houston streets. 
Out of this Union Sunday-school sprang the first committee 
for the purpose of erecting old "Wesley Chapel." Through 
the efforts of Edwin Payne and others, a subscription was 
raised of seven hundred dollars to purchase the lot and build 
the church. The lot was purchased from Eeuben Cone and 
Ami Williams, and a warranty deed was given by them to the 

History of Atlanta. 141 

folloAving i^arties as trustees of the church, under date of 
March 11, 1848 : Thomas L. Thomas, Samuel Walker, Edwin 
Payne, David Thurman, James A. Collins and Stephen Terry. 
These brethren constituted the first board of trustees of Wes- 
ley Chapel. 

The church was dedicated in March, 1848, by Bishop 
James 0. Andrews. During the year 1848, Eev. Anderson 
Ray, Sr., Eev. Eustice W. Speer, Jr., Eev. J. W. Yarbrough 
and Eev. J. W. Hinton filled the pulpit. 

The pastors of the First Methodist Church since its organ- 
ization are as follows: 1848, Anderson Eay, Sr., Eustice W. 
Speer, Jr., J. W. Yarbrough and J. W. Hinton; 1849, J. W. 
Yarbrough and A. M. W3'nn; 1850, Silas H. Cooper and J. 
L. Pierce; 1851, C. W. Thomas; 1853-3, W. H. Evans; 1854, 
J. P. Duncan and J. M. Austin; 1855, S. Anthony and J. 
Boring; 1856, C. P. Jewett; 1857-8, C W. Key; 1859-60, J. 
B. Payne; 1861-2, W. J. Scott; 1863, J. W. Hinton; 1864. L. 
D. Huston; 1865, A. M. Thigpen; 1866-7, W. P. Harrison; 
1868-9, F. A. Kimbell; 1870, W. P. Harrison; 1871, A. 
\Vright; 1872-3, W. P. Harrison; 1874, E. W. Speer; 1875-6- 
7, W. P. Harrison; 1878, H. H. Parks; 1879, H. H. Parks; 
1880, C. A. Evans; 1881, C. A. Evans; 1882, C. A. Evans; 
L883, C. A. Evans; 1884, W. F. Glenn; 1885, W. F. Glenn; 
1886, W. F. Glenn; 1887, H. C. Morrison (now Bishop); 
L888, H. C. ]\Iorrison; 1889, H. C. Morrison; 1890, H. C. 
Morrison and I. S. Hopkins; 1891, W. D. Anderson; 1892, 
lohn B. Eobins; 1893, John B. Eobins; 1894, John B. Eob- 
ns; 1895, John B. Eobins; 1896, I. S. Hopkins, and until 
^pril, 1897, I. S. Hopkins; 1897 (balance of year). Walker 
Lewis; 1898, Walker Lewis; 1899, Walker Lewis; 1900, 
iValker Lewis; 1901, C. W. Byrd. 

The board of trustees during much of this formative pe- 
riod, who were charged with the duties and guidance of many 

1^3 Pioneer Citizen's'' 

of these enterprises, was an honorable and strong one, and 
such men as Judge William Ezzard, who was for T long time 
chairman of the board of trustees, had associated with him 
Er Lawshe, Hon. B. H. Hill, Sr., Hon. Alfred H. Colquitt. 
Judge James Jackson, Hon. X. J. Hammond, C. W. Hunni- 
cutt. G. TV. D. Cook and George Winship. These were all ex- 
emplary men, and their qualities have been portrayed in the 
work committed to their charge. 

In the early days of Wesley Chapel, negroes, who were 
then slaves, belonged to the church, having their seats in the 
rear and in the gallery, and after the war, when the neo-roes 
were made free, the white members stated to t^n that the 
changed conditions made it necessary for theisn to go to them- 
selves. There was a subscription raised by the membership 
of the church of about seven hundred dollars, and the ne-roes 
took this money and erected a church of their own. Thus 
their membership was disposed of. 

Much could be said of the early organization of Wesley 
Chapel and the men who constituted the same. Such men as 
Pa}Tie, ^Cozart, Joseph Winship, Samuel Walker, Willis F. 
Peck, X. J. Hammond and many others who have passed be- 
yond the river, could be mentioned. 

At the death of Edwin Payne, he bequeathed to the First 
Methodist Church the sum of five hundred dollars, and this 
sum was to be loaned out at interest at 7 per cent., and the 
money so derived is to be used towards paying the pastor's 

The name of Wesley Chapel was continued until the corner- 
stone of the present church was laid, on September 1, 1870. 
and the church since that time has been known as the First 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The articles of agreement between Er Lawshe, Joseph 
Winship, Robert F. Maddox, George W. D. Cook, Frank P. 

History of Atlanta, 143 

Eice and James C. Davis, who were the building committee of 
the church, and William G. iSTewman and John ¥. Fain, under 
style of Xewman & Fain, were executed March 14, 1870. The 
corner-stone of the new church was laid September 1, 1870, 
with the following inscription thereon: "First Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South; September 1, 1870." 

Dr. W. P. Harrison was the pastor at the time of the com- 
mencement of the erection of the church, and was filling the 
pulpit when it was completed. 

The church had been carrying a large debt for several 
years, which was extinguished through the efforts of General 
C. A. Evans, who was pastor in 1883, and in that year it was 
dedicated by him, the sermon being delivered on November 25, 
of that 3^ear. 

A Sabbath-school was organized in 1853 by Green B. Hay- 
good and Willis F. Peck, which proved the nucleus of Trinity 
Church. Green B. Haygood, chairman ; Joseph Winship, Ed- 
win Payne and Dr. George Smith were appointed building 
committee. A lot was purchased on Courthouse Square, and 
old Trinity was built there. Bishop Andrews dedicated this 
church in September, 1851, and Eev. J. P. Duncan preached 
the first sermon. 

The records of Wesley Chapel were lost or destroyed dur- 
ing the Civil War, and no data of the church history during 
that period can be obtained, except the names of the pastors 
who served during that eventful time. 

We find that in 1867 W. P. Harrison was pastor, and the 
following board of stewards : E.. E. Sasseen, Er Lawshe, Willis 
F. Peck, J. 0. Davis, J. N. Simmons and S. T. Atkins, all of 
whom have passed away from earth. The following are the 
board of trustees in that year: William Ezzard, Lewis Law- 
she, S. T. Atkins, N. J. Hammond, J. C. Davis and John L. 
Hopkins, the latter being the only one now living. The 


144 PioxEER Citizens 

church roll this year was 337, nearly all of whom have gone to 
the "Land Beyond." 

. This church has contributed with her means and her work- 
ing forces in the organizations of the following churches and 
missions: Trinity Church, the greatest and most powerful, 
next to herself, of Methodism, in this city, was organized 
through the instrumentality of Wesley Chapel. Evans Chapel 
is another branch in her church family; Pa3Tie's Chapel, 
in 1855; St Paul's, in 1868; Merritts Avenue, in 1876; Park 
Street, in 1882 ; Grace Church, in 1883, and Asbury, in 1886. 
All of these churches have been aided by the "Mother Church." 
Decatur Street Mission is directly under the case of the First 
Methodist Church, and is doing a great work on Decatui 
street, and the surrounding territor}'. 

In the years 1884-5-6, Kev. AV. F. Glenn was pastor of 
the First Methodist Church. The church being free from 
debt, he began to gather strength and look around for further 
work. During the first of these years, the Marietta Street 
Mission was organized, and it has wrought an entire revolu- 
tion in that section of the city. This mission was started in a 
railroad car, and today is comfortably quartered on Marietta 
street, with about 160 in the membership in Sunday-school, 
and has a full corps of workers in all of its departments. It 
is presided over by Mr. John M. Barclay, a devoted Chris- 
tian man. He has been in charge of this mission since its 
commencement, and has been efficiently aided by Miss Sue 
Holloway and other consecrated members of the church. 

During all of these years this church has been supplied 
and blessed with a board of stewards of consecrated, earnest 
and unselfish workers. The following constitute at this time 
the board of stewards of the First Methodist Church: Eob- 
ert A. Hemphill, chairman ; William Lawson Peel, treasurer ; 
Eobert Lee Avary, secretary; William A. Bass, T. B. Graves^ 

History of Atlanta. 145 

Frank P. Eice, C. J. Haclcn, William M. Nixon, George H. 
Holiday, James E. Nutting, John W. Hughes, William A. 
Osborne, C. W. Hunnicutt, Preston S. Arkwright, W. H. John- 
son, John D. Allen, H. C. Leonard, E. B. Bridger, John Eob- 
ert Mobley, Walker G. Browne, E. G. Moore, William M. 
Crumley, Nelson E. Murphey, B. B. Crew, H. E. W. Palmer, 
E. I. Cheatham, W. H. Patterson, Walter L. Colquitt, L. B. 
Parks, Joseph P. Davenport. W. L. Fain, Frank H. Eeynolds, 
James Joshua Eussell, William H. Fish, A. M. Eeinhardt, S. 
W. Foster, A. M. Eobinson, A. 0. M. Gay, J. S. Todd, J. M. 
Shelly, George M. Traylor, D. C. Peacock, George Winship. 
William S. Witham, Steve E. Johnson, member ex-officio. 

The following at this time constitute the board of trustees 
of the First Methodist Church: C. W. Hunnicutt, George 
Winship, Eobert A. Hemphill, Benjamin B. Crew, William A. 
Bass, H. C. Leonard, W. A. Osborne, W. H. Patterson and 
W. L. Peel. 

A wise and patriotic movement was organized in the old 
Wesley Chapel at the beginning of the war. It was known as 
the "Atlanta Eelief and Hospital Association," its object^ 
being to relieve the suffering of the wounded and sick Con- 
federate soldiers. They did a great work in this line. Mrs. 
Isaac Winship was president, and some of those associated 
with her in this work were Mrs. G. J. Foreacre, Mrs. J. N. 
Simmons, Mrs. Hamilton Goode, Mrs. M. A. J. Powell, Mrs. 
Benjamin Yancey, Mrs. William H. Eice, Mrs. Marion Wilson, 
Mrs. Basil Overby and Mrs. E. F. Maddox. These ladies de- 
voted much of their time to this relief work. 


The Presbyterian Church had its beginning on the 8th 
of January, 1848, contemporary with the birth of Atlanta — 

146 Pioneer Citizens' 

both have grown and prospered co-extensively. On this day 
nineteen persons adopted a declaration of rules, from which 
is taken the following: 

"We, therefore, whose names are hereby subscribed, being 
by the providence of God assembled in this place, and desiring 
to enjoy the benefits, privileges and ordinances of the Church 
of Christ, as received and administered in the Presb}i;erian 
Church in these United States, of which church we are all 
members and communicants, do agree to unite in the organ- 
ization of a church, to be known as "The Presbyterian Church 
of Atlanta. 

"Adopted and subscribed to by us at Atlanta, the 8th of 
January, 1848. 

"Joel Kelsey, Minerva Kelsey, Keziah Boyd, Margaret 
Boyd, Annie L. Houston, Jane Gill, 0. Houston, Mary A. 
Thompson, C. J. Caldwell, ^lary J. Thompson, Joseph 
Thompson, Henry Brockman, Euth A. Brockman, James 
Davis, H. A. Frazer, Julia M. Frazer, Lucinda Cone, Harriet 

The first three ruling elders were Joel Kelsey, Oswald 
* Houston and James Davis, to whom A. F. Luckie was shortly 
added. On the 28th of January the following trustees were 
pointed : John Glen, G. T. j\IcGinley, 0. Houston, J, A. Hay- 
den, James Davis, Eeuben Cone and Joseph Pitts. 

A lot was soon purchased of Eeuben Cone for $300. On 
this lot a brick edifice was erected during the years, 1850, 1851 
and 1852, at a cost of about $1,200. The dimensions of this 
house were 70 feet by 40 feet, witli a liasement for Sunday- 
school room. There was a vestibule, and over it a gallery for 
organ and choir. There was no tower or steeple, only a small 
belfry, but no bell was ever placed in it. Tlie Imilding was 
dedicated on the Fourth of Juty, 1852. 

Ministers: Eev. John S. Wilson was stated supply from 

History of Atlanta. 147 


January 1, 1848, for nearly five years; Rev. J. L. King, Jan- 
uary 1, 1853, for ten months; Rev. John E. DuBose, 1854, 
installed pastor, which he filled three years. 

The records for ten years, from the date of organization 
were lost. During this period the ruling elders were Joel 
Kelsey, 0. Houston, James Davis, A. F. Luckie, William 
Markham, J. P. Logan, John Rhea, George Robinson and 
A. X. Wilson. There were no deacons. 

A division of the church occurred in 1858. Some fifty- 
seven persons thereupon organized on the 21st of February, 
1858, and, by order of the Presbytery, they assumed the 
name of "The First Presbyterian Church of Atlanta." 
Shortly after the division. Rev. John S. Wilson, D.D., was 
chosen pastor of the First Church, and sustained this relation 
to the time of his death, in 1873, a period of about fifteen 
years. By a vote of the church, 0. Houston, Joel Kelsey, 
George Robinson, William Markham and A. X. Wilson were 
recognized and duly declared ruling elders. 

Subsequently, elders were elected and ordained, as fol- 
lows: Berryman D. Shumate, 1858; L. B. Davis, 1862; 
James Hoge, 1862; S. B. Hoyt, 1862; William McMillan, 
1862; W. P. Inman, 1862; V. Thompson, 1864; Joseph L. 
King, 1868; William M. Dowry, 1866; James Robinson, 1868; 
William A. Powell, 1868; C. M. Barry, 1868; T. D. Frierson, 
1872 ; William A. Moore, 1872 ; J. M. Alexander. 1872. 

Deacons: J. R. Wallace, 1858; T. G. Healey, 1858; S. B. 
Hoyt, 1858; W. J. Houston, 1862; J. S. Oliver. 1866; Carl 
Harman, 1867; William A. Powell, 1867; T. L. Langston, 
1873 ; S. M. Inman, 1873 ; Leonard Bellingrath, 1873. 

In 1870 Rev. David Wills, D.D., was chosen assistant to 
Dr. Wilson for one year. On the death of the latter, Rev. E. 
H. Barnett was called but declined. On September 21, 1873, 
Rev. Joseph H. Martin was chosen pastor; installed on the 


16tli of November; served till the 1st of November, 188^y 
when his pastoral relations ceased by resignation. In Janu- 
ary, 1883, Eev. E. H. Barnett, D.D., was elected pastor, and 
on June 10, he was installed. 

Eev. Charles P. Bridewell is the present pastor. 

Second Building. — As the church had been blessed with a 
large number of accessions, and the old building was too 
small for the growing demands, in 1876 and early in 1877, a 
new house of worship was decided upon. On the 17th of July, 
1877, a contract was made with Messrs. Cook and Stewart 
for the erection of the same, to cost some $35,000. The exca- 
vation for the basement was made in August and September, 
and on the 13th of the latter month the foundation was 
begun, the edifice to be completed by November, 1878. Mean- 
time the church worshipped in an edifice belonging to the 
Methodist Church, located on ilarietta, near the corner of 
Spring street. 


On the 11th of February, 1858, the Presbytery of Flint 
Eiver was addressed by thirty-nine members of the Atlanta 
Presb^-terian Church, desiring to be created into a congrega- 
tion separate from the organization known as the Atlanta 
Presbyterian Church, expressly stipulating it should not be 
called the Second Church. Presbytery answered the memorial 
by constituting the thirty-nine petitioners the Central Pres- 
byterian Church. On the 14th of February these met and 
proceeded to organize a Presbjierian commonwealth by the 
election of Dr. J. P. Logan and Dr. John Ehea (the 5th) to 
the office of ruling elders and the installation of Messrs. 

History of Atlanta. 149 

George S. Thomas and William P. Eobinson as deacons in 
that congregation. 

Having no home of its own, the little flock were granted 
permission to use the City Hall, and here they worshipped for 
over two years, Eev. John W. Baker being their first min- 
isterial supply. Three months after its organization, on May 
20, 1858, a lot was purchased, being the same now occupied 
by the beautiful structure known as the Central Presbyterian 
Church. During the summer of the year 1858 a church edi- 
fice was commenced. In the latter part of the year a regular 
pastor was chosen — Eev. J. L. Eogers. He was installed by 
Eev. Messrs. Patterson, Marks and Mickle, January 16, 1859, 
he resigning after four years' incumbency. During his' pas- 
torate the church building was completed. It was dedicated 
March 3, 1860, Eev. Joseph C. Stiles, D.D., preaching the 
sermon. Eev. Eobert Q. Mallard was elected as pastor, and, 
accepting, he served three years, the period of much suffering 
and peril in Atlanta. On July 22, the faithful pastor resigned 
to accept a call to Xew Orleans, and on the 27th of Septem- 
ber following was dismissed to his new charge. Eev. Eufus 
K. Porter was chosen pastor in January, 1867, and served 
the Central until his demise, July 14, 1869. Eev. J. T. Left- 
wich was then elected pastor on October 17, of that year, be- 
ginning his work December 24, but he was not installed by 
Presbytery until May, 1870. In this position he served nine 
years, endearing himself to the congregation by his zeal and 
earnest work for his Master and the cause of humanity. Dr. 
Vaughn was stated supply for six months, when the church 
called Dr. William E. Boggs, of the Second Church, in Mem- 
phis, Tenn. When his duties during the yellow fever epi- 
demic in that city were ended. Dr. Boggs accepted the invita- 
tion in October and began his labors in December, 1879. 

150 Pioneer Citizexs" 

Three years later he left to accept a position in the Theologi- 
cal Seminary of Columbia. 

Dr. G. B. Strickler had been called to the pastorate and 
accepted the call before his predecessor left. Delayed by ill- 
ness in his family, Dr. Strickler did not assume his charge till 
1st of February, 1883. Soon after his labors began, church 
extension took on new proportions, and in a short time a 
colony of the Central was organized into a church of twenty- 
four members, and named the Wallace Church, in recognition 
of the substantial aid given it by Major Campbell Wallace, 
when a building was erected on West Fair street. This church 
has been served by Eev. X. Keff Smith, Eev. James Wood 
Pague, Eev. Mr. Cook, Eev. ]\Ir. P)Owman and Eev. Julian S. 

The Georgia Avenue Mission was projected by Dr. Eankin. 
As with the Wallace, this church had the aid of the Young 
Men's Prayer Association, and the result was another church. 
The Georgia Avenue was served by Eev. X. KefiE Smith, Eev. 
James Wood Payne and Eev. Chalmers Fraser. 

The next offshoot of the Central was the Inman Park 
Church, built in Decemlier, 1876. The first pastor was Eev. 
D. G. Armstrong. 

The pastor of the Central at present writing, is Eev. 
Theron H. Eice. successor to Dr. Strickler. 


This denomination, which had worshipped in temporary 
abodes in the early days, in January, 18-17, began the work 
of erecting a home of their own. Eev. D. G. Daniel, a mis- 
sionary of the Georgia Baptist Convention, under direction 
of that body, about this time began his labors in Athmta. 

History of Atlanta. 151 

With a small sum of money he purchased the lot on which 
the First Church now stands, for $130, and commenced the 
erection of a plain, wooden structure, which was soon com- 
pleted. On the 5th of July it was dedicated. The original 
members of the church were : Eev. D. G. Daniel, Benjamin F. 
Bomar, John Jones, W. C. Hughes, John N. Jones, Mary J. 
Daniel, E. C. Daniel, Mary Boseraan, Mary S. Ehodes, Martha 
J. Davis, Malinda Eape, Elizabeth j\Ioody, Martha Jones, 
Elizabeth Shurburne,' Susannah White, Mary Hughes and 
Lydia Clark. Mr. Daniel, the first pastor, was for several 
years annually elected pastor, until 1854, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Eev. A. M. Spalding. 

In August, preceding, letters of dismission were granted 
to nine persons, who, with others, formed the Second Baptist 

Under the pastorate of Eev. H. C. Hornady, in 1863, the 
first proposition was made to liuild a new house of worship, 
but the excitement of the war was such that the matter was 
deferred. In August, 18G5, the proposition to build was re- 
newed, money raised, and in 18GS the foundation of the pres- 
ent large structure was laid; in the fall of 1869 it was com- 
pleted, at a cost of $30,500 — the contributions being largely 
made by ISTorthern and Western cities. 

The following pastors have served the church since its 
organization: Eev. D. G. Daniel, from January, 18-48, to 
April, 1850; Eev. D. G. Daniel and Eev. A. M. Spalding, 
from April, 1850, to April, 1851; Eev. A. M. Spalding, from 
April, 1851, to October, 1851 ; Eev. W. A. Eobert, from Octo- 
ber, 1851, to October, 1854; Eev. T. U. Wilkes, from'October, 
1854, to December, 1856 ; Eev. H. Williams, from December, 
1856, to March, 1858 ; Eev. A. T. Holmes, from March. 1858, 
to August, 1859 ; Eev. T. U. Wilkes, from October, 1859, to 
March, 1861; Eev. H. C. Hornady. from March, 1861, to 

152 Pioneer Citizens' 

March, 1867; Eev. E. W. Fuller, from February, 1868, to 
December, 1870; Eev. E. W. Warren, from April, 1871. to 
February, 1876 ; Eev. D. Gwin, from June, 1876, to June 1, 
188-1; Eev. J. B. Hawthorne, from July 1, 1884, to February 
1, 1889 ; Eev. Eeuben Jeffery, from April 1, 1889, to Septem- 
ber, 1, 1889 ; Eev. J. B. Hawthorne, from October 1, 1889, to 
May 1, 1896. Dr. Hawthorne's was the longest, and in many 
respects the most prosperous, pastorate in the history of the 
church. Under his administration the church sent out col- 
onies forming the West End and Jackson Hill Churches, built 
a nice home for the Xorth Avenue Mission, and established a 
successfid mission station at the Exposition Mills. 

Eev. W. W. Landrum was chosen pastor in July, 1896, 
and entered upon his work September 1, 1896, which he has 
so acceptably filled up to the present. 

The church, during all its history, has been, as it is today, 
in full co-operation with the Southern Baptist Convention 
and the Georgia Baptist Convention. It is perhaps one of the 
largest (of the Protestant) churches in the city. The Sunday- 
school is one of the great features — the officers and scholars 
numbering something over 1,200. 


The birth of this branch of the evangelical church is co- 
existent with that of Atlanta. It was in the year 1847 these 
two events occurred — the church perhaps a short period before 
Atlanta supplanted Marthasville. A few men met in the office 
of Eichard Peters to organize in the spring of 1847, and 
about two weeks afterward, Samuel Mitchell had deeded a lot 
to them, the position lying along Washington street, and on 
which the first house of worship was erected, the present site 

History of Atlanta. 153 

of St. Philip's. The congregation was very limited in num- 
bers, but they were earnest and faithful. They were served 
occasionally by Rev. J. J. Hunt, a missionary, who divided 
his time between Jonesboro and Marthasville. In 1849 Mr. 
Richard Peters applied to the missionary board at Macon for 
a minister, and pledging $300 a year for his support. Rev. J. 
W. Zimmer responded, and in February, 1850, took charge. 
He reports there were seven communicants that year. He 
remained till 1854, and was succeeded bv Rev. Richard John- 
son; he serving till 1859. Rev. K. F. Freeman succeeded him 
and remained till the approach to the city of the Federal 
army. In 1866 Rev. C. W. Thomas took charge and remained 
till 1871. For a brief period Rev. Mr. Coley was in charge, 
but it was not till March, 1872, that the church had another 
rector— the Rev. R. W. B. Elliott— until 1874, followed by 
Rev. R. C. Foute in 1875, whose ministry extended until 
1884. Rev. Dr. Armstrong succeeded, and remained till 1886, 
when the Rev. Byron Holley followed, his term ending in 1889. 
Rev. Mr. Fonston came next, and remained till his death, in 
1891. Rev. Dr. T. C. Tupper succeeded and remained from 
June, 1891, to July, 1890. The present incumbent. Very Rev. 
Albion W. Knight, succeeded Dr. Tupper. 

St. Philip's Church (pro-Cathedral) has grown with 
Atlanta — both having a very humble beginning, struggling 
along the years, ever hopeful, buoyant and faithful. St. Phil- 
ip's is one of the spiritually strong churches of the city, hav- 
ing in its membership some of the best citizenship of Atlanta. 
It has always exerted a potent influence on Atlanta, striving 
for better government and salutary legislation, and in all mat- 
ters pertaining to useful organizations and benefactions, St. 
Philip's has always done its share. Among the many en- 
nobling works of the congregation, which crowns St. Philip's 
with lasting fame, may be mentioned the organization known 

154 PioxEEK Citizens' 

as the St. Philip's Hospital Aid Society, formed amid the 
dark days of the city's investment by the Federal armies in 
1864. This society knew no section, halted not for a moment 
to inquire, "tinder which flag ?" but unhesitatingly nursed the 
sick and wounded and buried the dead soldier — wherever duty 
called, its devoted members went. 

St. Philip's Church suffered greatly from devastation In' 
vicious men of the Federal armies. 

\\Tien the congregation returned at the close of the war. 
Bishop Elliott met with them, and it was decided to re-conse- 
crate the church. The only service the Bishop could find for 
the purpose was an Irish form, which had been used during 
the terrible wars that devastated Ireland. 

During the "reconstruction" period, General Meade, and 
many of the army officers, attended service at the little church, 
which became so popular that numerous additions were made 
to it. Through the efforts of General j\Ieade and his wife, and 
the women of the church, the sum of three thousand dollars 
was raised, and an organ purchased. 


Among the first settlers of Marthasville were John and 
James Lynch, Patrick Cannon and Daniel Dougherty. 
These were the first Catholics of Atlanta. This new commu- 
nity was early found by a missionary priest, who said the first 
mass for them in the home of Michael ^IcCullongh, near the 
corner of Loyd and Hunter streets. With the completion of 

History of Atlanta. 155 

the Georgia Eailroad, in 1S4G. other Catholics came; among 
them were Terrence Doonan. William J. :Mann, Peter Malone, 
B. T. Larnl), William Kav, Joseph and John 'Gatins, Michael 
and Patrick " Lynch. The little congregation was visited 
monthly hy Fathers Barry and Duggan, of Augusta ; Birming- 
ham, of Edgefield, S. C. ; Shannahan, of Macon, and J. F. 
O'Neil, Sr., of Savannah; mass being said at the house of 
Terrence Doonan. 

By 1851 the congregation had grown sufficiently to have a 
resident priest, and Father J. F.O'ISreil, Jr., was sent as the 
first pastor. He built a small frame church on the site of the 
present Church of the Immaculate Conception, corner Cen- 
tral avenue and Hunter streets, which was dedicated by 
Bishop Eeynolds, of Charleston, as the State of Georgia was 
at that time embraced in the see of Charleston. During Mr. 
O'Xeil's pastorate, the congregation grew steadily, and when, 
in 1860, he was succeeded by Father James Harson, the con- 
gregation numbered about two hundred. 

In the early spring of 1861 Father Hassan went on a visit 
to Ireland, and Father Thomas O'Eeily was left in charge 
Upon Father Harsan's return to America, he was prevented 
from returning to Atlanta by reason of the blockade of all 
Southern ports during the Civil War. During the trying days 
from 1861 to 1865, Father OTieily was the devoted pastor, and 
did heroic work in the hospitals which filled the city, and upon 
the battlefields around Atlanta. During the siege of the 
city he was untiring in his devotion to his people, visiting 
them daily and encouraging them during these anxious days. 
During the occupation by the Federal army his fearless dig- 
nity won for him the admiration of the officers in charge, and 
upon the evacuation it was owing to his personal efforts that 
that portion of the city in which his church was located was 
saved from the general destruction by the army; thus, like- 

156 PioxEER Citizens' 

wise, saving the Presbyterian (Second), Baptist (Second), 
and Episcopal (St. Philip's) churches, and the Cit}^ Hall. 
At the close of the War Father O'Eeily devoted himself to the 
task of building the present Church of the Immaculate Con- 
ception, which he began in 1869 — an herculean task, consid- 
ering the impoverished condition of his people. He likewise 
built the convent of the Sisters of Mercy, on Loyd street, and 
established the school. His health gave way, and he did not 
live to see the completion of his church — dying in 1872 at the 
early age of forty-one. Fathers Cullihan, Reily and Ribman 
were the successive pastors. In 1879 Father James O'Brien 
was placed in charge. During his term of office he completed 
the church and established St. Joseph's Infirmary, on Court- 
land street. In this year Sts. Peter and Paul was built on 
Marietta street. In 1896 this church passed under the control 
of the Marist Fathers, and in 1878 they built the Church of 
the Sacred Heart, on Ivy street, and moved the seat of the 
parish to that place. 

History of Atlanta. 157 




An Old Timer With a Good Memory — Relates Many Incidents 
of Early Days — Arrivals — First Oysters in the Shell Xot 
Pleasing to the Xatives — First Sewing Machine Brought 
to Atlanta — The First Liberty Pole — Franklin's Birth- 
day Celebrated — Homicides and Suicides — Secret So- 

The first writing and spelling school was taught by Wil- 
liam Mulkey; the first singing school by a Mr. Kermera; the 
first dancing school by a Mr. Dnsenberry, 

The first millinery establishment was conducted by a Mrs. 
Wright, who afterwards removed to Marietta, and the first 
mantua-maker's by Mrs. Jerry Kehoe. 

The first physicians were Drs. William and Joshua Gil- 
bert, George C. Smith, F. Jeter Martin and X. L. Angier. 

The first drug store was opened l)y Dr. X. L. Angier, on 
Whitehall street. 

The first book bindery was started by William Kay. 

The first ten pen alley was erected by Daniel Dougherty, 
on the northwest corner of Peachtree street and the railroad 

The first billiard table was brought here by the late H. 
Muhlenbrink, in 1857. 

The first sewing machine, a Singer, was brought to At- 
lanta by A. Leyden, and sold to C. R. Hanleiter. 

The first sheriff of Fulton county was Thomas J. Per- 

158 Pioneer Citizens' 

The first bakery was put up by David Douglierty — P. J. 
Immel, baker. 

The first resident daguerreotypist and photographist was 
C. W. Dill. 

The first grand barbecue was given by the "WHiigs, in Sep- 
tember, 1848, at Walton's Spring. 

The first spring mattress made in Atlanta was by T. W. 

The first building used for public exhibitious was Davis' 
Hall, corner of Alabama and Whitehall streets. 

The first cemetery was located on the west side of Peach- 
tree street, near its junction with (now) Baker street. 

The first bookstore was opened by James McPherson. 

The first steam planing mill and cotton gin maniifactory 
in Atlanta was erected and operated on the corner of Forsyth 
street and the Western & Atlantic Railroad (now Kennesaw 
block), by the venerable and large-hearted Joseph Winship, 
about the year 1850. 

One of the first dry goods and clothing stores was opened 
by David Mayer, in 18 16. 

Dry goods were first sold at wholesale in Atlanta by Eyan 
& Myers, on the northwest corner of Whitehall and Hunter 

Ezra Andrews and D. S. Miller were the first saddlers to 
open in Atlanta. 

Lewis Lawshe was the first merchant tailor. 

The first livery stable was opened and kept by Oliver H. 

C. C. Rogers and Edward Parsons were the first butchers 
of Atlanta. 

The first oysters in the shell came to C. R. Hanleiter in 
December, 1847. 

History of Atlanta. 159 

The first shrimp — about one-half peck — came to the same 
party in 1848. 

The first fresh salt water fish, mullet and trout, came to 
the same party the same year. 

The first candy factory and cake bakery was opened by 
Immel & Cunningham, on Alabama street, near Broad. 

In 1856, Franklin's birthday was celebrated for the first 
time by a superb dinner at the residence of C. E. Hanleiter, 
at which all the editors of the city and several typos were pres- 

The first accident by premature explosion of cannon oc- 
curred in 1857, when Mr. Daniel N. Poore lost his right arm; 

The first liberty pole raised in Atlanta was erected in the 
square immediately in rear of the present Southern Express 
office, in 1856. 

Judge Francis H. Cone assaulted Hon. A. H. Stephens 
with a knife and cane on the piazza of the Atlanta Hotel in 
1848, infiicting several wounds. Mr. Stephens, after par- 
tially recovering, attended the great Whig mass meeting held 
that year at Walton's Spring, being drawn thither and back 
in an open buggy by a team of his friends in lieu of horses. 

The first execution (hanging) was that of young Crockett, 
and the second that of John Cobb (both in 1857, but sepa- 
rately), for the murder of old Mr. Landrum. Mechanic Fire 
Company, No. 2, having been armed, equipped and drilled as 
infantry, served as guard, under command of C. E. Han- 

The first suicide was by a lady — name not remembered. 
The second was by Dr. Land Gilbert, a young and talented 

In 1859 or 1860 James S. Slaughter, a talented young 
lawyer, suicided in the old Holland building. 

The first murder was committed by a yoimg man named 

160 PioxEER Citizens' 

Humphries, in the precincts of Snake Xation, near where 
Peters street crosses the Macon & Western railway, in 1851; 
the victim being a son of old Mr. John Tiller. 

Dr. Hilll)urn was killed by Elijah Bird in the same year. 
They were brothers-in-law. 

In 1852 a son of a Mr. Odena, proprietor of a drinking sa- 
loon, shot and killed, in his father's saloon, a daguerrean art- 
ist named White. 

In 1853 a schoolmaster named Greggs was killed by Den- 
nis Haynes, near Culberson's old stand, now West End. 

A man named Martin killed Daniel Dougherty, by cutting 
him in the abdomen, in 1851, on ^^Tiitehall street. 

In 1856 four atrocious murders were committed; first, the 
killing and robbery of an old gentleman named Landrum, on 
the McDonough road (now Capitol avenue), by John Cobb 
and Crockett ;• second, the shooting of bailiff Webb by Wm. A. 
Choice, on Pryor street; third, young Amos Hammond was 
killed and his body placed on the track of the Macon & West- 
ern railroad, at night, where it was fearfully mangled by the 
incoming train; fourth, young Witcher shot and killed his 
father in the American Hotel, on the corner of Alabama and 
Pryor streets. 

Having greatly enlarged his facilities, in 1859 C. E. Han- 
leiter (the first name being Wood, Hanleiter, Eice & Co.) es- 
tablished the "Franklin Printing House and Book Bindery." 
The machinery was run by a sfeam engine made expressly for 
him by Messrs. Noble Brothers, of Eome, Ga. This was, at 
the time, the largest and best appointed establishment of the 
kind in the Southern States, except the Methodist Publishing 
House at Nashville, Tenn. 

In 1859, Miss Josephine E. Hanleiter (afterward Mrs. 
Henry Gullatt, recently deceased) presented to the Gate City 
Guard, Capt. G. Harvey Thompson, a cogtly silken flag mod- 

History of Atlanta. 161 

eled after the "stars and stripes." In 1861, before the depart- 
ure of the Guards for service in Virginia, the same lady al- 
tered the flag to represent the "Stars and Bars," when a sec- 
ond presentation took place. This flag, with all the company's 
baggage and supplies, was lost during their memorable re- 
treat from Laurel Hill, in the winter of 1861-2. 




Atlanta Lodge, No. 59, F. and A. M. — Organized under 
dispensation April 13, and chartered October 26, A. D., 1847, 
A. L., 5847. Officers— Thos. W. Chandler, W. M.; W. H. 
Fuller, Sen. W. ; L. R. Lanier, Jr. W. ; Ed. A. Werner, Treas. ; 
J. M. Boring, Secy. ; H. C. Barrow, Sen. D. ; G. A. Howald, 
Jr. D.; W. D. Luckie, C. E. Stephens, Stewards; J. G. McLin, 

Fulton Lodge, No. 216, F. and A. M.— Organized 1851; 
suspended by Grand Lodge until October, 1857, when it was 
revived. Officers— W. W. W. Bond, W. M. ; W. H. Broxton, 
Sr. W. ; M. V. D. Corput, Jr. W. ; C. D. Jackson, Treas. ; C. 
F. Barth, Secy. ; L. Cohen, Sr. D. ; T. E. ^Vhitaker, Jr. D. ; 
J. W. Keely, Steward; G. H. Gramling, Secretary; A. Mc- 
Lellan, Tyler. 

Mount Zion Royal Arcli Chapter, No. 10. — Chartered May 
3, A. D., 1847, A. L. 5847. Officers— Thos. W. Chandler, M. 
E. H. P. ; H. C. Barrow, E. K. ; H. Marshall, E. S. ; Henry 

162 ' Pioneer Citizens' 

S. Orme, Capt. H.; W. W. Boyd, Prin. Soj.; L. E. Lanier, E. 
A. C. ; E. J. Eoach, M. 3d V. ; Y. T. Barnwell, M. 2d Y. ; Cal- 
vin Foy, M. 1st V. ; G. D. Jackson, Treas. ; Geo. H. Hammond 
Secy. ; A. McLellan, Sentinel. 

Jaso7i Burr Council, Yo. 13. — Eoyal Masters and Select 
Masons of 27. — Organized in April. 1855. Officers — ^Y. W. 
Boyd, T. 111. ; Thos. W. Chandler. H.T . ; H. C. Barrow, H. 
A. • X. D'Alvigny, Treas. ; J. M. Boring, Steward ; J. G. Mc- 
Lin, Sentinel. 

Coeur Be Lion Commandery, No. 4, E. T. — Chartered 
September 17, A. D., 1859, A. O., 741. Officers— Thos. W. 
Chandler, P. C, Em Com. ; Calvin Fay, Gen. ; W. W. Boyd, 
C, Gen. Capt. Gen.; H. Marshall, Prelate; J. M. Willis, S. 
W. ; W. H. Fuller, J. W. ; Lewis Lawshe, Treas. ; W. H. Tur- 
ner, Eec. ; Henry S. Orme, Warder ; P. M. Sitton, Sw'd Br. ; 
H. Hodges, Sw'd B'r. ; A. M. Manning, 1st Gd. ; C. C. Davis, 
2d G. ; Columbus Hughes, 3d Gd. ; J. G. McLin, Sentinel. 

White Eagle Chapter No. 1. — Eose Croix, A. and A. E. — 
Chartered July 3, 1866. Officers— W. W. Boyd, M. W. ; Thos. 
W. Chandler, S. W. ; A. J. Blair, J. W. ; W. H. Fuller, Ora. ; 
N. D'Alvigny, Alsuo ; W. T. Mead, Sec. ; H. C. Barrow, M. 
C; Calvin Fay, S. Exp.; H. S. Orme, J. Exp.; M. Frank, 
G'd of Hem. ; H. C. Kuhrt, Tyler. 

(L 0. 0. F.) 

Central Lodge, No. 28.- Organized October 7, 1848. Of- 
ficers: X. Buice, X. G.; W. D. Yest, G. D.; J. C. Eogers, 
Treasurer ; B. F. Bennett, Secretary. 

Barnes Lodge, No. 55. — Organized March 5, 1863. Of- 
ficers : J. M. Hunnicutt, X. G. ; c. E. Stephens, Y. G. ; E. P. 
McCown, Treasurer; S. W. Grubb, Secretary. 

Empire Encampment, No. 12. — Chartered December 13, 

History of Atlanta. 163 

ISGO. Officers: T. P. Fleming, C. P.; B. F. Bennett, H. P.; 
John A. Hill, Sen. W.; J. W. Baker, Jr. W.; S. W. Grubb, 
Scribe; M. Buice, Treasurer. 


Organized in 1858. B. T. Lamb, President. 


Atlanta Lodge, No. 1. — Organized November 6, 1852. 



Numbers 1, 2, and Hook and Ladder Company — A Splendid 
Corps of Volunteers — But Few of the Old Eegime Liv- 
ing — Fighting Fires and Acting as Home Guards During 
the War — The First Fire in Atlanta — Memories of 
Other Days — ^Mechanics' No. 2 Building on Washington 

In the spring of 1850, while Atlanta was but a bantling 
in years, the citizens determined to take measures to protect 
their property from the devouring elements. Without appar- 
atus of any kind, the chances for saving houses from the 
flames were very slim. Yet it was a beginning, developing 
from a '^bucket brigade" year by year into a splendid depart- 

164 Pioneer Citizens' 

ment of volunteers, than whom there are none braver, more 
devoted to the cause, or more efficient at this time— all things 
considered. When it is remembered that they never shirked 
their duty, that they received no pay, and that during the 
Civil War they did duty as firemen and regular militia for 
ihe protection of life and property, all honor must be accorded 

The first fire of any magnitude in Atlanta occurred in the 
winter of 1858, on the east side of Whitehall, about one hun- 
dred feet south of Alabama street. The building consumed 
by the flames was a frame, two stories high, with stores on the 
ground floor and dwellings above. When the fire engine got 
there the fire was so hot that no one could get up stairs — it 
being known there were some women and children in the up- 
per part of the house. The fire companies had no ladders 
then, and while some were being procured, two children and 
a woman were burned up. Among the crowd gathered about 
the fire was a Mr. Frank Johnson, from ISTew York, who had 
come here to connect himself with McNaught, Ormond & 
Company. He commented on the absence of ladders in the 
fire department, and immediately began soliciting subscrip- 
tions to purchase them. Eesponses were numerous, and it was 
proposed to organize a Hook and Ladder Company. William 
Eushton, John C. Peck and Mr. Johnson, with others, soon 
procure a charter, and the company was organized, with Mr. 
Eushton foreman, and Mr. Johnson assistant foreman. After 
a few years' service, Mr. Eushton resigned, and ]\Ir. Johnson 
was elected foreman, and Mr. Peck assistant. Soon after the 
war began, Johnson enlisted in the Army of the Confederacy, 
and Peck became foreman, with James Banks assistant. In 
January, 1864, Peck resigned, and Mr. Banks succeeded him, 
holding that position till near the surrender. About this time 
the military (Federals) sent the truck and ladders to Chatta- 

Hi^T/ .. jj- x\tlanta. 165 

nooga, Tenn. Some ;. n September, 1865, a numl)er of 
the old company havi eturned from the army, J. C. Peck 
called a meeting of the feurvivors, with the result that a com- 
mittee was appointed to go to Chattanooga to recover the 
truck and ladders. Arriving there they found them all right, 
succeeded in getting them and returned them to Atlanta. The 
company immediately reorganized, with J. C. Peck foreman. 
In a short time the ranks of the company filled up, a new 
house was built for them, and Foreman Peck concluded he 
would resign, he being followed by Eobert J. Lowry. 

In 1860 these companies held a conference on combining 
into a fire department. This resulted in its consummation; 
an election followed, which resulted in the selection of William 
A. Barnes, chief; S. B. Sherwood, first assistant, and K. F. 
Maddox, second assistant. Chief Barnes was succeeded l)y 
S. B. Sherwood. The third chief was J. H. Mecaslin, and he 
was succeeded by Thomas G. Haney till the close of the war 
in 1865. . 


This pioneer in the fire department of Atlanta was char- 
tered February 23, 1850, almost co-incident with the birth of 
the "Gate City." The men who began the noble T>'ork then 
have nearly all passed away, but old Number 1 still lives in 
the hearts of the people. The charter members of the company 
were : W. W. Baldwin, W. Barnes, C. C. Ehodes, G. R. Frazer, 
H. Muhlinbrink, B. T. Lamb, E. Gardner, S. Frankford, P. J. 
Immel, C. W. Hunnicutt, John Kershaw, T. J. Malone. H. 
M. Mitchell, W. J. Houston, L. J. Parr, J. F. Reynolds, C. A. 
Whaley, A. C. Pulliam, J. S. Malone. Their motto was: 

166 Pioneer Citizens' 

"Prompt to Action,'" and well did they observe the injunction 

Although a volunteer company, the rules and regulations 
were very strict ; fines were imposed for the least infraction. 


Frank T. Eyan. 

It was on Friday night, December 10, 1856, with a cold 
rain falling, that some ten or fifteen men met in a wooden 
Iniilding, with the steps leading to the second story, on the 
outside, with a small landing at the top, that stood at the 
corner of Loyd and Alabama streets. These men, the majority 
of whom were employed in the Georgia Eailroad shops, had 
met in this hall, by permission of the Masonic Order, for the 
l^urpose of organizing another fire company, as at that time 
there was only one thoroughly organized company, jSTumber 1, 
commonly called "Blue Dick,'^ although her chartered name 
was Atlanta Xo. 1. After some preliminaries, the meeting 
was called to order, and William Barnes was elected chairman, 
and C. C. Khodes acted as secretary. Those present at that 
meeting were: William Barnes, Charles C. Khodes, James E. 
Oullatt, Hamilton Crankshaw, Lever Richardson, G. W. T. 
Allen, D. A. Crockett, Frank T. Ryan, D. C. Kelly, Moses B. 
Crawford, Leonard Bellingrath, Albert Bellingrath, John H. 
Spann and Richard Saye. It was then and there determined 
to organize another company, that a charter should be applied 
for, and book opened for membership. It was concluded to 
call this company "Mechanic Fire Compan}^ No. 2." and se- 
lected the motto, "The Public Good Our Only Aim." It was 

History of Atlanta. 167 

not long before the company was fully recruited, and a meeting 
was called for the purpose of electing officers, with the follow- 
ing result, viz. : William Barnes, president ; William Eushton, 
vice-president; Lever Eichardson, first director; J. J. Hoyt, 
second director; James M. Toy, third director; John M. 
Spann, fourth director; Charles C. Ehodes, secretary; James 
E. Gullatt, treasurer; W. Hackett and D. C. Kelly, axmen. 

The company had been organized some time l)efore we re- 
ceived our engine. It was made by Hammond, of Boston, and 
took time to manufacture it as we wanted it. The majority 
of this company being skilled mechanics, knew what they 
wanted, and after its arrival knew if it was correct. 

Our meetings were held the tenth of every month, and on 
the 10th of December of each year we had an annual parade, 
it being our anniversary, and at night a fireman's ball, when 
the festive firemen, draped in their uniforms, with their sweet- 
hearts "tripped the light fantastic toe" until the "wee sma' 
hours" in the morning. This company adopted a uniform 
different from the ordinary, the fatigue being an oil-cloth 
cape thrown across the shoulders, with the name and number 
in l)oId letters jDrinted across the cape, with the fireman's hat, 
or helmet. The dress uniform, for parades, balls and extra 
occasions, was a gray dress coat, brass buttons with name and 
number on them, black pair of pants, black belts, and fire- 
man's helmet, all of which had a tendency to make one look 
tastily draped. It was not long iintil we secured the ground 
and erected thereon a house, the same that now stands at 
the head of Washington street and Waverly Place. The com- 
pany was equally divided into four squads, under the command 
of a director. Each squad was required to serve a month, 
during which time the care of the engine and house was looked 
after by the squad then on duty, and in case of fire, the squad 
on duty was in charge of the hose-reel and directed the streams 

168 Pioneer Citizens' 

of water. As most of the members were skilled workmen, 
there being machinists, blacksmiths, moulders, painters, etc., 
and as each member took a pride in keeping things in shape, 
it could be readily seen that at all times our machine and 
premises were in first-class order. One of the rigid rules was 
that there should be no loitering around on Sunda}^ conse- 
quently there never was a noisy, boisterous crowd in the vicin- 
ity of the engine house on that day, but everything was or- 
derly and quiet. On the night of our anniversary we generally 
had a banquet, where we met to discuss some toothsome edi- 
bles, and sample a quantity of liquid refreshments. Those 
happy occasions, with that free, generous and noble crowd, in 
reviewing the past, they loom up as bright oases in the rugged 
pathway of life ; but how sad, when memory tells us that the 
most of that light-hearted, gay, hilarious crowd have solved 
the hidden mystery, and have joined that silent majority in 
the Great Beyond ! To Mr. Henry Karwisch I am indebted 
for the privilege of reviewing the original minute book, as he 
has preserved the same, having been connected with the com- 
pany closely since the war, serving for a term as its president. 
In reviewing that old book, how the recollection is refreshed, 
and how vividly the scenes of some fqrtv-six years ago are 
brought to the mind. I find among the original members the 
following names, viz. : Hamilton Crankshaw, William G. Eich- 
ards, W. H. Cowan, G. W. T. Allen. Dave A. Crockett, Frank 
T. Ryan, William Shearer, Leonard Bellingrath, Albert Bellin- 
grath, Richard Saye, George W. Terry, J. Spillman, John M. 
Holbrook, C. P. Campbell, W. T. Campbell, S. T. Biggers, 
Oliver H. Jones, George Lyon, W. T. Williams. J. Gilbert, Dr. 
J. A. Taylor, William X. Kirkpatrick, Thomas Read and 
W. L. Calhoun. One of the largest fires the company had to 
contend with was before they had received their machine. It 
happened about 2 o'clock in the afternoon and burned nearly 

History of Atlanta. 169 

the entire block, from where Chamberlin, Johnson & Com- 
pany's store now stands down to Mitchell street. They were 
mostly one-story wooden stores, and made a terribly hot fire, 
while we had no engine, yet the company did good work in 
saving the contents, and aiding No. 1. It continued most of the 
afternoon before it was gotten under control. The company 
did good service up to and during the war. During bombard- 
ments they acted both as firemen and soldiers, responding most 
willingly where duty called. Sherman's soldiers destroyed our 
original engine, by running it ofl: the high embankments that 
stood just back of the engine-house. After the war the compa- 
ny was revived and continued to do excellent service up to the 
time the paid fire department was organized, which of course 
put an end to the volunteer service, as their occupation, like 
Othello's, was gone. Although there are but few of the old 
original members now left, it is reasonable to suppose that not 
one of them ever passes the old house, which still stands at the 
head of Washington street and Waverly Place, with the 
original inscription over the main doors, "Organized Decem- 
ber 10th, 1856," but wdiat has vivid recollections of the past, 
and is reminded of the time that when the little bell in the 
belfry sounded forth its warning notes, he buckled on his ar- 
mor and went forth to fight the fire fiend. 


Early in 1866 the remnants of the old companies were got 
together and reorganized, with the following membership: 
S. B. Sherwood, chief engineer ; Henry Gullatt, first assistant 
engineer; W. G. Knox, second assistant engineer. 


(Steam Engine.) 

Officers: John B. Xorman, president; Charles Schnatz, 
first director; John Berkele, second director; John Wilbey, 
third director; Samuel Wilson, secretary; H. Mullenbrink, 
treasurer; John E. Ellsworth, rep to Fire Department; John 
Bridwell and M. Eogan, axemen. 

Active Members — Privates : L. Alexander, H. G. Bell, H. 
W. Broxton, P. J. Cannon, M. L. Collier, John ^Y. Collier, W. 
B. Cox, Pat Dale, John Eisenhut, John Ficken, Daniel Fleck, 
John Galvin, B. Garcia, P. Garvy, John Gramling, Z. W. 
Grogan, D. H. Gaudy, Thomas Haney, Henry Haney, M. Hav- 
ert}^, A. F. Henderson, J. Immel, I\I. J. Immel, William 
James. John Jenzen, H. W. Joyner, John Klotz, Henry 
Kuhrt, A. Klassett, William Karog, P. Kavanagh, Peter 
LjTich, J. LjTich, J. E. Mann. James Mann, William J. Mann, 
Henry Mann, J. P. ^lason, William K. Mason, L. Murrins, 
John McGhee, Martin Xalley, P. Oehlrich, John Peel, W. P. 
Pettis, George Eoob, H. Eansford. M. L. Eobers, Jacob 
Schoen, William Spencer, S. B. Sherwood, J. K. Weaver, A. 
H. Van Loan, Eichard Tan Loan. 

Honorary Members: P. J. Bracken, Martin Daly, John 
H. Fhoin, William Forsyth, Charles Heinz, C. W. Hunnicutt, 
John Kershaw, William Kidd, I. Kirby, B. T. Lamb, John 
Lynch, J. H. Mecaslin, T. C. ]\Iurphy, J. Staddeman. 


Officers : J. E. Gullatt, president ; James K. Kelley, vice- 
president; W. L. Luckie, Jr.. secretary; 0. H. Jones, treas- 

HisTOEY OF Atlanta. 171 

xirer; E. Buice, first director; Charles Beerman, second di- 
rector ; W. G. Middleton, chief engineer ; G. T. Anderson and 
W. F. Woods, pipenien; J. M. Buice and Joseph Wiley, axe- 
men; M. L. Lichenstadt, rep to Fire Department; James F. 
Alexander, M.D., surgeon. 

Members: C. W. Buice, J. D. Buice, H. Bellingrath, T. 
W. Bradbury, W. J. i^Ioman, J. T. Campbell, J. L. Crenshaw, 
Arch Darby, J. E. Dewberry, J. B. Doby, Carl Harrison, Fred 
Krogg, W. Y. Langford, J. L. Lyons, W. H. Manning, M. F. 
Middleton, B. F. Moore, Thomas O'Connor, Thomas Eead, J. 
€. Eogers, C. C. Ehodes, S. Eosenfeld, M. Eote, P. Schraum, 
George Schlotfeldt, Joseph Spilnian, D. Steinheimer, I. Stein- 
lieimer, J. E. Williams, Hugh Wilson, W. L. Calhoun. 

TALLULAH Co. No. 3. 

Officers: E. C. Murjihy, president; S. W. Grubb, vice- 
president; W. C. Shearer, first director; Jesse Smith, second 
director; F. M. Queen, hose director; J. M. Williams, secre- 
tary; L. H. Clarke, treasurer; H. S. Orme, surgeon; A. P. 
T>ell, rep to Fire Department; E. Mercer, foreman first squad; 
L. B. Scudder, foreman second squad; W^. E. Biggers, fore- 
man hose squad ; David Buice and B. Kane, axemen. 

Active Members: Carl Bohnefeld, Herman Bohnefeld, 
Eichard Bohnefeld, E. A. Center, Frank Christopher, William 
F. Clarke, Benjamin B. Crew, John D. Clarke, J. A. Derin- 
ger, E. A. Fife, Eobert C. Fitts, J. B. Groves, A. J. Haralson, 
John A. Hill, J. S. Holland, F. Hewson, G. W. Jack, C. A. 
Johnson, W. N. Judson, J. E. Love, W. T. Mead, E. L. D. 
Mobley, J. E. Mullin, John E. Parks, B. C. Queen, J. J. Eog- 
ers, E. A. Eobinson, J. B. Smith, J. M. Starnes, Charles 
Steadman, J. W. Stokes, C. D. Smith.A. Theme, George 

172 Pioneer Citizens' 

Thompson, C. A. Thrower, Gabe Valentino, John Valentino, 
E. A. Warwick, T. F. Warwick, J. Y. Wells, J. E. Whaley, 
Isaac Williams. 


Officers: J. L. Queen, foreman; C. F. S. D'Alvigny, as- 
sistant foreman ; J. S. Yarbrough, secretary ; George Johnson, 
treasurer; E. N. Holland, rep to Fire Department. 

Active members: J. M. Bockout, A. D. Bradburn, W. M. 
Bryant, G. A. Buckhardt, George Butt, A. Erginzinger, C. A. 
Forsyth, George Franklin, M. Harkman, C. W. Holley, J. H. 
James, F. M. Johnson, Eobert J. Lowry, W. J. Lampkin, W, 
C. McDade, A. McWaters, L. G. Morris, G. W. Parrott, W. G. 
Peters, D. M. Queen, George Eakestraw, J. W. Eeeves, F. M. 
Eichardson, E. C. Smith, Henry Wilson, John Young. 

Honorary Members: George Edwards*, N. E. Fowler*, 
S. B. Love*, John Morrison, J. C. Peck*, Thomas Scrutchin. 

Honorary members. 

History of Atlanta, 173 



Mr. Bell Has a Bell For a Sign — The Famous "Murrel's 
Row" and Its Habitnes — "Slabtown" and How named — 
The Fillmore Flag Raising — The Man who Climbed the 
Pole and His Tragic Death— His Widow Given $2,000 
by Citizens — The "Ferris Wheel" — Visit to Atlanta of 
President Fillmore — His Grand Reception — The First 
Theatre and Some Who Trode Its Boards — Jeff Davis' 
Arrest — Erection of Market Houses and Jail. 

One of the early merchants was a Mr. Bell, who believed 
in attracting customers to his place of business by an extra- 
ordinary scheme. He had a large bell made and hung it out 
in front of his store. Over it was painted the words, "The 
Bell House." Mr. Bell's store was located on Decatur street. 
It is said lie got himself well advertised by his unique sign. 

* * * 

"Baptising the Methodist Church bell" was how the boys 
about town designated it, when they, on one occasion, in the 
dead of night, took the old bell from the tower, which stood on 
the outside of the church, and put it in the well of the Baptist 

•P V H" 

The Young Men's Christian Association was organized in 
1858, Sydney Root being made president; John Clarke, J. 
Hill Davis and M. C. Cole, vice-presidents. 

"Murrell's Row" was located on the north side of Decatur 
road (now Decatur street) between Peachtree and North Pryor 

174 Pioneer Citizens' 

streets. It was famed for its disreputable characters, who 
gathered there to fight chickens, drink and gamble, and also 
concoct schemes to bid defiance to the better elements. The 
row of houses consisted of rambling and extraordinary archi- 
tectural designs, according to the fancy or means of the 

^ He H: 

"Slabtown" was the appropriately named cluster of houses 

in the neighborhood of J. Norcross' sawmill, on Decatur road, 

near the present Southern (formerly Air Line freight depot), 

corner of Decatur and Pratt streets. Mr. Xorcross sold the 

slabs from his mill to the people for their first homes — in 

many cases he gave them away to the very poor and needy. 

* * * 

There were manufactured during the war in Atlanta 
almost every conceivable weapon of warfare — from field ord- 
nance to a revolver; to say nothing of the celebrated "Joe 
Brown Pike," perhaps the only instrument of warfare of its 
kind in the Confederacy. Ammunition was also made of ev- 
ery description, from the largest shell to percussion caps, 
balls, etc. Swords and habres were made in great variety and 
in abundance. 

^ ^ ^ 

A carrier's address, issued by one of the early papers 
(Colonel C. K. Hanleiter's) was full of enthusiasm about At- 
lanta — singing its praises thus : 

"The greatest place in all the nation. 
The greatest place for legislation, 
Or any other occupation — 
The very center of creation," 

^ * H: 

Williams' Atlanta Directory for 1859-60 contained thirty- 
eight pages of advertisements, representing sixty-odd firms. 

History of Atlanta. 175 

This work was done by Mr. Lynch, successor to William Kay. 

It contained 362 pages, including the United States Postoffice 


* * * 

The death of Ex-Mayor John F. Mims, in 1856, was a dis- 
tinct loss to the community. During his incumbency of the 
Mayor's office, in 1853, a great many changes in the affairs 
of the city were made. It is said by those in a position to 
know that the town was perhaps more benefited, morally and 
otherwise, by the official actions of the Mayor and Council 
during that year than those of any previous administration. 
The City Hall grounds were purchased, and negotiations 
made for fuds to build the City Hall (where the Capitol of 
the State now stands). At his suggestion the first city map 
was made. He caused an ordinance to be passed holding own- 
ers of property amenable for disorderly acts of tenants. 
Though the city had no constitutional authority to do this, it 
had the desired effect of largely ridding the city of a lawless 
class who had been extremely troublesome. 

^ ^ ^ 


It was in the year 1859, when Mr. Davis was United States 
Senator, that he passed through Atlanta on his way to his 
home in Mississippi. As he stepped off a train in the "car- 
shed" two policemen approached the senator and told him 
he was under arrest. Mr. Davis mildly protested and told the 
officers there must be a mistake. But this availed him nothing, 
as his captors were quite sure they had the right man. They 
took their prisoner, at his solicitation, before Col. James M. 
Calhoun, the mayor, who, on seeing his old friend under ar- 
rest, was deeply chagrined. The officers, on learning their 
mistake in capturing — not the train robber they were after, 


but a United States Senator — were greatly mortified, and 
were profuse in their apologies. The Mayor severely repri- 
manded them — a lesson they never forgot. 

* * * 


The honor belongs to a company which George W. Lee 
took to Pensacola, Fla., in February, 1861, of being the first 
to tender its services to President Jefferson Davis, at Mont- 
gomery. Some of the members of this company were. Dr. E. 
L. Connally, Dr. James Knott, Samuel Eobinson and W. J. 
Pollard, who afterwards became attached to the war depart- 
ment, with the title of colonel. As the company returned 
from its successful mission they met with ovations all along 
the route. On the train with them were some ladies, who be- 
came so enthused that they procured some material at Grant- 
ville, made and presented the company with a handsome flag, 
the first one over made in Georgia. This flag showed seven 
stars in a circle on a blue union and three horizontal bars of 
red and white. Captain Lee's company was put with a com- 
pany from Macon, one from Einggold (under command of 
Captain Sprayberry), a company from Cartersville (under 
command of Captain Howard), and made into an independ- 
ent battalion under command of Major (afterwards General) 
Villepogue. The battalion was soon increased to a regiment 
and commanded by Colonel Smith, of ]\Lacon. 


At some period during the lifetime of Marthasville, and 
afterwards in Atlanta, there lived a diminutive specimen of 
the French nationality named Antonio Maquino. He had a 

History op Atlanta. 177 

wagon-yard on the slope between Peachtree street and the old 
Walton Spring, near which, under some large shade trees he 
had a confectionary and "knick-nack" establishment. Among 
other devices, or contrivances, whereby to attract patronage 
and entertain his patrons, he had built, of wood, a large wheel, 
patterned after the old-time mill wheels of that day, about 
forty feet in diameter. It was rudely constructed of rough 
material — possibly not exactly circular — not so large, and far 
less beautiful and symmetrical than the famous "Ferris 
wheel" of World's Fair fame. Maquino's wheel was made of 
wood, revolved on an axle, and a couple of muscular negro 
fello\^ supplied the motive power. The cars, the number of 
which is not remembered, were made of good, strong dry-goods 
boxes. During rainy weather the concern would get tight, and 
entertainment on it had to be suspended. Many of our citi- 
zens, then schoolboys, remember the wheel, and more than one 
Pioneer remembers having been revolutionized by it. 

So far as the principle of this novel device for entertain- 
ment is concerned, as perfected in the* "Ferris Wheel," At- 
lanta is at least forty years ahead of Chicago, as the Maquino 
Wheel was operated in the early fifties. 


Atlantians were ever imbued with the spirit of patriotism. 
Coming, as they did, from many States of the Union, to cast 
their fortunes in the new and progressive city, they pulled to- 
gether for its advancement in every way. Politics ran high in 
those days, and Atlanta had her share of partisans of the 
Whig and Democratic parties, respectively. And when it 
came to honoring the chief executive of the nation, as they 
did President Millard Fillmore, in 1856, both parties laid 


down their arms for the nonce, forgot their animosities and 
strove to honor their guest. We here quote from a letter to 
the historian of tlie Pioneers Citizens' Society, written by C. 
E. Hanleiter in 1892, anent this matter. The writer says : 

'^0 more cordial greeting was ever awarded to a public 
man than that given by the early citizens of Atlanta to Millard 
Fillmore. He came ^^a the Georgia Eailroad, and was re- 
ceived at the union passenger depot (then a wooden shed) by 
the Mayor and a vast number of otlier dignitaries and citi- 
zens, with enthusiastic cheers mingled with the blowing of the 
whistles of a dozen or more locomotives, which had been as- 
sembled for the purpose (a mode of welcome never before ac- 
corded any man, and altogether peculiar to Atlanta). After a 
brief address of welcome by the Mayor, and Mr. Fillmore's 
reply, he was escorted to Dr. Thompson's hotel, where he was 
introduced to the people, who called in large numbers to grasp 
his hand. This ceremony over, he was taken in charge by a 
committee of citizens and driven over the citj', and in the 
afternoon he was entertained at the hotel at one of the largest 
and best appointed banquets ever, up to that time, given in 
upper Georgia. All the leading men of the city and neigh- 
boring countn' united in doing honor to tlie distinguished 
guest. An incident oi the banquet is fresh in my memory : 
The late Rev. John R. Duncan was celebrated as a sweet singer. 
He sat at the table on Mr. Fillmore's right The toasts and 
responses being over, some one called upon !Mr. Duncan for 
a song. He responded readily with a parting song, and in the 
first verse, suiting the action to the words, rose to his feet and 
extended his hand to the visiting president, who immediately 
arose and, grasping 1x)th Mr. Duncan's hands, remained in 
that position until the song was concluded, tears meanwhile 
flowing do^vn liis honest, manly face. The scene was magical ; 

History of Atlanta. 179 

the entire company, as by inspiration, arose to their feet, 
clasped hands, and as many as could Joined in the singing." 

In the evening a reception was held, at which the best citi- 
zens, including ladies, appeared. Mr. Fillmore carried with 
him, when he left the city, recollections of Atlanta's hospital- 
it}' which would cheer him through life. 

The ball given in lionor of Mr. Fillmore was opened by 
!Miss Fannie Butt, daughter of the Mayor, and a gentleman 
from Rome, Ga.^ who was Mayor of that City. 

The Fillmore pole raising occurred at tliis time. It was 
the occasion of the visit of Mr. Fillmore to the city. Two 
trees had been cut, peeled and fastened together and erected 
in a vacant lot. A fine, large flag had been procured to kiss 
the breeze from the apex. When the ropes had been attached 
to the pole and the flag pai'tially run up, it was found that 
the ropes were entangled. The vast crowd was disappointed, 
and the managers dismayed. The latter offered $100 to any 
one who would climb the pole and disentangle the ropes. A 

stranger in the crowd, l^y the name of • 

claiming to have been a sailor at one time, accepted the prop- 
osition. After he had reached a dizzy height, he took out his 
knife and cut one of the ropes and fell. He survived but a 
short while. The citizens raised a subscription of $2,000 and 
gave his widow. 


The administration of justice in the early days was at- 
tended with many diflficulties and dangers. The lawless ele- 
ment were in the majority, but they were hardly ever a match 
for the strong arm of the law. They had to be subdued by 

180 Pioneer Citizens' 

a moral force, such as the better class were possessed of, 
rather than by the number of the officers. The marshal was 
at first alone in his onerous duties, but he was invincible. The 
citizens never hesitated when called upon to assist him. In 
the case of the first marshal, German ]\I. Lester, it soon be- 
came known it wouldn't do to "fool with him," He was a 
brave, fearless man, 5'et kind and gentle, Oji a certain occa- 
sion he was sitting on his little Indian pon}', talking in his 
kindly way to a crowd of boys about their mischievous ways, 
when one of them — said to have been Joe G-atins — slipped 
around to the rear of the pony, tied a bunch of firecrackers to 
his tail and set them off, Tbe marshal's lecture to the boys 
came to a sudden ending- with the explosion of the first 
cracker — the pony having jumped into the air and "lit a-run- 
ning." The marshal never did say how far the pony ran l)e- 
fore he could stop him, l)ut the boys said it was three days 
before the marshal made his appearance again on the streets. 

But to the story of the calaboose. The building that then 
served as the police station was a one-room log cabin that 
stood on the west side of Pryor, near Alabama street. There 
was a high embankment on the lot at that time and the little 
lock-up was built on the edge of the embankment. The floor 
of the cabin was made of heavy slabs, and, as they were not 
nailed down, it was a favorite trick with the boys about town 
when they had been locked up to sober off, to remove the slabs 
and escape. The county jail was at that time in Decatur, and 
the little calaboose here was used mainly as a place of deten- 
tion for run-away negroes until their owners could be notified. 
The key of that famous prison is now in the possession of Mr. 
H. P. Lester (son of the old marshal). It is made of brass 
and is a huge affair compared with tlie keys of today. It is 
about eight inches long and weiglis a quarter of a pound. 

History of Atlanta. 181 

The lock used on the calaboose was one of the old-fashioned 
wooden locks that was worked with this large key. 

It was not an easy job to police Atlanta in those days, for 
the old inhabitants all agree that there never was a to^vn of 
like size that had as many wild and mischieyous boys in it. 
One little harmless amusement that the boys about town were 
wont to indulge in at that time consisted in rolling a hogshead 
full of hogs down the Alabama street hill. They would get 
a big sugar hogshead and putting four or five grunters securely 
inside start it rolling at the top of the Alabama street hill at 
the place where Whitehall now crosses. The hogshead. "Vfould 
roll until it hit the big embankment on which the calaboose 
stood and the racket made by the imprisoned porkers would 
bring everybody in the village running to the place of the 
terrific noise. This was one of the mild jokes that the town 
marshal of those days had to put up with. 

182 Pioneer C^nzE^'s' 




Peport of George W. Adair, L. P. Grant, James E. Williams, 
W. L. Calhonn, E. T. Himuicutt, William McConnell, 
Dr. Joe Bosworth, on Union Passenger Depot — Eaili'oad 
Building — Land Grants — Atlanta's Arteries — The Geor- 
gia Western, or Georgia Pacific (now Southern) Eail- 
way — Atlanta's Donations To That Boad — George W. 
Adair, E. F. Maddox, Thomas G. Healey. John H. James 
and A. Leyden, Committee. 


George W. Adair, Chairman. 

The history of the Union Passenger Depot is somewhat 
checkered, and of great interest. A review of railroad his- 
tory will be in order to lead up to this depot history. The 
State of Georgia chartered, in 1836, and decided to build a 
railroad at her own expense, from the Tennessee line, leading 
to the, then, "Eoss Landing," on the Tennessee river (now 
Chattanooga), to a point east of the Chattahoochee river, in 
Delvalb county, most convenient for other connecting roads 
to reach. After it was decided to l)uild this line ])y the State, 
the Georgia Eailroad, which run out from Augusta, first 
chartered from Augusta to Athens and Eatonton, via Union 
Point, decided to extend it to the eastern terminus of the 
State Eoad. The Central had been chartered and built about 
the same time from Savannah to !Macon. A charter was then 

History of Atlanta. 183 

obtained bj^ the old jMacon & Western Eailroad from Macon 
to Forsyth, Ga. The first act was passed December 31. 1836. 
At that time, James Day was speaker of the House of Eepre- 
sentatives; Eobert M. Echols, president of the Senate, and 
William Schle}^, governor. However, tliis charter was an 
amendment to the charter of the Monroe Eailroad, approved 
December 23, 1833 — Thomas Glasscock, si>eaker; Jacob Wood, 
president of the Senate, and AYil^on Laimpkin, governor. 
Title was changed from the j\[acon & Western Eaiboad, by 
act approved December 20, 1845. In '^"White's Statistics of 
Georgia," the following paragraph appears relating to second 
question: "The Macon & Western was chartered in 1833 
under the name and style of the "Mom'-oe Eailroad and Bank- 
ing Company.'*' The road was first; chartered from Macon to 
Forsyth, in Monroe county, in 1836 ; the charter was amended 
authorizing the extension of tlie road in a northwestei-ly di- 
rection to some point on or near the Chattahoochee, to be 
thereafter determined. The road, and all its equipment, was 
sold on the 5th day of August, 1845, under a decree of the 
court. The road was opened its whole length, from Macon to 
Atlanta. 101 miles, October 1, 1846." 

Wlien the State Eoad had been graded, and the old Mon- 
roe had been graded to Atlanta, the Monroe road touched the 
State Eoad at about what is now known as the "Gas Works 
Lot." Governor Lumpkin had been appointed commissioner 
to hear and settle claims against the State, and liad Charles 
E. M. Garnett as chief engineer. Garnett and Lumpkin in- 
duced Samuel Mitchell, of Pike count}^, who owned all of 
land lot 77, fom-teenth district, DeKalb county then, to malce 
a donation of right-of-way, five acres of land at the terminus 
for railroad purposes, which will be more clearly understood 
by the following deed from Samuel Mitchell to the State of 
Georgia : 

184: Pioneer Citizens' 


Whereas, The General Assembly has by law provided for a 
great public work known as the Western & Atlantic Eailroad, 
a part of which is so called on lands belonging to me ; now, be 
it known that I, Samuel ]\Iitchell, of the county of Pike and 
State aforesaid, find in consideration of the desire which I 
feel for the interest and prosperit}^ of my State aforesaid, and 
with a desire to promote every improvement which may con- 
duce to the welfare of the people of said State, do, by these 
presents, concede and grant to the said State for the use pur- 
poses of said road or travel of sufficient space or breadth to 
answer all convenient and necessary purposes of said road as 
may be designated by the chief engineer of said State over and 
upon lot of land 77 in the fourteenth district of Henry, now 
DeKalb county, Georgia, together with the privilege of taking 
and using timber either stone or gravel lying on said space 
for the connection of said road ; and moreover the said Sam- . 
uel Mitchell being actuated by the patriotic motives above set 
forth does by these presents further give, cede, grant and con- 
vey unto the aforesaid State the further advantage of live 
acres of land to be taken out of, reserved and designated from 
any pa'rt of his said tract of land, which may hereafter be 
chosen and selected by Wilson Lumpkin and F. M. Garnett 
as the most suitable place for the Eastern Terminus of said 
Western & Atlantic Eailroad, for placing thereon the neces- 
sary buildings which may hereafter be required for public 
purposes at the termination of said road, provided said five 
acres of land shall be laid out and embraced by lines running 
at right angles and in compact form, together with all the ap- 
purtenances belonging to said five acres of land, and for the 
perpetual guarantee of the rights and privileges herein con- 
veyed to the State of Georgia the said S. Mitchell doth hereby 
bind himself, his heirs, and assigns in fee simple forever. 

History- of Atlanta. 185 

In testimony whereof he hath hereunto set his hand and 
seal this, 11th day of July, 1842. 

S. Mitchell. 
Witness: Eegister October 11, 1849. 

Wilson Lumpkin^ 

J. F. McKlNER, 

C. Tucker, J.' P. 


He also deed to Macon & Western Eailroad the tract of 
land which will be more clearly defined in the following deed: 


This indenture made and entered into this, 24th day of 
April, 1846, between the Macon & Western Eailroad Com- 
pany (.State and county not given) and Samuel Mitchell, of. 
the county of Pike and State aforesaid, of the other j^art : Wit- 
nesseth, That the said Samuel Mitchell for and in considera- 
tion of the received value of his property at and near At- 
lanta, from the construction of the Macon & Western Eail- 
road, and the location of their depot over and upon the same, 
and for the further consideration of the sum of One Dollar to 
him in hand paid at or before the sealing and delivering of 
these presents, the receipt whereof 'is hereby acknowledged, 
hath given, granted, bargained and sold, and doth by these 
presents, give, grant, bargain, sell and convey unto the said 
Macon & Western Eailroad Company, so much of lot No. 77 in 
the fourteenth district of originally Henry (now DeKalb) 
county, as may be occupied by said Eailroad, being a width 
of fifty feet from the center each way and such additional 
width as shall be covered by any deep filling, together with 
lot designated on plan of the town of Atlanta herewith record- 

186 PioxEEE Citizens' 

ed as Macon & Wesiern Depot, and bounded as follows: On 
one side by the Western & Atlantic Eaili'oad, on the other 
side b}' the lot conveyed to the State of Georgia, and on an- 
other side by Alabama street, and on a fourth side by "Wliite- 
hall street; except one-quarter of an acre at the corner of 
Whitehall and Alabama streets, as seen in plan above referred 
to. To have and to hold said parcel of land for railroad pur- 
poses exclusively unto the said Macon & Western Railroad 
Company and their successors, together ^nth all and singular 
the rights mem1)ers and appurtenances thereof to the same in 
any manner belonging to their own proper use, benefit, and 
behalf forever in fee simple. And the said Samuel Mitchell, 
for himself, his heirs, executors and administrators, the said 
bargained premises unto said ]\Iacon & Western Eailroad Com- 
pany and their successors, will warrant and forever defend 
the right and title thereto against themselves and against the 
claims of all other persons whatever. In ^ntness whereof the 
said Samuel ^Mitchell hath hereunto set his hand and affixed 
his seal on the day and year above writtem 

Samuel ]\Iitchell. 
Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of : 

Samuel G. Jones, 

Chas. F. M. Garrett. 


The old car-shed, about where the Union Depot now 
stands, was erected and used by all the roads to the close of 
the war. Before the war, the Western & Atlantic (State 
Road) and the City of Atlanta made an arrangement to use 
the tract of land bounded 1)y Pryor, Decatur and Loyd streets, 
as a park ; at the close of the war the Macon & Western depot, 

History of Atlanta. 187 

standing on what is now kno^-n as Pryor street, and part of 
the Dodd and Jackson buildings and turn-table tracks, on 
the ground between Lord, Alal^ama and now Pryor street, 
A\as considered a nuisance l^y reason of its small s|3ace, and 
l3eing in the central part of the city. In 1865, I had returned 
from Forrest's command to Atlanta. Colonel James M. Cal- 
houn had been elected ilayor with the folloAving meml)ers of 
the Council : S. B. Love, clerk ; J. H. Porter, treasurer ; John 
Collier, B. X. Williford, L. S. Salmons, F. M. Kichardson, 
Thomas E. Eipley. George W. Terry, L. S. Mead. Z. A. Eice, 
James M. Simmons and Edward E. Sasseen. ]\Ir. G. W. Terry 
resigned in June, and C. F. Wood was elected to fill the va- 
cancy. In July ]\Ir. Eice resigned, and I was elected to fill 
that vacancy. 

At the first meeting after I was elected, ^h\ Sasseen re- 
ported that he was making poor progress towards opening 
Pryor street, and I suggested to the llayor that the better way 
to accomplish that end was l)y negotiation. Mayor Calhoun 
appointed me as a member of the committee on streets and 
pu1)lic works, and at the request of the other members, I was 
made chairman. Immediately, I wrote to Colonel Jack White, 
at Griffin, who was then superintendent of the Macon & West- 
ern Eailroad, to come to Atlanta on imjDortant business. He- 
came, and I explained to him that the city wanted to extend 
Pryor street across all the railroad tracks, and would like, 
also, to have the depot moved further out of town. He said 
that he was oj^en to an arrangement if he could procure suf- 
ficient eligible ground elsewhere, and with approval of his 
lioard of directors. I walked with him westward dovm the 
railroad track to Mitchell street. He said that if he could get 
what was then IcnoAvn as "Eichard Peters' goat lot" (a lot in 
which he pastured his Angora goats) and one or two other 
small pieces, he would exchange the entire ground owned by 

188 PioxEER Citizens"- 

tliem. which was boimded hy Alabama, Loyd and Whitehall 
streets, and the State Eoad grounds — except a lot on the cor- 
ner of Whitehall and Alabama streets, now occupied by the 
John H. James & Son, bankers, known as the "old Holland 
lot"' (71 feet on Whitehall and 90 feet on Alabama street). I 
consulted with ]\[r. Eichard Peters and got his price on the 
goat lot, and also on the other two pieces, one belonging to 
William Soloman, I remember. I bought this property for 
$25,000, as per deed, $3,000 in green backs (gold then being 
at 50 per cent, premium) and the balance in ten year 7 per 
cent, bonds, the parties deeding this property to tlie Macon & 
Western Eailroad, where they moved and built their present 
depot and sidetracks, and we proceeded then to open Pryor 
street across all the railroad tracks. 

Soon after the consummation of this arrangement. Judge 
Daniel Pittman and Judge 0. A. Locrane set up for the 
Mitchell heirs a claim to the property, tr3dng first to com- 
promise, taking the legal position that as the property had 
been donated by Samuel Mitchell, their ancestor, to the road 
for railroad purposes, that the railroad had no right tb dis- 
pose of it to the. city or to private parties. Suit was finally 
commenced by these parties to recover the land for the Mitchell 
heirs. Colonel Eobert Powell, of Barnesville, married one of 
Mitchell's daughters, and represented the other heirs in the 

In the meantime, reconstruction had taken place. Eufus 
B. Bullock was elected Governor of the State of Georgia un- 
der the new Constitution ; H. I. Kimball had bought, throudi 
me. from Dr. Joseph ' Thompson, the old Atlanta Hotel, and 
had built the first Kimball House. In the meantime he had 
undertaken to steer the Mitchell heirs. The land bounded bv 
Decatur, Pryor and Loyd streets had originally been used by 
the State Eoad officials for offices, etc.; but they had made 

History of Atlanta. 189' 

some kind of arrangement with the Citv of Atlanta to convert 
said land into a city park, running a side-track into it, com- 
mencing at about Whitehall street and running through what 
is now known as the Kiser store lot, to the center of the tract, 
which was thought would hold the property from reversion. 
The city ornamented the ground, laying out walks, planting 
shrubbery, grass, etc., which made quite an extensive plaza. 

H. I. Kimball and others then commenced negotiating 
with the Mitchell heirs, who had also commenced a suit for 
that tract, which negotiation resulted in a compromise. I 
never knew the amount the heirs received for the plaza portion, 
but they agreed to take the proceeds of all between Pryor and 
Loyd, except 100 feet fronting on Alabama and Pryor run- 
ning back to the right-of-way, for their, equity in the part I 
bought from the Macon & Western Eailroad, and permitted a 
plat and sale of both tracts of land, whereuj)on I divided the 
north part into city lots, and, also, the south block, between 
Alabama and Loyd, and advertised and sold it in 1870. The 
first lot I sold was on the corner of Wall and Pryor streets, 
now known as the Kiser store. I commenced the sale at that 
corner, and after I announced the terms of the sale, the late 
Judge Dennis F. Hammond, as the attorney of Seago, Dob- 
bins, Austell and others, read a notice protesting against the 
sale. After he had completed his protest, I asked for bidders, 
and Joseph E. Browm said : "Start the corner at $300 a front 
foot for me." I proceeded with the sale. Governor B. bought 
several of the lots, and Judge Bleckley, D. Pittman, Fos- 
ter Blodgett and 0. A. Lochrane, all acting as attorneys for 
one side or the other, also bought property in the block. I sold 
every lot in about three hours, and my commissions were 
about $7,500 (the largest auction commissions I ever received 
in one day). 

The resvilt of that sale was the building up of these two 

190 Pioneer Citizens' 

blocks into Avell known business houses; and nothing ever 
came of Judge Hammond's protest, so far as I loiow. 

The balance of the ground deeded by Mitchell, west of 
Whitehall street, is now occupied by the Western & Atlantic 
lessees and by the Central Eailroad system, Avhich has absorbed 
the old Monroe I^ailroad & Banking Company and the Macon 
& Western Eailroad Company, for depots, tracks, etc. 

In the compromise, the ground now occupied by Wall 
street, the Union Depot and the side-track between Loyd and 
Pryor streets, were .retained by the State Eoad for railroad 
purposes, tlie claim of the Mitchell heirs being quieted by a 
general adjustment. The present Union Depot was built very 
near the site of what was known as the old car shed, perhaps a 
few feet further north, and covers some more ground than the 
old shed. 

It is due to history to state that the City of Atlanta real- 
ized from the sale, after reconveying corner of Alabama and 
Loyd (vid. 669) to the Mitchell heirs, $175,000 for property 
that cost them only $25,000, and the removal of what was 
then — and would now be considered: — a very gTeat railroad 
nuisance. All this occurred Avhile I was chairman of that 
committee, and I beg to say that Messrs. Sasseen and Williford 
served on the committee with me, heartily co-operated with 
me, and approved of every move I made. I feel proud of my 
record as an Atlanta councilman. It was the only time I 
ever served in that capacit}', and I shall never serve again. 

The deed from Colonel White to the City of Atlanta, will 
explain tlie first transfer. In fact, the folloAnng deeds, which 
I take from the records : The Mitchell heirs to H. I. Kimball ; 
reconveyance from Kimball to the heirs; the deed from Gov- 
ernor Bullock; Ma5'or Ezzard to the Mitchell heirs; and the 
record of settlement. All these deeds, carefully examined, 
will explain the authentic history of the various transfers that 

History of Atlanta. 191 

resulted in the railroad property passing into the hands of 
private individuals, and the narrowing down of the area that 

is now held by the State Eailroad. 

Geo. W. Adair, 



GEORGIA— Fulton County. 

This indenture made and entered into tliis the twenty-fifth 
day of October, in the 3^ear eighteen hundred and sixty-five, 
between the Macon & Western Railroad Company of the one 
part and the Mayor and Council of the City of 
Atlanta of the other part. ^Yitnesseth: That for and 
in consideration of the sum of twenty-five thousand dol- 
lars, by the said Mayor and City Council to the said 
Macon & Western Railroad Company, to- wit: To An- 
drew J. White, the acting president of said railroad company, 
the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged. The party of 
the first part hath ]3argained and sold, and doth by these pres- 
ents remise, release and forever quit-claim to the said Mayor 
and Council aforesaid, and to their successors in office, and to 
his and their assigns, all right, title, interest, claim or de- 
mand, that the said Macon & Western Railroad Company now 
has or may have had in and to the following described parcels 
of land, to- wit: So much of lot seventy-seven (77) in the 
fourteenth (14th) district of originally Henry, now Fulton, 
county aforesaid as the lot designated on the plan of said City 
of Atlanta, the plat of which was recorded with a deed thereto 
from Samuel Mitchell to the Macon & Western Railroad Com- 
pany, in the county of DeKalb, in said State, on the nine- 
teenth of September eighteen hundred and forty-six (1846), 
as the Macon & Western Depot, and bounded as follows : On 

192 Pioneer Citizens' 

one side by the Western & Atlantic Eailroad, on another side 
by lot conveyed to the State of Georgia, on another side by 
Alabama street, and on the fourth side by Whitehall street, as 
seen on the plan above referred to. Except about a quarter 
of an acre at the corner of Whitehall and Alabama streets, 
called on a map of said city the ''Holland Reserve," now 
owned by Peter Huge and Virgil A. Gaskell,. and, also, for the 
same consideration, the said Macon & Western Eailroad Com- 
pany hath bargained and sold, and by these presents doth 
remise, release, and forever quit claim to the said Mayor and 
Corincil aforsaid and their successors in office all the follow- 
ing tract or parcel of land, to-wit : That portion of land which 
the said Macon and Western Railroad Company uses as rail- 
road track, and for a section table, between the said Alabama 
street and the Georgia Railroad track, which last mentioned 
parcel of land is now marked by stone pillars or posts on and 
at each corner thereof, and which lot lies east of the first de- 
scribed lot of land, all being on land lot seventy-seven (77) in 
the fourteenth (14th) district of originally Henry, now Ful- 
ton) county aforesaid, agreeably to the original survey of said 
district, with all the right, members and appurtenances to 
the -said parcels of land in anywise belonging or appertaining. 
To have and to hold the said lots or parcels of land to the said 
Mayor and Council and his and their successors in office, so 
that the said Macon & Western Eailroad Company, nor its 
agents, nor their successors in office, or the legal representa- 
tives or assigns, or any other person, persons, or company 
claiming under the said Macon & Western Railroad Company 
shall at any time hereafter, by any way or means, have, claim 
or demand any right or title to said lots of land, or either of 
them, or any part thereof, inconsistent with right hereby 
conveyed to the said Mayor and Council aforesaid. 

In testimony whereof, the Macon & Western Railroad 

History or Atlanta. 193 

Company, by its acting president, executed this deed by his 
hand and seal on the day and year first above written. 

[seal] a. J. White, 

Macon & Western Eailroad Company. 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of us : 
W. L. Calhoun, 
W. E. Venable, Clk. S. C. 

GEORGIA— Fulton County. 

Clerk's Ofhce Superior Court — Left for record this the 
25th day of February, 1891, at 12 o'clock m., and recorded in 
Book TT, page 220, this 7th day of March, 1891. 

G. H. Tanner, Clerk. 

GEORGIA— Pike County. 

For and in consideration of five thousand ($5,000) dol- 
lars to us paid, we, Jane L. Mitchell, as administratrix, with 
the will annexed of Samuel Mitchell and Jane L. Mitchell, 
Mrs. S. Jane Kendall, J. H. Mitchell, R. J. Powell and his 
wife Eliza, formerly Eliza Mitchell, Mary Mitchell, Belle 
Mitchell and Robert Mitchell, as heirs at law of said Samuel 
Mitchell, and all being of age, have this day bargained and 
sold, and we hereby transfer and convey unto Hannibal I. 
Kimball and his heirs forever all our title and interest in and 
to the following described parcels of land, to- wit : Five acres 
of land lying in the City of Atlanta, county of Fulton, and 
State aforesaid, bounded by Decatur street on the one side and 
Alabama street on the other side and reaching from Loyd to 
Pryor streets, and also that lot of land bounded by Alabama 
street on the one side and the railroad on the other, extending 
from Pryor street to Whitehall. Except that portion on the 
corner of Alabama and Whitehall streets, improved, and ex- 

194 Pioneer Citizens' 

cepting here from the right of way to he railway. To have 
and to hold said parcels of land unto said H. I. Kimball and 
his heirs forever. We warrant the title of said land against 
the claims of all persons claiming by, through or under us or 
either of us, but no further. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and 
seals this 18th day of June, 1870. 

Signed, sealed and delivered as to J. 
H. Mitchell, R. J. Powell, Mary 
Mitchell, Belle Mitchell and Eoljert 
Mitchell, before us : 

W. D. Pedding, 

J. B. Hanson, X. P. 

Signed, sealed and delivered as to 
Jane L. Mitchell, administratrix and 
heir at law, Mrs. S. J. Kendall and Mrs. 
Mrs. Eliza Powell, before us: 
Chas. F, Pedding, 
James T. G. Caldwell, J. P. 

. Jane L. Mitchell, [l. s,] 

Administratrix, with Will Annexed. 

Recorded June 12, 1876 : 

James D. Collins, C. S. C 

Jane L. ^Mitchell. 

[L. S.] 

S. J. Kendall. 

[l. s.] 

John H. Mitchell. 

L. S.] 

E. J. Powell. 

L. S.] 

M. B. Mitchell. 

L. S.] 

Belle Mitchell. 

h. S.] 

PoBERT Mitchell. 

L. S.] 

E, Powell. 

L. S.} 

History of Atlanta. 195 

STATE OF GEORGIA— Fulton County. 

This indenture made and entered into this, the 20th day 
of June, 1870, between Hannibal I. Iviml)all, of the county 
and State aforesaid, of the one part, and James L. Mitchell, 
S. J. Kendall, J. H. Mitchell, Kobert J. Powell and Ms wife 
Eliza Powell (formerly Eliza Mitchell), Mary B. Mitchell 
Belle Mitchell and Eobert Mitchell, heirs at law of Samuel 
Mitchell, deceased, all of Pike county, in said State, of the 
other part, witnesseth that the said H. I. Kimball, for and in 
consideration of the sum of $500 to me in hand paid by the 
said parties of the second part, have bargained and sold, and 
do by these presents, grant, l^argain and sell to the said par- 
ties of the second part, their heirs and assigns forever, all that 
tract or parcel of land lying and being in the City of Atlanta, 
and being known and designated as the property origi- 
nally belonging to the said Samuel Mitchell, deceased, and 
being that property lying Ijetween Decatur street and Ala- 
bama street, and running from Loyd street to Pryor street, the 
said property being the same conveyed by Samuel Mitchell in 
his lifetime to the State of Georgia for certain purposes ex- 
pressed in said conveyance, and also all that tract or parcel 
of land originally conveyed by said Samuel Mitchell in his 
lifetime to jMacon & AYestern Eailroad and lying and situated 
in said City of Atlanta, bounded by Alaljama street on the 
one side and the railroad right-of-way on the other side, and 
reaching from Pryor street to Whitehall street, except that 
portion improved at the corner of Whitehall and Alabama 
streets. To have and to hold the said property to the said 
parties of the second part, their heirs and assigns forever, in 
fee simple. And I, the said H. I. Kimball, for myself and 
heirs, executors and administrators, the said bargained prop- 
erty to the said parties of the second part, their heirs, execu- 
tors and administrators, shall and will warrant the right and 

196 Pioneer Citizens' 

title hereto , against the claims of all persons claiming by, 
through, or under me, hut no farther. In witness whereof, 
the said party, H. I. Kimball, hath hereunto set his hand and 


H. I. Kimball. 

Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of: 

W. E. Armstrong. 

Darwin G. Jones, IST. P. Pulton Co., Ga. 

STATE OP GEOEGIA— Pulton County. 

This indenture made and entered into this, 29th day of 
October, 1870, between his excellency, Eufus B. Bullock, Gov- 
ernor of this State, of the first part, and the heirs of Samuel 
Mitchell, late of Pike county, in said State, to- wit: Jane L. 
Mitchell, widow; S. Jane Kendall, John H. Mitchell, Eobert 
J. Powell and Eliza Powell (formerly Eliza Mitchell), Mary 
B. Mitchell, Belle Mitchell and Eobert Mitchell, of the other 
part. Witnesseth : That his excellency, the Governor, in pur- 
suance of a joint resolution of the General Assembly of the 
State, approved October 25, 1870, and the authority and di- 
rection of the General Assembly contained in such resolu- 
tions accepting the compromise submitted by the said heirs of 
Samuel Mitchell, touching certain lands lying in the City of 
Atlanta, and in consideration of the payment of $35,000 and 
the compliance by said heirs with the proposition of settle- 
ment submitted as aforesaid, doth hereby grant and convey 
unto said parties of the second part, their heirs and assigns, 
the following lands, to-wit: All that tract or parcel of land 
originally donated to the State of Georgia by Samuel ]\Iitchell, 
and lying from Decatur street to Alabama street, and from 
Pryor street to Loyd street, except that portion of the same 
which commences at a point on Loyd street, 77 feet north of 

History of Atlanta. 197 

the corner of Alabama street, and running west to a point on 
Pryor street, 132 feet north from the corner of Ahibama and 
Pryor streets; thence north 23 feet to the new depot; thence 
north 195 feet to a point 190 feet from Decatur street on 
Pryor street; thence to a point on Loyd street, 235 feet from 
the corner of Decatur and Ijoyd streets; thence along Loyd 
street 228 feet to the beginning point on Loyd street, all of 
which will more fully appear by a map of the same hereto at- 
tached, making the property reserved by the State and the 
property hereby conveyed to the parties of the second part be- 
ing the whole of said property lying north of the new depot, 
known as the Park, and the property on the t^oiith of the same, 
on Alabama street, not included in the exception as aforesaid. 
To have and to hold said bargained premises with all the 
rights, members and appurtenances thereinto belonging to the 
said party of the second part, their heirs and assigns, in fee 
simple. And the said Eufus B. Bullock, as Governor of this 
State, for himself and his successors, in pursuance of the reso- 
lution of the General Assembly, as aforesaid, the bargained 
property unto the said parties of the second part, their heirs 
and assigns will warrant and defend the right and title there- 
of against the lawful claims of all persons. 

In witness whereof, the said party of the first part, Eufus 
B. Bullock, as Governor of the State of Georgia, has here- 
unto set his hand and caused the Great Seal of the State to be 
affixed, the day and year above written. 

Eufus B. Bullock. 
By the Governor : 

David G. Gotting^ Secretary of State. 

Executed, stamped and delivered : 
Egbert H. Brown. 
Jno. L. Hopkins, S. C. A. C. 



This indenture made this, 5th day of Xovenilier, 1870, 
between the Mayor and Council of the City of Atlanta, of the 
county of Fulton, of the one part, and Jane L. ^litchell, S. 
J. Kendall. J. H. 3Iitchell, Eobert J. Powell and his wife 
Eliza Powell. ^L B. Mitchell, Belle :\Iitchell and Eobert 
Mitchell, of the county of Pike, of the other part. Witness- 
eth : That the said Mayor and Council of the City of Atlanta, 
for and in consideration of the sum of $100, and in pursuance 
of a resolution of the City Council, settling the litigation be- 
tween said parties for certain deeds, $ in liond paid at 

and before the sealing and delivering of these presents, the 
receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have granted, bar- 
gained, sold and conveyed, and by these presents does grant, 
bargain, sell and convey unto the said parties of the second 
part, their heirs and assigns, all that tract or parcel of land, 
lying and being in the City of Atlanta, commencing on the 
corner of Loyd street and Alabama street, in the said city, and 
turning up said street to the point of railroad priWlege on 
lands reserved bv the State of Georgia TO feet, and thence 
along the said railroad to a point commencing 100 feet on 
Pryor street and from such point across to Alal^ama street to 
a point 100 feet from Pryor street on said Alabama street, as 
appears by a map of the property of the ]\Iitchell heirs, sold 
on the 3d instant. To have and to hold the said bargained 
premises with all and singular, the rights, members and ap- 
purtenances thereof to the same 1)elonging or in anywise ap- 
pertaining to the only proper use, benefit and behalf of them, 
the said parties of the second part, and their heirs, adminis- 
trators and assigns in fee simple, and the said Mayor and 
Council of the City of Atlanta, their successors, heirs and 
administrators, the said property as aforesaid unto the said 
parties of the second part, their heirs, executors, administra- 

History or Atlaj^ta. 199 

tors and assigns against the said Mayor and Council of the 
City of Atlanta, their successors, heirs, administrators, shall 
and Avill warrant and fore^'er defend l)y virtue of these pres- 
ents, against the claims of all persons, claiming through us 
under them, l3ut no further. In witness whereof, the said 
Mayor and Council of the City of Atlanta, by William Ezzard, 
Mayor, hath hreunto set the hands and affixed official seal 
the day and year first al)ove written. 

Wm. Ezzard, Mayor. 
Signed, sealed and de]i^•ered in presence of: 

Geo. W. Adaik. 

Daniel Pitt:\ian, Ordinary. 


In consideration of a settlement made ^\'ith the City of 
Atlanta of certain suits pending for certain lands lying in the 
City of Atlanta, and the sum of ten ($10.00) dollars to us 
paid, Ave, Jane L. Mitchell, S. J. Kendall, J. H. Mitchell, E. 
J. Powell and his wife Eliza Powell (formerly Eliza Mitchell), 
Mary Mitchell, Belle Mitchell and Robert Mitchell, heirs of 
Samuel Mitchell, have this day bargained and sold, and hereby 
transfer and convey unto the ]\Iayor and Council of the City 
of Atlanta-and their successors in office forever, the following 
described parcels of land, to-wit : All the land originally 
deeded l)y Samuel ]\Iitchell in lifetime to Macon & Western 
Eailroad, and lying on Alabama street, in the City of Atlanta, 
Ga., between Whitehall street (]\Iitchell street in copy of 
record) and Pryor street, and l)etween Alal^ama street and 
the railroad, except that portion on the corner of Alabama 
Mid Whitehall streets, improved, and also 100 feet lying on 
Alabama street and running back up Pryor street about 132 

200 Pioneer Citizens'" 

feet to the railroad privilege. To have and to hold said lands 
unto said bargainers and their successors in office forever. We 
covenant that we are lawfully seized of said land, have a good 
right to convey it, and that it is unincumbered. We warrant 
the title to said land unto said bargainers and their successors 
against the lawful claims of all persons. 

Witness our hands and seals this, 29th day of Octo- 
ber, 1870. 

Jane L. Mitchell^ 
S. J. Kendall, 
Jno. H. Mitchell, 
EoBT. J. Powell, 
Eliza T. Powell (formerly 
Eliza T. Mitchell), 
Mart Mitchell, 
Belle Mitchell, 
Egbert Mitchell. 
Executed, stamped and delivered in our presence: 
H. P. Powell. 
Jas. H. Fryer, J. P. 


In consideration of a settlement made with the State of 
Georgia relative to suits for lands in the City of Atlanta, and 
the sum of ten dollars to us in hand paid by his excellency, 
the Governor of this State, we, Jane L. Mitchell, S. Jane Ken- 
dall, J. H. Mitchell, Eobert J. Powell and his wife Eliza 
Powell (formerly Eliza Mitchell), Mary Mitchell, Belle 
Mitchell and Eobert Mitchell, have this day bargained and 
sold, and hereby transfer and convey unto Eufus B. Bullock, 
as Governor of the State of Georgia, and unto his successors 

HiSTOKY OF Atlanta. 201 

in office forever for the use of said State, the following de- 
scribed parcel of land, to-wit : All that tract or parcel of land 
in the City of Atlanta, State and county aforesaid, bounded 
as follows: Commencing at a point on Loyd street, 77 feet 
north of the corner of Alabama street, and running thence 
west to a point on Pry or street, 133 feet north from the corner 
of Alabama and Pryor streets; thence along Pryor street 23 
feet to the new depot; thence north 195 feet to a point on 
Pryor street 190 feet from the corner of Decatur and Pryor 
streets; thence to a point on Loyd street 235 feet from the 
corner of Decatur and Loyd streets. Thence along Loyd street 
228 feet to the beginning point on Loyd street, all of which 
will more fully appear by a map of the same hereto attached. 
To have and to hold said land unto said bargainee as Governor 
and unto his successors in office forever for the use of the 
State of Georgia. We warrant the title to said land unto 
said bargainee and his successors against the lawful claims 
of all persons. 

Witness our hands and seals this, 29th dav of Octo- 
her, 1870. 

Jane L. Mitchell, 
S. J. Kendall, 
Jno. H. Mitchell, 
EoBT. J. Powell, 
Eliza T. Powell (formerly 
Eliza T. Mitchell), 
Mary Mitchell, 
Belle Mitchell, 
Robert Mitchell. 
Attest : 

H. P. Powell. 
Jas. H. Fryer^ J. P. 

203 Pioneer Citizens' 


The Georgia Western Eailroad was chartered February 
18, l<S5i. The incorporators were: William Markhani, L. P. 
Grant, Richard Peters, Ira 0. ]\IcDaniel, X. B. Forsyth, John 
F. Miras, Terrence Doonan, J. A. Hayden. Joseph Thompson, 
Green B. Haygood, James M. Calhoun, William P. Xichols, 
James E. Williams, James F. Alyexander, B. H. Oberly, T. A. 
Warwick, A. J. Brady, Daniel Hook, John James, A. H. Har- 
rison and Abbott W. ]\IcWhorter. 

The original intention was to construct a road from At- 
lanta to Gunter's Landing. The value of the coal and iron 
mines in Alabama, at that time, was l)ut little thought of. 
James A. Grant, a brother of Colonel L. P. Grant, a thor- 
oughly competent engineer, Avas put on the line, and the pre- 
liminary surveys were run through. The war came on, and 
the enterprise languished. The City of Atlanta subscribed for 
the construction of said road, $300,000 ; and the Georgia Eail- 
road & Banking Company, Jolm H. King-, president, sub- 
scribed $250,000. After reconstruction, the building of the 
road was revived, a mass meeting was held, the citizens were 
enthusiastic, and the city authorities, by resolution, renewed 
the old ante-war subseribtion. Xew directors Avere elected. 
John H. James, ]\Iayor of the City; F. P. Eice, A. W. Mitchell, 
L. P. Grant, G. W. Adair, A. Leyden chairman of the Finance 
Committee, and perhaps others whom I cannot remember, 
were on the Iward of directors, ynth Campl)ell AVallace as 
president. Colonel Eobinson, with an al)le corps of engineers, 
John A. Grant, Young Elliott, Henry Collier and Mr. ]\Iaples, 
were put in the field. The l)ed of the road was graded 27 miles 
to Dougiasnlle, a 1)ridge built over the Chattahoochee river 
and Sweetwater creek, the contract was let nut to Grant, Alex- 
ander & Company, and the work was pushed forward. The 

History of Atlanta. 203 

cit}' issued her bonds for $300,000, and ni}' recollection is that 
they were disposed of at about an average of sevent3'-five cents 
on the dollar. Mr. King and the Georgia Eailroad directors 
repudiated their subscription; Major ^Yallace resigned the 
presidency, G. AV. Adair was elected in his place;/ and he, with 
his board of directors, commenced suit against the Georgia 
Eailroad, but never were able to collect anything. The ex- 
pense exceeded the amount realized l)y the bonds, about $65,- 
000. Grant, Alexander & Company sued the City of Atlanta 
for the deficit. It was sold and bought by the plaintiffs in ex- 
ecution, and deed made to John T. Grant. \X. D. Grant, 
Thomas Alexander and Henry Alexander, by them transferred 
to John B. Gordon, and by him sold to the Georgia Pacific 
Eailroad, who then organized under the following directors: 
John B. Gordon. H. J. Jewett, A. S. Buford. E. C. Gordon, 
A. C. Heakill, T. M. E. Talcott, H. W. Perkins, C. H. Phin- 
izy and Joseph Bryan. June 1, ISSl. It was again trans- 
ferred to other parties, who. under the new organization, 
■completed and equipped it from Atlanta to Birmingham 
under the name, "Georgia Pacific," thus opening up the coal 
and iron mines, and resulted in extending the road to the 
Mississippi river via C*olumbus, ]\Iiss. ; also, a road from 
Birmingham to Schofield, Ala., tapping the Memphis & 
Charleston Eailroad at Tuscumbia, and also a road from Bir- 
mingham to ISTashville, via Decatur, Ala. In fact, it was the 
initial step in constructing a great system of important roads. 
It is safe to say that Atlanta has been amply remunerated for 
her liberal donation to the enterprise, as it enabled her to se- 
■cure coal for manufacturing purposes upon such terms as has 
made Atlanta, at present, a great manufacturing center. 

In this connection it may not l)e amiss to allude to another 
^•reat and similar enterprise originated and voiced l)y tlie City 
-of Atlanta. About the same time the Georgia Western was 

204 PioxEER Citizens' 

started, Jonathan Korcross and others conceived the construc- 
tion of what was known as the "Air Line Eailroad," and the 
following named gentlemen were the incorporators: William 
Markham, L. P. Grant. Eichard Peters, Jonathan Xorcross, 
William Ezzard, I. 0. McDaniel, John F. Minis, John Glenn, 
Joseph Thompson, J. A. Harden, G. B. Hajgood, A. W. 
Stone, B. H. Overby, Daniel Hook, J. I. Whittaker and Amos 
W. Hammond, April 3, 1856. This road had a similar amount 
subscribed by the City of Atlanta, and run equally as check- 
ered a career as the Georgia Western. But little was done 
prior to the war, but after reconstruction B. Y. Sage^ Judge 
S. B. Hoyt, Jonathan Xorcross and Alfred Austell took the 
matter up and visited Eichmond, Va., and interested S. B. 
Buford in the enterprise, forming a new board of directors, 
who elected Colonel Buford as president. A. S. Buford, S. B. 
Hoyt and Alfred Austell were made the executive committee 
of said board ; E. W. Holland was treasurer, and Colonel Lar- 
kin Smith was elected auditor. Through Judge Hoyt, the 
Mayor and Council of Atlanta renewed the subscription of 
$300,000 to the road, and private individuals in Atlanta do- 
nated another $100,000. The original mover in this great 
enterprise, Jonathan Xorcross, was active in canvasing for 
funds to build it, the work was let out, and the road was 
graded and equipped to Charlotte, N. C, and the total cost 
was, in round numbers, about $13,000,000. To raise funds, 
the company issued bonds, based on Atlanta's and private 
subscriptions. When completed, the road was sold by a re- 
ceiver, and bought by Eugene Kelly and others of the original 
bond-holders; who recapitalized it at $4,000,000; and it has 
passed into the hands of the Eichmond & Terminal Syndi- 
cate, who now control and use it as one of their main trunk 

I have not the means of giving these figures accurately, 

History of Atlanta. 205 

but it is enough to say that from the City of Atlanta having 
made the donation, and from the fact of her enterprising cit- 
izens having so liberally responded, we are indebted that this 
great road was finally constructed and equipped, and is now 
the short mail route between Atlanta and Washington, and 
further east. 

Though not asked about. the Air Line, her history and 
that of the Georgia Western were so similar in conception and 
completion, and so equal and grand in their results, that I 
could not refrain from giving this brief resume of the latter 

It is gratifying to know that Atlanta, enjoying the posi- 
tion of a great railroad center — so much so that it has at- 
tracted capital and enterprise sufficient to make her the grand- 
est new city in the South— has secured these roads at so slight 
a cost, either in her corporate or individual capacity. 

The Atlanta & Florida, that has been completed from the 
city to Fort Valley, was the next and last candidate for public 
favor. She has cost our citizens, thus far, a snug little sum, 
but it may be the nucleus of another trunk line that will give 
back, like ''bread cast upon the waters," to the city all that 
she has cost her citizens.' Atlanta has contributed, at differ- 
ent times, several feeders to main roads, but, in the main, she 
is enjoying all the privileges of the vast capital these roads 
have cost, at a very slight outlay. 

Geo. W. Adair, Chairman. 




Richard Peters Tells How Atlanta C4ot Its Xame— Colonel 
C. R. Hanleiter's Recollections — The Atlanta Pioneer and 
Historic Society — Incidents related bj- Xorcross, Ez- 
zard. Harden. Bleckley, Bray and Others — The "Law 
and Order Party"' and the ''Rowdy Party'" — Citizens Put 
Down the Rowdies — Mingling the Waters of the Missis- 
sippi and the Atlantic Ocean — The ^Memphis & Charles- 
ton Railroad Completed — Atlautians Go to Charleston 
and to Memphis. 

The following from ^Ir. Ricliard Peters, deceased, satis- 
factorily explains how Atlanta obtained its name : 

"Atlaxta, CtA., May 9, 1871. 

"Mr. W. R. Haxleiter: Dear Sir — In answer to your' 
note, asking me to give you some information relative to the 
naming of Atlanta, I will state that in the year 18-i5, J. Edgar 
Thompson, Esq., the present distingiiished civil engineer and 
railroad king, was chief engineer of the Georgia Railroad, 
Atlanta was then known as Marthasville. At that date I was 
the superintendent and resident engineer of the finished por- 
tion of the road, from Augusta to Coving-ton, and it became 
a part of my duty to arrange the freight lists and to notify 
the public of the opening of the road from Covington to Mar- 

"I was not satisfied with the name given a point tliat. even 
at that early day, had become somewhat notorious by the Hon. 
John C. Calhoun, who, on passing through to the Memphis 

History of Atlanta. 207 

Convention, prophesied a great city in the future. I wrote to 
Mr. Thompson, who then resided in Mailison, asking him to 
think of a name that wouki suit the phice better. His reply 
was, in substance, as follows: 'Eureka — Atlanta, the termi- 
nus of the Western & Atlantic Railroad. Atlantic, masculine; 
Atlanta, feminine — a coined word — and if you think it will 
suit, adopt it.' I was delighted with the suggestion, and in a 
few days issued the circulars adoj[iting the name, and had 
them generally distributed throughout Georgia and Tennessee, 
and at the next session of the Legislature, the act of incorpo- 
ration was changed l)y inserting Atlanta in place of Marthas- 
ville. "Yours truly. 

"Richard Peters." 


On the evening of the 24th of April, 1871, at the request 
of William R. Hanleiter, a nujuber of gentlemen assembled in 
the parlors of the ICimball House for the purpose of lending 
their aid in perpetuating the incidents connected with the 
early history of Atlanta. Those present were : William Ez- 
zard, J. Xorcross, J. A. Hayden, H. C. Holcombe, David 
flayer, John H. Flynn, John Glenn, Thomas Kyle, M. J. 
Ivey, John Silvey, L. E. Bleckley, John Thrasher, Dr. W. C. 
Moore, E. T. Hunnicutt, W. :M. Bray, D. X. Poore and Wil- 
liam R. Hanleiter. 

The main portion of the evening's conversation, as pho- 
netically taken at the time, which follows, contained some in- 
teresting facts and incidents which had not been published 
before that time. The meeting was pleasant and sociable, and 
composed of gentlemen who represented the foremost ranks of 

Before adjournment, the gentlemen present, on motion of 

208 PioxEEE Citizens' 

Mr. Hanleiter, organized themselves into the "Atlanta Pioneer 
and Historic Society," and unanimously elected officers for 
the following year, as follows: William Ezzard, president; 
Jonathan Xorcross, vice-president, and William E. Hanleiter, 

Messrs. L. E. Bleckley and W. M. Bray were appointed a 
committee to draft a constitution and by-laws. The society 
adjourned to meet on the third Monday evening in May. 

[For some reason, not apparent, the society never held 
another meeting. :Mr. Hanleiter moved to Griffin shortly 


John Thrasher— "When I arrived in this place, in 1839, 
the country was entirely covered by forest. There was but one 
house here at that time, and that stood where the old post- 
office was formerly located ; it was built of logs and was occu- 
pied by an old woman and her daughter, about sixteen years 
of age. I found a man, also, named Thurman, living in the 
country near by. I went to work building and fixing up, and 
built a store. First one moved in from the country and then 
another, until we had a right smart little town. The people 
around here were very poor. There were a great many of the 
women who wore no shoes at all. We had dirt floors in our 
homes. There was a man named Johnson in the store with 
me, and the firm was Johnson & Thrasher. That was the 
only store in the place at that time. 

"As the place grew up, the present Whitehall street was 
the place for drinking and fighting. After a while I sold out 
and went to Griffin, and there is a period of a few years that 
I do not know much about. I came back in 1844 and went 
into business on Marietta street. At that time Mr. X'orcross 

History of Atlanta. 209 

had a horse sawmill, which was regarded as a curiosit}'. Peo- 
ple came from the country on purpose to look at it. 

"The next event of importance is the attempted incor- 
poration of the town. There was a charter procured, but a 
few of us declared that we would not have such laws as they 
had made. A lawyer said that he could break up the whole 
thing for fifty dollars, and we paid it, and went on without 
a charter until the next meeting of the Legislature. This 
was in 1846, and in the year 1847 they got another. ^Marthas- 
ville was incorporated in 1843. 

"At one time, while I was absent from town, my brother- 
in-law, who was asociated with me in the store, bought a piece 
of land thirty feet long, running back two hundred feet, \)e- 
tween Mitchell and Hunter streets, next t(i Jones' building, 
for sixty dollars. I was very much provoked when I heard of 
it, for I had previously refused to give five dollars an acre for 
the same land, and he had given at the rate of two dollars a 
foot for it. I told him if he made any more such trades as 
that I would dissolve partnership with him sure. A little 
while after he sold the same piece of property for ninety dol- 
lars, and I told him the fools are not all dead yet, and never 
to buy another piece of property in Atlanta by the foot 

"Decatur street was called 'Murrel's Eow.' and was a 
great place for cock-fighting. 

"The first engine that came here was called the 'Florida.' 
It was brought up from Madison drawn by sixteen mules. The 
people were nearly wild. They came from the country for 
miles to see it. I recollect when they started, the engineer got 
the people to push it. 

"There was one particular piece of property that I wanted 
after the town got settled and was named Atlanta, and that 
was called Loyd's Corner. I tried for fifteen years to buy that 


210 PioxEEK Citizens 

property. The first time lie asked me $3,000, and I offered 
him $2,500. After a while I concluded to give him his price, 
and then he asked me $4,000. I concluded to give him $4,000 
and he asked me $5,000, and he went on in that way till he 
got up to $25,000, and I finally took it at that price. It went 
up from $3,000 to $25,000 before the trade was made. This 
property around here [Kimball House] Avas at one time put 
up at auction and was bought for $250." 

William Ezzaed — "The name of the 'Gate City' was given 
to x\tlanta in Charleston in 1856, and it came about in this 
way: When the road was completed connecting Charleston 
with Memphis, the people of Charleston put a hogshead of 
water from the bay on the car and their fire engine, and went 
on with them to Memphis and carried the water there for the 
purpose of mingling the waters of the Atlantic with the 
Mississippi. In the year 1857, in May or June, the Mayor of 
Memphis and a large number of ladies and gentlemen came 
here on their way to Charleston, carrying water from the 
Mississippi, and they had their fire engine with them, also, for 
the purpose of mingling the waters of the Mississippi with the 
waters of the Atlantic. They arrived here about 12 o'clock. 
I was then Mayor of Atlanta, and we gave them a reception 
and prepared a handsome collation for them. They seemed 
to be very much pleased Avith the treatment they received. 
The next morning they left for Charleston, and with them 
myself and a large number of ladies and gentlemen from this 
city. We arrived in Charleston and had a grand time there. 
We paraded there and marched down to the l)ay and there 
went through the ceremony of pumping this water from the 
]\rississippi into the ocean. There was on this occasion a great 
many people from all jjortions of the State of Georgia and 
from all parts of South Carolina. There was a grand banquet 
given by the people of Cliarleston. Everything was Avell ar- 

HisTOKY OK Atlanta. 211 

ranged. There was a coniiuittee appointed to prepare toasts 
for the occasion. There was a toast drafted for Savannah, one 
for ^Macon, one for Augusta, and one for Atlanta, etc. The 
toast prepared and given for Atlanta was : 'The Gate City — 
the only tribute which she requires of those who pass through 
her boundaries is that they stop long enough to partake of the 
hospitality of her citizens.' That was the substance of the 
toast, although I do not remember the exact language. After 
that Atlanta was always called the Gate City, and it was never 
known as that before. I responded to this toast for Atlanta. 
It was given, I suppose, from the fact that this railroad had 
just been constructed through the mountains for the purpose 
of connecting the West with the Atlantic ocean, and there was 
no other way to get to either place except to pass through 

Mr. Norcross — "x\t the time I was elected Mayor there 
was called an 'orderly party' and a 'rowdy party.' The rowdy 
party was very strong, and they l:)id defiance to law and were 
very bitter against me because I was in favor and took active 
steps in the direction of law and order. The leaders of this 
party, the rowdies and ruffians and gamblers, swore that I 
should not 1)0 Mayor of the town, and said if I did Jiot resign 
I should leave town. T concluded I would not do that, and 
two or three mornings after I was inaugurated I got up and 
found a cannon pointed directly at my store door. They said 
that they had fired it off, but there was no mark of any shot 
around my store anywhere. They swore the cannon should re- 
main there until I left. I went around and took counsel of 
the good citizens, and I found that there were plenty of men 
who, wlien they could have tlie law to uphold them, were ready 
to enforce peace and good order. We organized about forty 
or fifty and drilled, and tliey were well drilled, too. There was 
a young man by the name of Chase, a bold, active, determined 

212 Pioneer Citizens' 

young man, who was foremost in the matter. This rowdy 
party saw the movement that was being made against them, 
and they went to work and entrenched themselves, and swore 
they would not be arrested, but when they saw the force that 
was collected against them, they made no resistance. From 
that time to this the people of Atlanta have been a peaceful 
and law-abiding people; that is, the party of law and order 
have been triumphant whenever they have showed their de- 
termination to uphold the law and preserve the peace. 

"There are one or two more items that I want to mention, 
and one of them is this : When the Georgia Eailroad was fin- 
ished, or about that time, there was a change made in the kind 
of currency used for change. The usual way of keeping ac- 
counts was by 6^4 cents, 121/2 cents, 371/2 cents, etc., frac- 
tional parts of a cent being used. I was the first man that 
commenced using accounts by the Federal money system — 
cents, dimes, half-dimes, etc. — and I believe Atlanta was the 
first place in Georgia this change was inaugurated. The first 
merchants that came here were men of small capital, almost 
no capital at all, and wbo were not able to give credit. Trade 
was always brisk. A good deal of trade always centered here, 
but our merchants never sold on credit, and the consequence 
was that from the first we established a cash trade, and a result 
of this system was we always sold our goods for a less price 
and realized less profits. 

"The earliest merchants that came in after John Thrasher 
were myself and Collier & Loyd. The first time that a train, 
of cars came here on the Georgia Eailroad, which was about 
the 15th of September, 1845, there were but two stores here 
that sold general merchandise, and they were Collier & Loyd 
and myself. Kyle had a little grocery store, and Dunn had a 
little hat and bonnet store, but they did not amount to a 
great deal." 

History of Atlanta. 213 

Judge Hayden — "^Vhen I first came here, Mr. Xorcross 
had a sawmill turned by two old horses, and he sawed about 
one hundred and seventy-five feet of lumber per day. The 
women of the country came in on purpose to look at it, and 
the people swore that he fed his horses on sawdust. This mill 
was located just al)out where the Air Line Railroad depot 
is now." 

Mr. iSroRCROSs — "The first hotel here, after the Georgia 
road was finished, was started by a Dr. Joseph Thompson. 
Previous to that there was a little house on this [Kimball 
House] square, with the rooms on two ground and two above. 
That was all the hotel and all the boarding house there was in 
Atlanta. The postoffice was there, too." 

Mr. Ezzard — "I recollect very well when the first passen- 
ger car came up from Milledgeville. The Western & Atlantic 
Eailroad was then finished as far as Marietta, and the car 
went on through. There was one old farmer that made the 
engineer promise that he would stop and let him and daughter 
walk over the bridge across the Chattahoochee." 

Mr. Norcross — "I recollect very Avell the first train of 
cars over the Georgia Eailroad. It was on the 15th of Septem- 
ber, 1845. The train came in about dark. Judge King was 
on board and a great many others. There were a great many 
people out, and there was a great deal of excitement. There 
was a well in the square here, and such was the excitement, 
and it being dark, a man fell into the well and was drowned. 
Judge King came very near falling in there, also. It was 
dark, and he was just on the brink of stepping in when some 
one caught and saved him. I suppose there were about twenty 
families here at that time." 

Mr. Mayer. — "In 1848 there were two hundred and fifteen 
votes polled at the election of Mayor. There was great excite- 
ment and everybody drummed up." 

214 PioxEER Citizens" 

Mr. Kyle — "In 184:3 there were about seven families here. 
Just beyond where the Governor's Mansion now stands was 
the burying-ground." 

Mr. Xorcross — "The next great event in the history of At- 
lanta was the arrival of the ears on the Macon road. It was 
in 1846 or 1847. When it fell into new hands, the same was 
changed from the old Monroe Eailroad to the Macon & "West- 
ern Eailroad. The stock was bought up and they commenced 
to build it. They at first decided to run the track in up by 
the State road shops, and to make the depot there. With that 
view, the embankment up there was constructed. Those of 
us who lived up there and had bought property, thought that 
the town would be up there, and we went to work and held a 
meeting and brought all the influence we could to bear upon 
the company to get them to change the proposed location and 
bring it down here, and we prevailed on Mr. Tyler, who was 
president of the company, to bring the road dowTi here [Kim- 
ball House] to this public square, upon condition that ^Mr. 
Mitchell would give a place for the depot. It was done, and 
that was a turning point in the history of Atlanta." 

Mr. Thrasher — "That was my ruin. I bought one hun- 
dred acres of land with the expectation that the Macon road 
would stop up by the State road shops, and when I found tliat 
the road was going down here, I was very much enraged, and 
sold out my interest in that hundred acres for four dollars 
an acre, although it was about one-half of what I gave for it. 
I did not think the property would ever be worth anything 
out there, and I sold out and went to Griffin." 

Mr. Norcross — "The reason why the streets are so crooked 
is, that every man built on his land just to suit himself. The 
charter that was broken up by 'Cousin John' and those asso- 
ciated with him, provided for the appointment of commission- 
ers to lay out the streets, but they were not allowed, or would 

History of Atlanta. 215 

not exercise- tlioir duties, and so every one built upon his own 
laud just as he })leased. Tliere we're only just a few that be- 
lieved there would ever be a tow n here at all. That was one 
reason wliy the commissioners would not act — they did not 
tliink it a matter of much importance. Governor Crawford 
did not believe that there would ever be a city here, and 
Colonel Long, the chief engineer of the Georgia road, said 
that Atlanta would never be anything but a wood station." 

Judge Hayden — "Colonel Long spent all of his money at 
]\Iarietta. He spent thousands of dollars there. He gave it 
as his opinion that wdien all the roads were built, Atlanta 
would consist of a crossroads store, a blacksmith shop and 
perhaps- a little cobbler's shop." 

Col. Bleckley — "The tirst fire took place in 1850, on Ala- 
bama street, near the place where the building occupied by the 
Southern Express Company now stands. It was on the 16th 
of April. It made a light that illumined the whole town. 
Soon after the fire commenced, the alarm was given at a w^are- 
house two or three hundred yards off, and several bales of cot- 
ton were destroyed. Then, about the time that fire had been 
extinguished, another alarm was given. The property dam- 
aged and lost was very large. There were, of course, no steam 
engines, or no engines of any kind, nothing but buckets of 
water wdth which to put out the hre. During the fire some 
one entered the Georgia railroad depot and with an axe broke 
open the money drawer and took from $40 to $70. There 
were search-warrants issued and arrests made and a court of 
investigation held. There was great excitement. The impres- 
sion was that the thieves were those who brought about these 
fires for the purpose of getting an opportunity to rob." 

"H. C. HOLGOMBE — "In the year 1844 I was in Atlanta, 
Ga. (then Marthasville), and found only a few small houses 
on Decatur street, opposite the Kimball House, two or three on 

216 PioxEER Citizens' 

Kile's corner, and some few scattering shanties on other points, 
Xo running of cars here then, there being no railroads com- 
pleted to this point at that time (Juh' 28, 1844:). 

"I became a citizen of Atlanta on the 4th of May, 1847. I 
then found a population of about two hundred and fifty or 
three hundred persons, counting all ages and colors, males and 
females. In September of that year the Methodist Episcopal 
Church held its quarterly meeting under a cotton shed, which 
stood very near the present residence of Mr. James H. Porter, 
on "VTlieat street. There was not a church building in the 
place sufficiently laige in which that assembly could be con- 
vened. All of the lots now occupied by church edifices were 
then in brush and forest trees. There was a circular saw cut- 
ting lumber by horse-power on the lot now occupied by the 
second city market house, which is now being used as city 
police headquarters. The grounds upon which now stands 
the depot and office building of the State Eailroad were sur- 
rounded by sturdy oaks of the forest, the immediate 
grounds being a caney marsh, the surface of which was some 
twenty-five to thirty feet below the present grading. Cattle 
were frequently found mired and fast in the marsh, having 
gone there to feed on the switch cane and other marsh 
growth. There were but two houses on Alabama street, l)e- 
tween Loyd and Wh.itehall streets; and the first fire that oc- 
curred in Atlanta consumed one of them — the same beincr in 
April. 1850. The first killing that occurred in Atlanta was the 
case of William Terrell killing one Mr. McWilliams by stab- 
bing, which took place in 1847. Dr. X. G. Hilburn was mur- 
dered by Elijah Bird (his brother-in-law), who cut his throat, 
from which he died instantly. Dr. D'Alvigny was soon at the 
spot, and pronounced him dead in a few moments after the 
cutting took place, which was in December, 1850. P>ird a\ as 
afterwards convicted of murder for that act, but was par- 

History of Atlanta. 217 

doned by the Legislature. The first brick house erected in 
Atlanta was the "^Atlanta Hotel.' which occupied the grounds 
now covered by the Kimball House. I saw the 'razor-strop 
man' in 1847, standing on a large stump, from which a tree 
had but a little time before been cut, in Whitehall street, in 
front of Eedwine & Fox's drug store — corner of Alabama and 
Whitehall — crying off his razor-strops and saying that he had 
a 'few more of the same sort left.' Then there were but a few 
houses in that part of the city. 

"The grounds now occupied by the Medical College were, 
in 1847 and 1848, covered with a deep and thick forest, in 
which small wild game were to be seen and frequently picked 
off by the apt and anxious marksman. 

"The grounds known as the Storr's schoolhouse, is in the 
midst of what vas the large fields then being planted and cul- 
tivated by the Ivey family, Avho were the owners of all that 
portion of ground lying in that vicinity. 

"Those cedar trees now growing so luxuriantly in a lot 
on Marietta street, opposite the State Capitol, were trans- 
planted by Dr. N"at Austin, in 1848, that lot being that year 
opened up from the wild forest by the said Austin. These 
trees were then mere switches, not so large as a convenient- 
sized walking cane." 

[The above notes were taken from William E. Hanleiter's 
Atlanta Directory for 1871.] 

218 Pioneer Citizens" 




Atlanta in 1848— Eive Public Roads Ran Through Town— 
Dr. Joseph Thompson — Some of the Early Mer- 
chants — The "Midway" of Atlanta — Atlanta's Cotton 
Trade — Decatur Would Build a Chinese Wall to Exclude 
Atlantians — Early Fairs — The Xaming of Whitehall 

By X. A. McLendon. 

In 1848 Atlanta was only a small country village in the 
heart of an almost impenetrable wilderness, surrounded by 
huge forest trees and thick undergrowth. Xow we have a 
magnificent city, with long stretches of magnificent thorough- 
fares, and many of her streets paved with the best material 
knowai. In September, 1848, the town of Atlanta claimed a 
population of two thousand inhabitants. The principal streets 
then were the five public roads which entered the to\\ni from 
adjacent counties, viz: Decatur, Marietta, McDonough (now 
Capitol avenue), and the road leading westward to Xewnan 
and Campbelton; on this last named road, two miles out, 
where West End is now located, there was a small village, 
which boasted of one store, a race-track and a public house, 
called "Whitehall." This public road is now Peters street. 
The fifth and last street was the Peachtree road, running 
north, which took its name from Peachtree creek. At that 
time there were only two houses on that road within the cor- 
porate limits; one of them is yet standing, at the junction of 

History of Atlanta. 219 

Ivy and Peachtree; tlic otlier stood whore General Clement 
A. Evans now resides, 443 Peachtree. Then, there was a 
Methodist camp-ground on the right of Peachtree. near Xorth 
avenue and Piedmont avenue, near a large, bold spring in the 
bottom. All the streets in Atlanta at that date were of origi- 
nal soil, except from Alabama to Marietta, on Whitehall, 
where plank w^alks and streets had been laid, which crossed a 
small stream near where Wall street is now located. The 
older portion of Atlanta was then on the north side of De- 
catur street, down to Ivy ; here small wooden stores and dwell- 
ings were located. The block from Pry or to Loyd. opposite 
the Kimball House and Union Depot, was the property of the 
State, and the freight depot of the State road (now Western 
& Atlantic Eailroad) stood near the corner of Wall and Pryor. 
Near the center of this block the offices of the State road were 
located. The postoffice was a wooden building, located on the 
corner of Peachtree, Edgewood and Decatur streets. Mr. 
Washington Collier, the present owner of this property, was 
the postmaster, under the administration of President James 
K. Polk. Thomas Kyle was the proprietor of a small store, 
which then stood where the Healy building now stands, corner 
of Peachtree and Marietta streets ; he carried a mixed stock of 
goods, but the biggest part of his trade was in very wet goods. 
Jonathan Norcross owned a store on the corner now known as 
the Norcross building; he carried a general stock of merchan- 
dise and did a large business. On the corner, at the railroad 
crossing and Peachtree street (now known as the Dougherty 
& Flynn property), was a small confectionery store and soda 
fountain, run by Mr.- Dougherty. From the railroad to Ala- 
bama, on the east side of Whitehall there was a small wooden 
house, called the Holland House. Richard Peters had a stage- 
stand and stable, which occupied about one-half of the block 
from the railroad to Alabama street. The other portion of 

220 PioxEER Citizens' 

this block was filled with horse-racks. There were no livery 
stables in Atlanta, and people visiting the town used these 
racks for the purpose of hitching their horses and teams. On 
the north side of the block, from Whitehall to Pryor, was 
located the freight depot of the "Monroe Eailroad." The 
block on the north side of Alabama, between Pryor and Loyd, 
was a vacant lot, owoied by the State of Georgia. On the 
south side of Alabama, between Pryor and Loyd were three 
stores, one of them owned by Loyd, Collins & Clark, who car- 
ried a stock of general merchandise; another was occupied 
by Mr. A. Wheat, general merchandise, and the other was 
used by Mr. Daniel ]kIcShuffrie, who dealt in wet goods ex- 
clusively. On the south side, from Pryor to Whitehall, there 
was only one storehouse, and that stood on the corner, and was 
occupied by Mr. U. L. Wright, who had a first-class grocery 
store. On tlie opposite corner, Johnson & Smith occupied a 
storehouse and dealt in general merchandise. There were 
about a dozen other storehouses on Whitehall, betwen Ala- 
bama and Mitchell, most of them ])etween Alabama and 
Hunter streets ; they were occupied by James Doan, A. Duliu, 
Terrence Doonan, William Mann, Robert Mangum, William 
Herring. Eichard Hightower, James Davis, A. B. Forsyth and 
I. 0. & P. E. McDaniel; all dealt in general merchandise. I. 
0. & P. E. McDaniel occupied a two-story brick building on 
the corner of Whitehall and Hunter, where the Keely building 
now stands. The upper story of this building was used as a 
public hall; it was the only Ijrick storehouse in the toAvn. 
Haas & Levi, Sternberger & Co., and B. F. Bomar & Co., also 
had stores and dealt in dry goods and clothing. Dr. X. L. An- 
gler, drugs; Lewis Lawshe, merchant tailor; McPherson & 
Richards, books and stationery; John Tomlinson, tinware, 
were all in business and occupied stores on Whitehall. L^. L. 
Wright, A. Dolin. L O. & P. E. McDaniel, John Trammell, 

History of Atlanta. 231 

Jonathan jSTorcross, Terrence Doonan, Fields Hight and A. B. 
Forsyth were the principal cotton buyers. The manufactur- 
ers were Humphries Brothers, shoes; Jolm Tomlinson, tin- 
ware; James Craven, jugware, and Andy Wells, brick. 

There were four churches: Wesley Chapel, corner Peach- 
tree, Pryor and Houston; First Baptist, corner Forsyth and 
Walton ; First Presbyterian, near corner Marietta and Spring, 
and the Episcopalian Church (now known as St. Philip's), 
corner Washington and Hunter streets. The cemetery at that 
time was on the west side of Peachtree, corner of what is now 
Baker street. About 1849 or 1850, Oakland Cemetery was 
bought by the city, and the dead were moved from the old and 
re-interred in Oakland. 

The physicians were William Gilbert, N. L. Angler and 
George Smith. Dr. James F. Alexander moved to Atlanta in 
April, 1849, during the small-pox epidemic. Dr. Xick Welch 
was one of our dentists and Dr. IST. G. Hilburn the other. The 
lawj^ers were Logan E. Bleckley, Chris Simpson, Green B. 
Haygood, John L. Harris and Luther J. Glenn. The resi- 
dent portion of the town was scattered from Marietta to 
Spring, from North Forsyth to Luckie, and on Decatur, Pryor, 
McDonough (now Capitol avenue). West Alabama and South 
Forsyth street as far as Peters street. The best resident por- 
tion was on Alabama and Soutli Fors3'th as far as Peters, and 
Atlanta's "400"' dwelt on these streets at that date. Castle- 
berry Hill was the center of the street from the railroad cross- 
ing on Peters to the jiinction of Walker and Peters street, and 
had a very unsavory reputation; it was then known as the 
"Midway" of Atlanta. The principal resort was Walton 
Spring, corner James and Spring. This resort at that time 
was as popular as Grant Park is now. The water from this 
spring was pure and cold, and ran from under a rock. 

Antonie kept a refreshment stand at the spring, where he 

222 Pioneer Citizens' 

sold soda water, ice cream, cakes and fruits. The baptismal 
pool was also located near this spring. A man known as 
"Monkey" Baker had a menagerie of monkeys and guinea pigs 
near the junction of Walker and Peters streets. 

In 1848 the Whig party had a grand mass-meeting at Wal- 
ton Spring in the interest of their candidates, Taylor and Fil- 
more, for president and vice-president. T^^e people came in 
droves, by rail, buggies and wagons, from all portions of the 
State, and the crowd was estimated at ten thousand. There 
were a number of great lights, reprl'sentatives of the grand old 
Whig party, who made speeches. Alexander H. Stephens waa 
to speak, but was unabte to do so, on account of stabs received 
in a personal encounter with Judge Cone a few days before, 
but he occupied a seat on the stand, and was held up so that 
the people might see him. This was the biggest event that had 
ever occurred in the town. After Taylor and Filmore were 
elected, there was a mucli larger demonstration. People 
flocked from every quarter ; some of them came from seventy- 
five to one hundred miles; large quantities of ricli pine had 
been procured, and every one was supplied with a torch-light, 
and such a time as we had had never been known before within 
the borders of Atlanta, and, in my judgment, has never been 
surpassed since, except the great torch-light procession in 
honor of the visit of Grover Cleveland, in 1887. 

From 1848 to the completion of the West Point Eailroad 
to Atlanta, the wagon trade was immense. Long trains, M'ith 
two, four and six mules, and many yoke of oxen, came in daily 
with cotton. Some days there was so much that it was im- 
possible to weigh all of it the day it was received. The cotton 
came from Campbell, Carroll, Coweta, Fayette, Heard, Henry, 
Meriwether and Troup counties, Georgia, and from North 
Alabama. The merchants did an immense business, and 
nearly every wagon returned liome laden with merchandise. 

History of Atlanta. 223 

Nearly all of the cotton sliip}x'cl i'rom Atlanta went to 
Charleston and Savannah. 

The first hanging occurred in Atlanta in 1858. The gal- 
lows was erected on the corner of what is now Crumley and 
Martin streets, and the victim was David Crockett. Crockett, 
Cobl) and Jones murdered a man by the name of Landrum, 
from Carroll coui\ty, Georgia, who brought and sold a lot of 
beef cattle here. They murdered him after the sale, expecting 
to get his money ; but he had taken the precaution to deposit 
his money in the town, and was on his way to the country to 
spend the night with a friend. Crockett confessed his crime, 
and implicated the other two men. Cobb was tried, convicted 
and hung; Jones was sent to the penitentiary, but was par- 
doned out by Governor Brown when Sherman marched 
through Georgia, with the understanding that he should enlist 
in the army in defense of the South, which he did, and served 
throughout the war in a company commanded by the noto- 
rious Dr. Eoljerts. After the war he went to Nashville, Tenn. 
Crockett wrote a Ijook of his life and realized a snug sum 
from its sale. About the same date of this murder, William 
Choice killed an officer by the name of Webb. Logan E. 
Bleckley, who was then solicitor-general of the Coweta Circuit, 
prosecuted Choice. He was convicted and sentenced to be 
hung, iDut was pardoned by the Georgia Legislature. Judgp 
0. A. Bull, of Troup county, was the presiding judge. James 
M. Calhoun, Augustus E. Wright and Hon. Benjamin Hill 
defended Choice. Choice died in Kome, Ga., since the war. 
Atlanta, in her early days, had her enemies, as she has now. 
The old and aristocratic town of Decatur, one of her nearest 
neighbors, entertained the bitterest feelings toward her, and 
even threatened to build a Avail between the two towns, similar 
to the Chinese walls, in order to prevent intercourse between 
their citizens, but x\tlanta won in this instance, as she has 

22-i PioxEER Citizens" 

ever done; for in less than five years she had captured more 
than three-fourths of Decatur's population. Atlanta -svas bi,iilt 
up by mechanics and energetic merchants of small means. 
One of the peculiarities of Atlanta's population is their in- 
tense love for the dear old place. Her citizens may move 
awav, but eventuallv will return, if able to do so. 

By Mrs. Willis Carlisle. 

My father moved to Georgia in 1828. Later on they moved 
to Marietta where I was married in 1841. Rev. Josiah 
Burke, who performed the ceremony, advised my husband to 
move to Terminus, as he said it would some day be a large 
place. We took his advice, and one warm day in June we 
started out on our journey. 

jSTot greater was the fire and enthusiasm that coursed the 
veins of those who long ago turned their faces toward the Cali- 
fornia wilds in search of gold than was that of this young 
couple as they started to win the goal (or gold) at Terminus. 
As we, with our wagons and worldly effects, reached our des- 
tination, a rude structure which we had procured from Judge 
Cone, of Decatur, as a dwelling, we found, to our consterna- 
tion, that it was occupied, and, what was more, by rude people 
who refused to vacate. There we were, alone, thrust out into 
the wilderness without shelter, neighbor or friend. It was the 
only available shelter for miles around, having been built by 
]\[r. John Thrasher (known as "Cousin John") and used 
years before as a commissary for the old "Monroe Eoad" 
liands. It was situated on Marietta road, in front of the 
present First Presbyterian Church. Tlie families occupying it 
were Irish, employed to grade the road, and seemed to be fix- 
tures. We began looking about us for shelter, until we could 

History of Atlanta. 225 

notit'v Jr.flgo Cone, and finally found an old dilapidated shan- 
ty in which cattle had fonnd refuge, and here we camped. 
After some delay, we obtained possession of shanty number 
one, wdiich, for comfort, was little better than that we had just 
vacated. But it was to be home ; and let not the reader forget 
we were young, ambitious and quite visionary. We felt that 
Terminus would not always be a terminus, but the beginning 
of much grand and glorious future prosperity. Can it be 
gainsaid, as Atlanta, great and beautiful Atlanta — the magic 
city — looms up from that little Terminus, in all her present 
majesty and pride ? 

^STotwithstanding the noble resolve of this young wife to 
stand by licr husband and suffer as he suffered, our finer feel- 
ings recoiled at sight of the rude floor and bare walls of the 
one room which she realized was to be parlor, bedroom, store 
for groceries, and possibly dining room and kitchen, all in 
one. Imagine, if you can, young reader — if you are a mother 
or wife — this young wife's feelings as she stood and gazed at 
licr surroundings. Yet, as she gazed in disappointment and 
uncertain fear, this sweet reflection came to her: j\Iary, the 
mother of Jesus, had only a manger for her cherished one to 
be born in; why sho\ild I ask for more? So the young and 
expectant mother, of only seventeen summers, bowed her head 
in me.ek siibmission and grieved no more. Xot so the young 
and manly husband and the wife's mother. They knew their 
dear one's life was in danger, and, without medical aid, which 
could not be procured easily (the nearest physician being at 
Decatur, six miles distant), or some neighbor's assistance, 
it would be impossible to keep her here. But, dreading the 
possil)lc separation, they diligently searched the vast wilder- 
ness for the home of some settler. Day after day did the young 
wife and her mother traverse these hills and dales in search 
of life; but not even the familiar I^ark of a dog*greeted their 

226 Pioneer Citizens' 

ears. Oft and anon they would strike, in their wanderings, a 
beaten path, or trail, and eagerly follow it; but their chase 
would only lead to some spring used by the old railroad hands 
years before. One of these was, I remember, near tlie spot 
where the steel Forsyth street bridge now stands ; another was 
the old Walton spring. 

There were several farm houses scattered about through 
the country, one of which was owned by Mr. Hardy Ivy, nearly 
a mile distant to the east; another by ]\Ir. Little, out on the 
Decatur road, and one by Mr. Humphreys, out on Whitehall 
road— he owned the "Whitehall House." There were two 
farmers, Mr. Emory and Mr. Edwin Collier, out on the Peach- 
tree road to the ford of the creek. These were too far away, 
however, for the two pedestrians to find in their search, when 
it was afterward realized how widely scattered they were, for it 
was years before the city's limits reached them. 

As before said, our little cabin of one (big) room and a 
shed was to serve as dwelling and grocery. The stage, driven 
by Tom Shivers, passed every other day, back and forth from 
Decatur to Marietta. This event was an oasis in the desert of 
our lives, for it was the only thing that broke the terrible 

Just here let me say, my experience as pioneer settler of 
this vast city was so thrilling during those early days of hard- 
ship, that should I live to see Atlanta's hundredth anniversary, 
my memory would ever be fresh with the trying events of fifty 
years ago. And yet, "Every cloud has its silver lining ;" and 
as I reflect, the silvery lining then to us was in the genial, 
welcome visit of some old friend from our former home. 

There were no churches, no Sabbath-schools, so we spent 
the day quietly at home. 

Peachtree road! Does not that grate upon the sensitive 
ear of some 6i our fastidious residents of Peachtree street of 

History of Atlanta. 227 

today ? Does the picture of the quiet little country road, with 
the two paths made by the wheels on each side of the strip of 
green, you know, all grown up Avith bushes and stumps, 
through which the horse would plod, cause you to turn away 
incredulous and perhaps disdainfully, fair reader? To me 
it is one of the dearest of pictures. The asphalt pavement, 
electric lights, etc., of today sink into insignificance in com- 

When the land was surveyed and lots offered for sale, we 
bought the second that was sold, which was in the block run- 
ning from the corner of Pryor and Decatur streets back to 
Line street (now Edgewood avenue). On the corner front- 
ing Decatur my husband erected a small building in which he 
continued to keep and sell groceries. His was the first gro- 
cery store, and the store moved here later from Bolton, by 
Loyd & Collins, on the cars, was the first dry goods store of the 
place. To the rear of this block fronting line street we had 
moved our dwelling from upon Peachtree, and had as a 
neighbor A. B. Forsyth. 

The first sermon was preached in the rock warehouse by 
Rev. John L. Thomas, a Methodist minister; and the first 
boarding house was kept in the engineer's office by Mr. Gan- 
nan for the benefit of the engineers. 

As the days, weeks and months rolled by, the modest little 
Terminus put on a new garb and changed her name to Mar- 
thasville. The same characteristics which mark Atlanta of 
today were hers then, namely : Thrift, energy and steady pur- 
ppse. The growth was so marvelous and rapid it was impos- 
sible to keep pace with it. 

Many changes have taken place since those early days when 
the happy young couple made such a venture. My husband 
died in 1859, leaving me with a family of six children, all of 
whom I have lived to see grown to manhood and womanhood, 

238 Pioneer Citizens^ 

except the eldest son, Willis P., who died in infancy. Willis 
Ely, who died in Texas in 1890. Mrs. R. E. Jenkins died in 
187-1. The others are Mrs. D. H. Hoyt and Mrs. Jnlia With- 
ers, the latter of whom married Mr. Walter Withers, an old 
iron founder, and himself a pioneer. She (Julia) was my 
first horn, and has for many years had the honor of being 
called "the pioneer babe of Atlanta.'"' Is it any wonder that as 
I look about me and view Atlanta of today and that of fifty 
years ago, my heart tlirobs with natural pride and affection 
when I am called "the jM other of Atlanta?" She is in her in- 
fancy ! But my three score years and ten are very nearly 
numbered. Her grand and glorious work has only begun — 
mine is all but finished. I am only waiting for the ^Master's 
call from that "City not made with hands." 

[ISTote — This was prepared by Mrs. Carlisle in 1892, her 
death occurrinir in .1 

By Washington J. Houston. 

Previous to August 1, 18-16, Mr. John W. Graves, an en- 
terprising planter of Newton county, and the Hon. ]\Iark A. 
Cooper, of Cass county, one of our largest manufacturers of 
iron products, also a farmer of note, met by accident on a train 
going to Greensboro, Ga., to attend a sale of negroes. 

The Georgia Eailroad had just reached its terminus, Mar- 
thasville, now Atlanta. Mr. Graves owned the land upon 
which the Stone Mountain Inn and the railroad depot had 
been located. Wishing to do something that would develop 
the town and surrounding country, he asked Mr. Cooper to 
suggest some plan by which he could attract the people of that 
section. Mr. Cooper seeing that it was very desirable to call 
public attention to the vast and varied resources of Georgia, 

History of Atlanta. 229 

and especially of her mountain section, so little known to the 
lower inhabitants of the State, suggested that Stone Mountain, 
with its natural attractions, might properly be made the point 
for the assembling of some of the prominent men of the State 
to organize an agricultural and international improvement 
jubilee association. Mr. Graves, seeing the force of this sug- 
gestion, at once accepted it and with Mr. Cooper's assistance 
formulated and issued a letter asking the following named 
prominent citizens to unite in a call, suggesting as the several 
railroads in Georgia will be finished by August 1st, and that 
Georgia's splendid system of internal improvements will then 
be nearly completed, a matter of sincere congratulation, af- 
fording an opportunity of witnessing its operations, and ap- 
preciating the incalculable benefit conferred upon the State at 
large, and agriculture in particular, request all interested to 
assemble at Stone Mountain, in Delvalb county, on that date. 
Signed, George W. Crawford, C. J. McDonald, W. Lumpkin, 
j\Iark A. Cooper, Garnett Andrews, N. L. Hutchins, C. Dough- 
erty, William C. Daniel, P. G. Morrow, E. :\L Cleveland, 
Elijah E. Jones, A. F. Saft'old, William Jones, Junius Hillyer, 
A. J. Miller, Jacob Phinizy, B. H. Warren, William Dearing, 
John Cunningham, John H. Nelson, Asbury Hull, Carey 
Wood. Joh]i D. Watkins, Nathaniel Allen, H. J. Oglesby, D. 
Lyle, Ker Boyce, Matt IMartin, George S. Myley, W. Gumming, 
John Phinizy, James Long, James Harper, J. M. Calhoun, D. 
McKenzie, E. E. Mills, J. C. Harrington, Thomas Flournoy, 
J. S. Eichard, G. P. Cozart, Thomas Foster. These gentlemen 
fully represented the masses, and while there are but few — if 
any of them — now living, there are many descendants and 
acquaintances that can testify to their worth and value to our 
State in their various professions and occupations. 

To this call sixty-one responded, and paid one dollar each, 
organized under the name of the Southern Central Agricul- 

230 Pioneer Citizens'" 

tural Society, holding their first fair at Stone Mountain on 
August 1, 1846, in a beautiful grove furnished free by Mr. 
Johnson, landlord of Stone Mountain Hotel. The citizens 
erected at their own expense creditable buildings sufficient to 
accommodate the exhibitors. 

The first meeting was held in a stand erected by Mr. 
Graves south of the railroad and the only exhibits offered were 
a jack and ginnett with their groom, all the property of Mr. 

The next year, IS-iT, using their own language, "a sure 
enough fair" was held, which with visitors and articles to- 
gether, nearly filled the ten pin alley just in front of the Stone 
Mountain Hotel. Visitors were charged ten cents admittance. 
A few premiums were awarded. 

Following this fair, the fairs of 1848 and 1849 were held 
at Stone Mountain; with the last many outside attractions 
were added. Barnum with his big shows and circus was the 
leading attraction, of the day, bringing people from all the 
surrounding counties, prominent among them the country boy 
in home-made attire, and his best girl, whose fashions were 
shaped by her home surroundings and her happiness made 
interesting by the entire absence of formality. To this inter- 
esting gathering Atlanta furnished her quota, who resolved 
that fun should be the order of the day, installing it with en- 
raging Tipo Sultan, the big elephant, to such extent as to ren- 
der him almost unmanageable. Winding up in the sudden 
falling of the seats, a general scrambling for the outside, fol- 
lowed by a collapse of the canvas and many painful bruises. 
Order was soon restored, the fair and circus progressed with- 
out further interruption, and the fair pronounced the most 
successful of all previous fairs. So successful that Atlanta 
determined to secure the next, and in 1850 the exhibit took 
place in Atlanta on Fair street, from which the street derived 

History of Atlanta. 231 

its name. The place is now thickly populated, and one in 
passing along now would scarcely believe that several success- 
ful exhibitions were held on the south side of Fair street about 
where Fair street schoolhouse now stands, and that a fine 
spring headed a clear flowing stream of ample capacity to 
•supply the demands of the largo number of people assembling 
and numbers of horses, cattle, sheep, hogs and other stock 

The fair of 1850 was a grand success in every particular, 
made so by the great interst manifested in it by our then val- 
ued townsman, the Hon. Eichard Peters. The agricultural in- 
terests of Georgia will never come up to its full duty until it 
places in our Capitol a monument to this great man, who has 
done more in the great and rapid development of stock rais- 
ing and diversified agriculture than any other individual of 
our State. 

Much credit for success was due to the Hon. Mark A. 
Cooper, president, and Hon. David W. Lewis, secretary of 
this fair. . 

Macon was in her prosperous day and at this time was fur- 
nishing through Mr. Isaac Scott, president of the Bank of 
State, about all the funds used in Atlanta in buying cotton. 
Feeling a sense of superiority, she demanded the fair of 1851, 
and by a hotly contested ballot won it, and with such enter- 
prising men as Isaac Scott, I. C. Plant, T. G. Holt and others, 
combined with the efforts of the best men of Clarke and Eich- 
mond counties, made this the greatest fair ever held in the 
southern country. There were many features at this exhibi- 
tion that could be profitably reinstated at this day. Addresses 
were delivered by Judge Garnett Andrews, Bishop Elliott, Eev. 
Thomas F. Scott and Hon. Edmund Euffin, of Virginia, all 
pointing to the great future of this country. Mrs. Caroline 
Lee Hentz, the beautiful musical composer of that day, electri- 
fied the audience with some of her patriotic compositions. 

232 Pioneer Citizens' 

Essays were read by James M. Chambers on treatment and 
cultivation of cotton and corn and by Nathan Bass on treat- 
ment and management of slaves. 

Hon. David W. Lewis on retiring from office as secretary 
paid a well deserved and beautiful testimonial to the Hon. 
Mark A. Cooper, of Cass county ; Hon. Thos. Stocks, of Greene' 
county, and the Hon. William M. D'Antignac, of Eichmond, 
for valuable aid rendered, delegating to them the honor of the 
great success achieved. 

Embraced in the proceedings of this fair are letters to Mr. 
Cooper expressing regrets at their inability to attend from 
many distinguished men in the history of our nation, among 
them W. 0. Butler, of Kentucky; Wingfield Scott, Millard 
Fillmore, Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. A reproduction 
of these letters would furnish interesting reading to many of 
the present generation. 

After disclaiming any intention to reflect on the methods 
of conducting fairs of the present day, I will add that the ex- 
hibits of the forties and fifties were solely conducted for the 
elevation of mankind and the development of our mechanical, 
agricultural and educational interests and did not embrace 
many features of the present that are prominently displayed on 
the boards as leading attractions. Such things as pool rooms, 
midways, beer gardens and gambling devices were unknown 
on the grounds. 

By John C. Hendrix. 

My first visit to Atlanta was in 1847. I was a boy twelve 
years old. My father and brothers had a wagon each, loaded 
with things from our farm in Lumpkin county. We sold 
some corn to Jonathan Norcross, at the old Norcross corner, 
at 50 cents a bushel. We sold some potatoes to a man named 


Prater, wlio had a little planked up store on Loyd street near 
the Southwest corner of Alahama street. There was a branch 
running across (now) Alabama street, near Pryor. So we 
could not go that way, owing to the mud and water. Norcross 
had a big, plain plank store house fronting on Marietta, the 
street being paved with pine slabs put down the round side up. 
About where the First Methodist Church now stands (Peach- 
tree and Pryor streets) they were cutting cord wood. A little ^ 
school house stood about the junction of Peachtree and Hous- 
ton streets (which were then old country roads). 

A man named Gus Wheat, from my old county, had a store 
somewhere, as I remember going there to see him. It did not 
look to me then that Atlanta would ever be a city. I came 
here several times each year until 1859, when I moved here. 

The first cotton I ever sold was to A. B. & W. G. Forsyth. 
They had an office about where the Gould building is on De- 
catur street, near Peachtree; this was in 1849. They cut the 
cotton, agreed on the price, then gave a ticket to the Georgia 
Pailroad depot, where it was weighed by the agent, and gave 
another ticket of the weight. This I carried back to Mr. 
Wright Eogers, whom I knew many years after,) who paid 
me for the cotton. Atlanta in her early days was a great 
wagon market. The wagons would line the Peachtree road 
thickly for miles. I remember counting the teams we met 
between Atlanta and Pinkneyville, near what is now Norcross, 
and the number was something over a hundred and fifty. 
Some were one-horse or ox, some six horses, or mules, with 
bells on the lead horses. North Carolina wagons loaded with 
apples were frequent. 

On my first trip in 1849, Mr. ISTorcross told me to go to the 
sugar cask — which I did witliout waiting for a second invita- 
tion. I don't know how much sugar I eat, but up to that time 
] had thought I could eat my weight of it. 

234 Pioneer Citizens' 

Tom and A. G. Kile were here on my first visit, or come 
soon tliereafter, and lield forth at what was nntil recently 
known as Kile's corner, on the Northwest corner of j\Iarietta 
and Peachtree. Jack Oliver, another old Lumpkin county 
man, was here on my first visit. I have watched the growth of 
the city before the destruction and since ; have noted the pluck 
and energy of the people, and have never seen the time when 
it became necessary to do a thing but that the people would 
fall in line and do it. After the surrender, when we came 
back and lived in tents and huts, the people put their hands 
in their pockets and bought a fire engine — the city not being 
able to do so. The old citizens had a rough time in bad 
weather; the streets would get impassible and the wood wag- 
ons could not haul wood ; and then there were no wood vards, 
and no coal came here then. In 1859 there was a wood famine. 
I walked through the mud and snow three miles to get a friend 
to bring me some wood. 



J. G-. Westmoreland. W. F. Westmoreland, H. W. West- 
moreland, Joshua Gilbert, S. T. Biggers, J. F. Alexander, T. 
C. H. Wilson, Travis Powell. T. S. Powell, Noel D'Alvigny, 
H. W. Brown, Jesse Boring, J. M. Boring, W. A. Shelby, J. P. 
Logan, E. N. Calhoun. J. L. Cleveland. D. C. O'Keefe, A. 
Means, E. J. Massey, W. P. Harding. William Moore, W. W. 
Durham. N. L. Angier, John C. Calhoun, T. M. Darnall, 
Edward L. Calhoun, Chapman Powell, El:)en Hillyer, Eli Grif- 
fin, James M. Morris, J. F. Albert and E. J. Eoach, 



History of Atlanta. 237 

(By Fkaxk T. Ryan.) 

The twent3'-fourth governor of Georgia, was born in Pick- 
ens District, South Carolina, April 15, 1821. "While he was 
still a boy his father removed to Union count}', Georgia, where 
the lad grew to nianliood. It was in that remote mountain 
home, under the influence and control of steady, religious par- 
ents, that he passed his early youth. He labored in the field 
and attended stock to aid in the family support until he was 
nineteen 5^ears of age. He had been sent to the country 
schools, had learned to read and write, and had acquired 
some knowledge of arithmetic. Hearing of Calhoun Academy 
in South Carolina, lie determined to acquire more learning, 
so, in 1840, at the age of nineteen, he left his father's house 
with nothing but his clothing and a pair of oxen. Walking 
most of the way, he finally reached the academy where he 
acquired his education, for which he had to go in debt. Re- 
turning to Georgia he engaged as teacher at Canton, and. hav- 
ing been admitted to tlie bar, he also began practice as an at- 
torney. He afterward finished his legal studies at Yale Law 
School, from which he was graduated in 1846, when he again 
took up the practice of law at Canton. Entering into politics, 
his promotion was rapid. In 1847 he married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Rev. Joseph Grisham, a Baptist clergyman, of 
South Carolina, who has been among the most devoted of 
wives. She has been constantly by his side in all his arduous 
duties, with aid in toil and wise counsel in times of trial and 
embarrassment. They have been blessed with eight children, 
viz. : Julius L. Brown. Mary Y., now the wife of Dr. E. L. 
Connally, Joseph ISl. Brown, Franklin Pierce Brown, Elijah 
A., Charles M., Sallie Eugenia and George M. 

The siibject of this sketch was elected to the State Senate 
in 1849. a Pierce elector in 1852, Judge of the Superior Courts 
of the Blue Ridge Circuit in 1855, and governor in 1857, and 
re-elected in 1859. A secessionist in 1860, his war demonstra- 

238 Pioneer Citizens' 

tion after Georgia seceded was so able and vigorous that, in 
spite of the precedent of only two terms for governor, he was 
re-elected in 1861, and again in 1863, over the strongest men 
in the State. He was the most conspicuous Southern war ex- 
ecutive, and had an able and historical correspondence with 
President Jeif Davis. After the war in 1865, he was impris- 
oned in Washington, but only for a short while. After his re- 
lease he returned to Georgia, and took a very prominent posi- 
tion in what was known as the reconstruction period, advising 
his people to accept the inevitable. He was appointed Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia, resigning in 1870 
to become president of the Western and Atlantic Eailroad, 
which position he held for twenty years. Upon Senator Gor- 
don's resignation the governor appointed our subjeet to fill the 
vacancy. He was elected by a very pronounced vote of the 
Legislature to fill the rest of Senator Gordon's term, and was 
re-elected for another full term in 1884. Owing to declining 
health, he was, on March 3, 1891, compelled to retire from 
public life, full of honors. Beginning without means, a coun- 
try lad, he has been successful in every great field of public and 
private life. He has been Governor, Chief Justice of the 
State Supreme Court, United States Senator, president of a 
railroad, and main owner of manufacturing and mining plants 
which employ thousands of hands. His handsome donation of 
$50,000 as a perpetual fund to educate the poor boys of Geor- 
gia, which he gave to the State University at Athens, was a 
noble act, and clearly shows that he had not forgotten how, in 
his young days, he struggled and contended with poverty for 
the learning he acquired, and no doubt at that time he formed 
the determination that should be ever be financially able that 
he would so arrange with some educational institution that all 
the boys who desired should have the chance to obtain a 
higher education. He also gave $50,000 to the Baptist Col* 
lege at Louisville, Ivy., and there is now a scholarship in that 
college known as the Brown scholarship. He also gave $35,000 
to a Baptist college at Eichmond, Va. 

His last illness was long, tedious and painful, but during 
it all, his true, loving wife was ever at his side, nursing him 
both day and night, anxious and willing to supply his every 

History of Atlanta, 239 

want. On the 30tli of JSTovcmber, 1894, his spirit took its 
flight, surrounded by his sorrowing and loving family. His 
remains were removed to the State Capitol, where for twenty- 
four hours they lay in state, being viewed by hundreds. On 
the day of the burial, memorial services were held in the Sen- 
ate eliamber, partici|)atcd in by many of the prominent men of 
the State, after which the body was removed to the Second 
Baptist Church, where the religious services were concluded, 
and just as the sun was hiding behind the western horizon, 
followed by a large concourse of his fellow citizens, his mortal 
remains were borne to their hist resting place in Oakland 


Known as Atlanta's most historic citizen, was identified, 
till his death, with her interests and gradual development 
since the city was but the humble terminus of a railroad. He 
was not only one of the early residents, but mayor when the 
settlement was assuming the proportions of a large town. 
He has been a potent factor in almost every enterprise. He 
came to Atlanta in 184:4, when no streets had been built; 
only four roads converged, known as Peachtree, Decatur, 
Marietta and McDonough, He opened a general store, but 
soon after started a sawmill, and had his time wholly occu- 
pied in sawing crossties and "string timbers" for the State 
Road, In a few months he built a home near the corner of 
Decatur and Pratt streets. In the latter part of 1850 he 
•was nominated by the citizens for mayor. His opponent was 
L, C. Simpson, a lawyer. These factions were known respect- 
ively as the "moral" and "rowdy" parties. The campaigTi 
was heated. Mr. Norcross gathered votes by the distribution 
of fruit and candy, while his opponent offered whiskey and 
like stimulants. The "moral" party won. Mr. Norcross was 
not only mayor, but chief of police and superintendent of the 
streets as well, and, considering that the population was but 

240 Pioneer Citizens' 

a conglomeration of railroad hands out of employment, and 
gambling of daily occurrence, with an occasional murder, 
had his hands full enforcing order and maintaining peace. 
In the same year he established a general merchandise store. 
Groceries and dry goods formed the bulk of his stock, but a 
sign over the front door announced that "shingles and feath- 
ers" were his specialties. His labors in this direction were 
productive of merited success. While in the sawmill business 
Mr. jSTorcross invented a vertical saw, consisting of a circular 
wheel forty feet in diameter, and was adjusted in an almost 
horizontal position, with which he was able to saw about 
1,000 feet of lumber a day. The timber thus prepared was 
utilized in building the Georgia Eailroad, the first locomo- 
tive of which came into Atlanta September 16th. The 
jSTorcross building, on Marietta street, was destroyed some 
years since, owing to an insecure foundation, and a large 
brick structure erected in its place. 

Mr. Xorcross was not so engrossed with business affairs 
as to preclude literary research. He had a fine lilu-ary, in 
which he found time to commune with the silent speakers of 
many-sided lore. He displayed remarkable authorship in "The 
History of Democracy," "The Conflict of Labor and Capital," 
"Common Sense A^iews of State Sovereignty vs. United 
States Supremacy" "and Democracy Examined." He was 
married in April. 1845, to ]\Irs. Montgomery (nee Harriet 
N. Bogle), of Blount county, Tennessee, who died in 1876, 
leaving one son, Eev. Virgil Xorcross, a prominent Baptist 
minister of this city. Mr. Xorcross contracted a second mar- 
riage September 4, 1877, with Miss Mary Ann Hill. 

History of Atlanta. 241 


Mayor of Atlanta in 186G and 1808, was born Jan- 
uary IG, 1S2G, in Granger county, East Tennessee. His an- 
cestors, Williamses, Forts, Copelands and Freemans, were 
English and for several years residents of upper Carolina and 
Virginia. His grandfather, Matthew Williams, about 1788, 
in Edgecombe county, North Carolina, married ElizalDcth 
Fort, daughter of Elias and Sarah Sugg Fort, and removed 
with the Fort family to Eobertson county, Tennessee, where 
the new settlement was named Fort's Station, and where was 
born, in 1793, William Fort Williams, the father of Mayor 

At the age of nineteen William F. Williams volunteered in 
the First Tennessee Regiment and served under General An- 
drew Jackson through the Louisiana campaign of the War 
of 1812. 

In 1818 he married Ann K. Copeland, daughter of William 
and Mary Copeland, and purchased the Copeland homestead, 
near Bean's Station, Granger county, East Tennessee, forty 
miles east of Knoxville, Tenn., on the great highway from 
Washington, D. C, to New Orleans. 

Here was born, the 3Gth of January, 1826, James Ethel- 
dred Williams, the second of ten children, eight of whom sur- 
vived childhood, viz. : Cynthia Elizabeth, William Matthew, 
Cornelia Catherine, Mary Lucretia, Thomas Humes, Lucy 
Jane and Samuel Copeland. 

After attending school at home and in Knoxville, and 
going through the course of Holston College, at Newmarket, 
Tenn., he sold goods for his cousin, William Williams, at 
Eocky Springs, for two years, and in 1846-7 was assistant 
postmaster, in charge of the postoffice at Knoxville, during 
the absence of the postmaster. Colonel Samuel W. Bell, who 
went to the Mexican War. Although only twenty years old 
when he assumed the duties of this very responsible place — 
Knoxville being then one of the largest and most important 
offices in the South — he received special commendation from 

242 Pioneer Citizens^ 

the department at Washington for the manner in which lie 
discharged his duties. 

The next three or four years he engaged in business with 
James and William Williams, his cousins, who had large 
business interests at Knoxville, and operated a line of steam- 
boats on the Tennessee river from Knoxville to Decatur, Ala. 
While engaged as clerk on one of these steamboats he had 
the pleasure of hearing the famous singer, Jenny Lind, who, 
learning that the officers and employes on the boat on which 
she was traveling were by their duties denied the privilege of 
hearing her sing on land, through her sweetness and sympa- 
thetical appreciation of their attentions to her comfort as a 
passenger, sang for them on the boat all her choicest songs, 
and he frequently related this incident, expressing his admira- 
tion for her character. 

In October, 1851, moved by the fame of Atlanta's business 
activity and advantages, he cast his fortune with the young 
"Gate City," for whose welfare he spent the remainder of his 

His large acquaintance and strong connections throughout 
Tennessee and what was then known as the West, gave him 
most favorable opportunity, and the business he established 
in 1851, and continued until 1864 (when the city was de- 
stroyed by Sherman), was perhaps the largest and best known 
in this section, handling the produce of Tennessee and the 
West, on commission. His warehouse was first located on the 
Southwest corner of Hunter and Pryor streets, but the in- 
creased business requiring more room, about 1855 he bought 
the lot and built a store fifty by one hundred and sixty feet on 
Decatur street, opposite the Atlanta Hotel (now the Kimball 
House), and converted the upper stories into a theater, called 
the Atheneum, which was quite equal for Atlanta of that 
day, to the Grand Opera House of this period. Then, as 
now, Atlanta boasted of the finest theater between Washing- 
ton and jSTew Orleans, consequently all the best actors, tour- 
ing from New York to 'New Orleans, made a stop at Atlanta, 
and the city was the gainer. 

Always a Democrat, strongly opposed to Wliiggery, Know- 
Nothingism and Abolitionism, Mr. Williams was an ardent 

History of Atlanta. 243 

and active Secessionist, and when the war came on he shirked 
no responsibility and no duty evolved from the effort to estab- 
lish the principles he advocated. 

Pliysically incajiacitatod from active service in the field, 
he equipped and supported three brothers — Captain William 
M. Williams, of Company B (Fulton Dragoons), Cobb's Le- 
gion of Cavalry; Major Thomas H. Williams, of Cobb's Le- 
gion, and Colonel Samuel C. Williams, chief of artillery of 
Stewart's Corps of Hood's Army of Tennessee — until the 
siege of Atlanta destroyed his business, when he entered the 
service, in spite of his disability, as a private in Company B, 
Captain Samuel B. Sherwood, of the Atlanta Volunteer Fire 
Battalion, under Colonel (later Brigadier-General) Marcus 
J. Wright, doing garrison duty during the seige of Atlanta, 
July 25th to September 1st, 1864, and from that time until the 
surrender in 1865, in the medical department of the Army 
of Tennessee. 

At all times an active participant in every movement to 
build up Atlanta, many years of his life were spent in public 
service. As a member of the City Council, both before and 
during the war, he devoted time and money to Atlanta's wel- 
fare, and, in recognition of this, his fellow citizens, in 1865, 
when the new Atlanta was to be founded on the solid rock of 
truth and justice and wisdom, called him to the head of the 
city government, and for three years — the hardest three years 
in her history — he directed the building of the magnificent 
foundations of Atlanta's present greatness. 

Associated with him were those grand Pioneers, Eichard 
Peters, Edward E. Eawson, Alfred Austell, Jonathan Nor- 
cross, Frank Eice, Frank j\r. Eichardson, William B. Cox, 
Weldon Mitchell, Julius A. Hayden, George Terry, Anthony 
Murph}^ Edward W. Holland, John L. Hopkins, Lovick P. 
Thomas. Sr., Seaborn B. Love, John H. Mecaslin, Eobert M. 
Farrar and others, some as members of Council, some os 
officials — all as true sons of Atlanta, whose mother-city being 
in distress, gave of their brain and their substance for her 
relief. During this period the State Capitol was removed to 
Atlanta; the Atlanta and Charlotte Air Line Eailway was 
built, and the building of the Georgia Pacific Eailway as- 


sured through the subscription by Atlanta of $300,000. Xo 
other three things contributed more than these to Atlanta's 
present prosperity, and all these received Mayor "Williams' act- 
ive and successful suj^port. 

After the expiration of his term of office as Mayor, he 
engaged for several years in independent trading in provis- 
ions, grain ajid packing-house products until about 1880, 
when he retired from active business. 

From that time he was enabled, by reason of his leisure, to 
do much for the comfort and care of that noble fellowship of 
citizens who we now know as Pioneers. One of the charter 
members of the Pioneer Citizens' Society, he was active in its 
organization and support. At first elected vice-president, he 
was, on the retirement of President Jonathan Xorcross, 
ejected president, to which position he was annually re-elected, 
and was active in his discharge of the duties of this position 
to the time of his death — one of the last times he was out be- 
fore his last illness being to attend the funeral services of a 
deceased Pioneer. He was also a Master Mason, was a Past 
Master of Fulton Lodge and a member of Georgia Lodge at 
the time of his death. 

Xo more fitting tribute, from many paid to his memory, 
can be given than the following short extract from the address 
of Past Master Edward S. McCandless, in conducting the 
Masonic services at the funeral of Mayor Williams: "As 
Masons we are taught by his life and death to console our- 
selves with the thought that our loss is the eternal gain, glory 
and happiness of our beloved brother, and this deep affliction 
is sent to purify our hearts for the indwelling of that Divine 
Love that alone can bring consolation. 

"For many years, in faithful attendance, he has gone in 
and out among us, with his loving handshake and cheerful 
greetings, laboring earnestly to erect his own 'Masonic Tem- 
ple,' selecting for its construction only the truest and best ma- 
terials from the quarries of Masonry and adorning this spir- 
itual 'Temple' with all the virtues, as taught by the beautiful 
lessons of our Order, thus rendering it an acceptable and pleas- 
ing offering to the Grand Architect of the Universe, who has 
now called our brother from the labors of earth to the eternal 

History of Atlanta. 245 

refreshments of Heaven, to crown him with the immortality 
of an everlasting and glorious life." 

Mr. Williams was married, October 2G, 1852, to Miss 
Sarah Elizaljcth Lovejoy, daughter of John Burton Lovejoy, 
of Chattooga county, Georgia, whose ancestors, Hintons and 
Bradfords, came to Georgia from North Carolina and Vir- 
ginia immediately after the Eevolutionary War. 

Their children, all of whom are now (1901) living, were, 
in the order of their birth : William Fort, Etheldred, Thomas 
Humes, Jr., James Edward, Martha Lovejoy, Anne Eliza- 
beth, Cornelia Catherine (Mrs. Evart A. Baneker, Jr.), and 
Samuel Copeland, Jr., all of whom, except James E., who 
lives in Louisville, Ky., are now residents of Atlanta. 

Mrs. Williams died July 20, 1899, and, after only a few 
months' separation, Mr. Williams followed her April 10, 
1900. His last ilWiess was very short, and his death, caused 
by exposure at the funeral of a deceased friend and Pioneer, 
was undoubtedly hastened by the longing of his whole being 
to be united beyond the river with her who was the cherished 
sharer of his cares and triumphs for almost half a century. 


History of Atlanta. 247 


Was born in ]\rorgan county, Georgia, March 1, 1823, and 
died September 29, 1899. His father followed the trade of a 
wheelwright, and settled in DeKalk county, five .miles south 
of Decatur. He resided here till the death of his mother, in 
1835, and was then sent to Decatur, Ga., to enter the employ 
of G. B. Butler. His bright, winning ways soon attracted the 
attention of those about him, and, in 18-40, Colonel J. M. 
Calhoun, William H. Dabney, Hon. Charles j\Iurphy and 
Dr. Ephraim M. Poole, desiring to forward his interests, ad- 
vanced the necessary amount for a two-years' course in the 
Decatur Academy. After completing this, young Adair stud- 
ied law in the office of Judge John J. Floyd and General J. 
N. Williamson, of Covington, Ga., and, after two years' ap- 
plication, was admitted to the bar. Being young and inexpe- 
rienced, he found progress slow, and having a debt of several 
hundred dollars to cancel, he withdrew from his profession 
and accepted a position tendered him by J. Edgar Thomp- 
son, chief engineer, as conductor on the Georgia Railroad, 
running between Social Circle and Augusta, and was in 
charge of the ilrst train that entered Atlanta. After leaving 
the employ of the road, he moved to Covington, Ga., thence 
to Charleston, S. C, and located permanently in Atlanta in 
1854. Under the firm name of Adair & Ezzard, he con- 
ducted a mercantile store for two years, and then entered the 
general trading and real estate business. 

Colonel Adair, originally a whig in political belief, vehem- 
ently opposed the idea of secession, and was defeated in the 
race for the secession convention. ^Hien, however, war was 
declared, he placed himself beside his Southern comrades, 
ready to assert the claims of his people. He established, in 
1860, the Southern Confederacy, being assisted by J. Henley 
Smith. This daily journal, issued until the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, was bold and decisive in its advocacy of the Southern 
cause. In the last year of the war he volunteered as an aide 
on the staff of General N. B. Forrest. This association de- 

248 PiONEEE Citizens' 

veloped a strong and lasting friendship that was broken only 
by the death of that gallant leader. When the war was over 
he returned to find his home destroyed and his accumulated 
fortune well-night vanished. In partnership with Messrs. 
Clayton and Purse, he opened a general commission house, 
and at the same time resumed his interest in the real estate 
business. In 1865 he retired from the firm, and since that 
time has confined himself to real estate. As an auctioneer of 
properties in Atlanta, Birmingham, Sheffield and Chatta- 
nooga, he never lost a dollar through irregularity of pro- 
ceedure or defective title. 

Colonel Adair was ever a firm friend of Atlanta and of his 
native State, Georgia. He has been prominently connected 
with numerous important enterprises, especially the building 
of railroads. His zeal and energy gave a decided impetus to 
the rapid growth and prosperity of this city. He was an 
earnest promoter and vice-president of the Atlanta Street 
Railway in 1870, being associaied with Richard Peters. In 
the financial panic of 1873. followed by the resumption of 
specie payment. Colonel Adair was compelled to make an 
assignment of all his property. With indomitable determina- 
tion, possessing the respect, confidence and sympathy of the 
community, he again began at the foundation, and, l)y hon- 
esty, tenafcity and ability, erected a large and handsome for- 
tune over the wreck of his former accumulation. Colonel 
Adair was connected with the Atlanta Cotton Factory, the 
Cotton Exposition, director of the Kimball House Company, 
president of the Georgia Western Railway, director of the 
Piedmont Exposition, and director of Mrs. Ballard's Female 
Seminary. He was a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion in 1865, of the City Council, the Board of Water Com- 
missioners, and the Board of County Commission of Roads 
and Revenues. He never sought political honors, but 
naturally took a devoted interest in both state and national 
affairs. Colonel Adair, as a writer, was terse, convincing 
and logical; as a speaker, eloquent and Avitty, with a-gift for 
repartee seldom equalled; as a business man he was active, 
energetic and far-seeing, and a gentleman of kind and attract- 
ive disposition, and a character stainless and honorable. His 

History of Atlanta. 249 

ancestry was Irish and French and came to America in 1711, 
landing in Charleston, and there separating to different parts 
of the country. 


The subject of this sketcli was born in Putnam county, 
Georgia, January 3, 1829. His grandfather, Notley Maddox, 
was a captain of artillery in the Eevolutionary War, distin- 
guished for his bravery in numerous battles. His father^ 
Edward Maddox, was a man of consecrated piety and intel- 
ligence of high order, a pillar in the Methodist Church and 
a leader in his county. He removed from Putnam to Troup 
county, and from an humble, old-field school the subject of 
this sketch received his education. As a boy he was indus- 
trious and thrifty. His father owned 300 slaves, yet the son 
preferred work to inactivity ; he, therefore, at the age of four- 
teen, cultivated his own acre of ground during vacation, thus 
laying the foundation for his fortune in after life. 

Endued with patriotism and love of country, although not 
having attained to years of maturity, he offered his services 
to the government for the Mexican War of 1847-8. The 
quota from his State, however, was made up, and his services 
were not required. Thus he early exemplified the spirit that 
animated his forefather in his devotion to the colonies in 
their struggles with the British invaders. 

At the age of twenty-one, so well known was he for his 
steadiness of purpose, his manliness and sterling character, 
that he was elected sheriff of the county. He moved to La- 
Grange to enter upon his duties in that responsible office. 
When his term expired he entered into the mercantile busi- 
ness. Subsequently he was elected treasurer; also served the 
city in council. 

In 1858 Colonel Maddox moved to the City of Atlanta, 
and here he began merchandising. A stranger, without a rela- 
tive or acquaintance near him. his cordial manners and win- 



History of Atlanta, 251 

ning ways soon brought him friends. When the war between 
the States came on, three years later, he gave up his already 
brilliant prospects, left family and friends, to defend his 
State and country — how well, his career as a Confederate 
soldier amply attests. He organized the "Calhoun Guards" 
and was elected captain of the company by his enthusiastic 
friends. Later on, when a camp of 6,000 troops of the State 
was to be organized at Camp McDonough, the governor put 
him in command till the organization was completed. When 
the grand old Forty-second of Georgia was organized, Captain 
Maddox was made lieutenant-colonel. He remained with the 
regiment two years, participating in all the battles the organ- 
ization had — and they were many and brilliant. In 1863 he 
organized the "Second Georgia Eeserves," was made colonel 
and followed its fortunes till the surrender, in 1865. With 
the dawn of white-winged Peace he sheathed his sword (which 
had never known dishonor) and returned to Atlanta. Deeply 
touched at the destruction of the city, and grieved at the 
distress on every hand, he hurriedly and with a stout heart 
bent his energies to the task of aiding in her rehabilitation. 
His unfailing brightness of character and energy enthused 
and cheered all about him. 

In the fall of 1865 he was elected to the Legislature. It was 
a time that tried men's souls, and his people knew him for one 
who would bare his breast to the political storm, as he had to 
that of shot and shell. Everywhere distress held sway — there 
was need of prompt action — his State was prostrate ! He 
took a prominent part in that wise measure of the General 
Assembly to purchase $200,000 worth of grain for distribu- 
tion to the need}'. Governor Jenkins appointed him to make 
the purchase from the granaries of the West. So well did he 
accomplish the task, that the General Assembly voted him a 
resolution of thanks. 

Colonel Maddox was destined to play another important 
role — this time in the first aldermanic board of the City of 
Atlanta. In the discharge of his arduous duties here, espe- 
cially as a member of tlie finance committee, he brought to 
bear his splendid abilities, and to him Atlanta is due a debt of 
lasting gratitude for his untiring efforts to rehabilitate and 

252 Pioneer Citizens' 

restore her credit. His career as a cotton merchant, which 
he entered directly after the war, was one of great success. 
In 1880 he engaged in banking and the manufacture of fer- 
tilizers. He organized the firm of Maddox-Eucker Banking 
ComiDany and the Old Dominion Guano Company, as presi- 
dent of both. 

In works of beneficence Colonel Maddox always took a 
prominent part. He was, however, one of those few men who 
"do good by stealth." 

It was his pleasure to confer upon a young lady of talent 
a musical education, which would enable her in after life, if 
necessary, to maintain herself by this means. 

Many others received aid from his liberal hand ; indeed, he 
seemed unable to turn a supplicant away, and so kindly did 
he succor the petitioner that it left no sting behind. One of 
his good deeds was to give, through his church, the sum of 
$1,000, the interest to be used for the poor of the congrega- 
tion for all time to come. In church work he was prominent 
and faithful. Wlien the First Methodist Church was erected, 
although not a member at that time, he applied himself to 
the task of raising money for that purpose. He headed the 
subscription with a liberal sum. After its completion he 
turned to the work of securing an organ; as usual, heading 
the list. It resulted in securing the largest and finest organ 
in the city. 

He died June G, 1894, being in his seventieth year, 
the allotted span of life. His remains were followed to the 
last resting place by a very large honorary escort of the lead- 
ing citizens, including the directors of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, Confederate Veterans, members of the Pioneer Citi- 
zens' Society of Atlanta, and numerous other friends and 

It is no wonder, then, that at his death the church and the 
whole city felt deeply the great blow. On July 2, 1899, a vast 
concourse of people gathered at the First Methodist in memo- 
rial services, to do honor to his memory. Addresses were de- 
livered by gentlemen who knew him well, touching upon his 
life since early manhood. They were tributes reflecting the 
sentiments of the communitv and of the whole State. Mr. 

History of Atlanta. 253 

William A. Osborne, Mr. Preston A. Miller, Colonel W. H. 
Ilulsey and Mr. Frank P. Eice were the principal speakers 
on that occasion. 

In 1860 Colonel Madclox was wedded to Miss Maurice J. 
Ecynolds, daughter of Judge Parmeadus Eeynolds^ of Coving- 
ton, Ga. The union was blessed with two children, who sur- 
vive him — Mrs. Eula Maddox Jackson and Mr. Eobert F. 

The remains of Colonel Maddox lie in his family mauso- 
leum in Oakland Cemetery, where so many of the pioneers of 
this city are. And from his last resting place arises the mem- 
ory of a life well lived ; of whom it may be truly said : 

"None knew him but to love him, 
None named him but to jiraise." 


was born in Craftsbury, Vt., 1818, and died in Atlanta, Ga., 
April 10, 1893. Like most country boys born about that time 
in the rural districts of New England, the subject of this 
sketch was reared and employed on the farm in boyhood and 
youth, receiving only the rudimental education obtainable at 
the country district school. When nineteen 3^ears of age his 
father died, and he decided to leave home and seek business 
and fortune elsewhere. His elder brother, William A. Eawson, 
having settled and established himself in business in Lumpkin, 
Ga., Mr. Eawson, at the solicitation of his brother, joined 
him. He remained with his brother as clerk until 1841, when 
23 years of age, he opened a dry goods store in Lumpkin, on 
his own account, building up a large and lucrative business. 
The late Judge James Clarke, (whose daughter he subse- 
quently married,) soon joined him as a partner, and, later, Mr. 
Edwin P. Chamberlin (now of the firm of Chamberlin, John- 
son-DuBose Co., of this city) was admitted as a partner. 

254 Pioneer Citizens' 

Sixteen years of arduous and uninterrupted attention to busi- 
ness had made such serious inroads on his health, that he 
determined to close his business in Lumpkin and seek a more 
invigorating climate, and a locality where his accumulated 
means and superior business and financial ability could find 
scope and profit. After joint investigation by himself and 
Mr. Sidney Eoot, Mr. Eawson decided on permanently settling 
in Atlanta, Mr. Eoot coming soon after. This was in 1857. 

Mr. Eawson purchased and settled the beautiful and com- 
manding home-site of Mr. James T. Doane, on Pryor street, 
and after getting well established embarked in the hardware 
business under the firm name of Eawson, Gilbert & Burr, 
About the time the war came on this firm was succeeded by the 
firm of Eichardson & Faulkner, Mr. Eawson confining his busi- 
ness to real estate and kindred investments. In 1863-4 he was 
a member of the City Council, under the mayoralty of the 
Hon. James M. Calhoun, with whom he visited General Sher- 
man to remonstrate against the forcible removal of the popula- 
tion of Atlanta. After the destruction of the city he removed 
with his family to Des Moines, Iowa. 

Mr. Eawson returned to Atlanta in June, 1865, and readily 
and earnestly gave his time and services to the rebuilding of 
the city. During 1867 and 1868 he was a member of the City 
Council, where his influence for good and permanent progress 
was strong and wide. The removal of the State capitol to 
Atlanta had his untiring support, and the successful establish- 
ment of our public school system was an object very near his 
heart. To it he gave time and advice and self-sacrificing 
service. He was a member of the Board of Education from 
the inauguration of the public school system until a few years 
preceding his death, serving as treasurer from 1868 to 1888. 
The salary attached to this office — $300 a year — he placed in 
the hands of the superintendent. Major W. F. Slaton, to be 
expended for shoes or other needed articles for the poorer 
children. To his valuable services as chairman of the Water 
Commissioners, and excellent judgment and financial manage- 
ment are largely due the admirable Water Works enjoyed by 
Atlanta. During this period, Mr. Eawson was engaged in ac- 
tive merchandise or other business. First, until 1879 in gen- 

History of Atlanta. 255 

era! merchandising; but in 1879 he became interested in At- 
lanta Coffin Factory, with which he was connected until 1887, 
when, with his sons and Charles E. Boynton, his nephew, as 
principal .proprietors, he established the Gate City Coffin Com- 
pany, of which he was made, and remained, president until a 
short time before his death. Sagacious, conservative, firm and 
persistent, of unswerving integrity of character, he naturally 
secured unlimited confidence, and was enabled to achieve un- 
interrupted success in every business and public enterprise he 
undertook. Every public trust came to him unsought as a re- 
sult of conspicuous nobility of character, was held until volun- 
tarily given up, and every detail of duty imposed was attended 
to with scrupulous conscientiousness. 

In early life Mr. Rawson professed religion and united 
with the Methodist church in which faith and membership he 
lived an exemplar of Christian faith and devotion, liberality 
and charity — making and leaving a shining record. In all the 
walks of life — as son, parent, husband — as subordinate and as 
chief — as citizen, patriot and philanthropist — and above and 
better than all, a faithful, consistent, devoted and humble 
trustful Christian, Edward Everett Rawson lived a practical 
example worthy of universal emulation. To Trinity church, 
of which he was a member from the time he came to Atlanta 
until he died, he was a benediction ; foremost in action and in 
amount of contributions in all church work, devoid of all 
ostentation. The position of Trinity church, of whose board of 
stewards he was a member about thirty years, and chairman of 
it twenty-five years, as the leading one the Georgia Conference 
is pre-eminently due to this true and faithful Christian sol- 
dier. Realizing that the vital forces were weakening, a few 
months before he died he sent a message to the church, saying 
that he wished to see it free from debt before he died, and pro- 
posed to pay one-fourth the amount, $1,000. It is almost need- 
less to say, the church raised the needed sum. Serenely, with 
trustful faith, Mr. Rawson waited for and answered the sum- 
mons of the j\Iaster he so lovingly and so obediently served to 
"come up higher" — to enter upon that rest — that blissful im- 
mortality promised the dutiful "Children of the Heavenlv 

256 PioxEEK Citizens'" 

In 1846 Mr. Eawson married Miss Elizabeth W. Clarke, 
daughter of Judge James Clarke, of Lumpkin, Ga., by whom 
he had nine children, all of whom survive him, and are 
pleasantly settled in life. 

[Xote. Since the above was written, and on January 6, 
1902, Wm. C. Eawson passed aAvay from life. — Ed.] 


President of the Hunnicutt & Bellingrath Company, 
wholesale and retail dealers in iron pipe, fittings, plumbing, 
steam and gas fitting supplies, was born in Mecklinburg 
county, in North Carolina, February 27, 1827, and came to 
Georgia in 1838. In 1847 he came to Atlanta and accepted 
a position in a clothing store as a clerk, agreeing to work six 
months for his board. After two months' trial his ability as 
a salesman attracted the attention of his employers and they 
offered to give him $12.50 per month for the remaining four 
months to take charge of a branch store at Cartersville, Ga., 
which offer he accepted. In 1848 he returned to Atlanta and 
remained with the same firm until 1852, when he opened a dry 
goods and clothing store under the name of Hunnicutt & Sil- 
vey. at the head of which he remained a number of years, es- 
tablishing a fine business reputation. In 1858 he decided to 
make a change, and he went into the drug business with a 
friend, Dr. James A. Taylor, in which undertaking he was 
very successful. In 1866 he embarked into the plumbing and 
supply business, which he has successfully conducted until 
the present time. Mr. Hunnicutt has often been urged by 
his friends to accept public positions of trust, but has always 
refused, preferring private life and close attention to his 
business. iVgainst his desire and wish he was elected county 
commissioner and placed at tlie head of the board, which posi- 
tion he held for fourteen years until he tendered his resigna- 
tion. Mr. Hunnicutt is distinctively a business man, a man 

History of Atlanta. - 257 

wliosc efforts liave tended to build up Atlanta and make it a 
city. He came to the city when the place consisted of only 
cross-road stores, and has always had faith that the city would 
grow to a large and prosperous one. Modest, plain and unas- 
suming, he has worked his way up to his present independent 
position, respected of the whole community. 

(By Frank T. Eyan.) 

Julius L. Brown is the oldest child of Georgia's War Gov- 
ernor, the Hon. Joseph E. Bro^\^l. 

Ho was born at Canton, Ga., May 31, 1848, and 
though only a boy of sixteen years, entered the Confederate 
Army in 18G4. and fought and endured the hardships of a 
soldier to the end of the struggle. After the war, he studied 
under E. M. Johnson, the famous author, and was fitted in 
one year to enter the junior class at the State University, 
where he ranked high and became a junior and senior orator. 
He was admitted to the bar in September, 1869, and was grad- 
uated from the Harvard Law School in June. 1870, with one 
of the honors. He served as assistant to United States District 
Attorney until 1872, and sole general counsel for the Western 
and Atlanta Eailroad for twenty 3^ears, 1870 to 1890. Sug- 
gesting the East Tennessee Eailroad line through Georgia, he, 
as general counsel for Georgia, drew up, and, after a hard 
contest with the Central and Georgia railroad magnates, se- 
cured the granting of a legislative charter. He chartered the 
Metropolitan Company and built two street railways. 

'He was president of the Mystic Owls, a society something 
similar to the Mardi Gras at New Orleans. He inaugurated and 
directed three annual displays, which consisted of a number of 
large floats, showing some mythological figure. These dis- 
plays vrere ended with an elegant ball, as it was the cause of 


History of Atlanta. 259 

a large crowd from the adjacent country coming in to see the 
difFoTcnt floats produced by the Mystic Company. 

He lias been tlie official and chief spirit of the North 
Georgia Fair Association ; also, president of the Young Men's 
Library Association; which, during his term as president, 
erected a superb building, and president of the Georgia Min- 
ing, Manufacturing and Investment Company, which em- 
ployed one thousand, five hundred hands and made large 
quantities of pig iron, and mined many tons of coal. As a 
lawyer, Mr, Brown has presented and gained some very im- 
portant cases, among others that the State's railroad is not 
taxable, that any railroad can build telegraph lines in Geor- 
gia, and that a common carrier can separate passengers by 
color. While always a busy man, Mr. Brown has found time 
and inclination to travel, not only throughout the United 
States, but has extended his trips to Mexico, South America 
and Canada, and from all these points he has gathered some 
especial bric-a-brac and curios, and his magnificent home is 
well stocked with them, consisting of engravings, etchings, 
manuscripts and coins, and those who have the privilege can 
spend not only a pleasant, but a useful hour or so in viewing 
the many articles of interest that have been gathered from the 
different quarters of the globe. Mr. Brown has, without doubt, 
the finest and rarest collection of coins in the Southern States, 
numl)ering 5,000 or more. 

He is also a generous entertainer and has entertained art- 
ists and statesmen, including President Cleveland and Vice- 
President Hendricks. 

He married, November 8, 1871, Pannie G., daughter of 
Tomlinson Port, a celebrated physician, medical author and 
memlier of Congress. Prom this union there has been two 
daughters, one, Elizabeth Gushatli, died in infancy, and Miss 
Martha Port, who is now in the full bloom of young woman- 

Mr. Brown in recent years has tal:en great interest in the 
Masonic fraternity, and has received from it all the honors in 
its gift. 

In his magnificent home, supplied with the many articles 
of interest, gathered from time to time, while on his many 

260 PioxEER Citizens' 

trips/in tliis and distant lands, with his wife and daughter to 
comfort and console him, with friends that come and go, Mr. 
Brown is happily rounding out the remainder of a very busy 
and active life. 


was born in Jackson County. Ga., on December 21, 1817. His 
father was Drewry Silvey, a sturdy son of Scotland, who 
emigrated to this country in the early part of the present cen- 
tury. His mother was Miss Mary Warner, of Georgia. 

The early part of Mr. Silvey's life was spent upon a farm in 
his native county. His education was received at home and 
at a country school. It was during his boyhood and early 
manhood that he developed the fondness for history which he 
retained throughout his life. During the whole of his active 
business career he found time for reading and study. Few 
men in this section were so well posted about past and current 
events as was Mr. Silvey. 

At the age of thirty he came to Atlanta and began his mer- 
cantile career as a clerk in the store of Haas & Levy, who did 
a general retail business. He remained there for two years, 
leaving in 1849 for California. It was at a time when the 
gold fever was prevalent throughout the country, Mr. Silvey 
took the agency for scales in which gold could be weighed and 
the nucleus of his fortune was made in the three years he spent 
at this business on the Pacific slope. 

In 1852 Mr. Silvey returlied to Atlanta and in September 
of that year he formed a partnership with Mr. C. W. Hunni- 
cutt. The firm name was Hunnicutt & Silvey, and they did 
a very successful business. In 1868 Mr. Hunnicutt withdrew 
and Mr. Silvey formed a partnership with Mr. David H. 
Dougherty to conduct an exclusively wholesale dry goods biif-i- 
ness. Mr. D. H. Dougherty subsequently withdrew arid his 
cousin, Mr. D. 0. Dougherty, became a member of the firm, 
which was then known for the first time as John Silvey & Co. 

History of Atlanta. 261 

A few years later ]\Ir. William J. Brown was admitted to 
the firm, but he withdrew in 189-1. At the time of Mr. Sil- 
vey's death the firm was composed of himself, Mr. Dougherty 
and Mr. W. A. Speer. Throughout the whole of Mr. Silvey's 
career there were no backward movements. His business has 
steadily increased since its founding. A few years ago the 
quarters were found inadequate and the handsome building 
on Edgewood avenue, near Peachtree, was constructed. 

Mr. Silvey amassed a large fortune in his business and 
through wise and prudent investments in Atlanta real estate. 

With so large a fortune he was impressed with is obliga- 
tions toward those less fortunate, and he gave freely to charity. 
He never spoke of the good that he did, bearing in mind that 
one should not let the "left hand know what the right doeth.'' 
Those closely related to him in business could but know of his 
many acts of beneficence. 

In many ways he was one of the most remarkable men that 
has ever lived in this city. For forty years he went to his 
place of business every day and was active in its management. 

Mr. Silvey married Miss Adeline Dougherty, of Tennessee. 
One daughter was born to them, who is now the wife of Mr. 
W. A. Speer. 


was born in Loudoun County, Virginia, May 18, 1816. He 
was of Scotch descent. At the age of fifteen he left home and 
started out to fight the battle of life. He located in Philadel- 
phia, Penn., and adopted as his business the copper and tin- 
smith trade. After working for several years in Philadelphia 
he decided on account of his health to come South. He came 
to Georgia and located in the city of Augusta, remaining there 
until about 1838. He then left Augusta and went to the city 
of Savannah, Ga. After reaching Savannah he formed a 
partnership with a Mr. Bliss, the firm name of the partnership 
being McArthor & Bliss, and this partnership engaged in the 




History op Atlanta. 263 

house-furnishing business. This firm was very successful, 
having in a short time the largest business of the kind im the 

On the 12th day of October, 1845, he was united in mar- 
riage to Miss Elizabeth A. Exley, of that city. In 1854 yel- 
low fever broke out in the city of Savannah, and became an 
epidemic and hee refugeed to North Carolina. In passing 
through Atlanta, which could scarcely be called a village at 
that time, he foresaw from its location and the excellent 
climate of the surrounding country that it would be a great 
place, and at once decided to locate there. He sold his busi- 
ness in Savannah to Weed & Cornwall. In 1855 he moved his 
family, consisting of his wife and three small children, to At- 
lanta, and opened a business of the same kind in which he was 
engaged in the city of Savannah. He formed a partnership 
with a Mr. Burr, of Griffin, Ga. They located on Whitehall 
street, near where the Columbian Bookstore now is. Their 
business soon outgrew their quarters, and they then bought a 
lot where now stands the Hirsch building, erecting one of the 
finest stores at that time in the city. Mr. J. C. Peck superin- 
tended the construction. Later the firm became McArthor, 
Gilbert & Burr. 

Mr. McArthor continued in business until the war between 
the states broke out. He then sold his interest in the firm of 
McArthor, Gilbert & Burr to Mr. E. E. Eawson. 

Mr. McArthor was a strong union man, and was very much 
opposed to the war between the states, and did not in any way 
aid or abet, directly or indirectly, in the same. He was con- 
scientious in his belief, and stood firm for the flag of the na- 

He remained in Atlanta during the seige of General Sher- 
man, who ordered every one to either go South into the Con- 
federate lines, or North into the federal lines. Being a union 
man, he went to Nashville, Tenn., and then after the close of 
the war he had to begin his business life at the foot of the lad- 
der again. All his Savannah property had been sold, and the 
proceeds invested in cotton, which was burned in or near 
Thomaston, Upson County, Ga., by one or the other contend- 
ing armies. All of his Atlanta property was destroyed by 


HiSTOEY OF Atlanta. 2()5 

Sherman's army, and having very little capital, but being a 
man of untiring energy, he oj^ened business on a very small 
scale with Mr. J. W. McCrath, the firm name being McArthor 
& McCrath. This firm engaged in the same business that Mr. 
McArthor had heretofore engaged in. Working early and late, 
he soon made enough to replace his burnt houses, destroyed 
by Sherman's army during the war between the states. 

On account of ill health, soon after his success in same, he 
retired from active business life, and from that time on until 
his death gave attention only to the property that he had ac- 
cumulated and built vip. 

In his pecuniary transactions he was acknowledged by all 
to be not only just, but liberal in all his dealings. He was 
remarkably .frank and open, and was a consistent member of 
Trinity M. E. Church in the city of Atlanta. He died Febru- 
ary 2, 1895, in his 70tli year. His widow survived him only 
a few years, dying in the 77tli year of her age, June 14, 1900. 
He had four children, two sons and two daughters, John W., 
Mrs. Josie E. Jennings, Harry W. and Mrs. Annie M. Bate- 
man, all of whom survive him, except John W., his oldest son, 
who died June 13, 1881. He was a member of the Pioneer 
Society of Atlanta, Ga. 


A verteran of the Forty-second regiment Georgia infantry, 
and Past Commander of Atlanta Camp, No. 159, United Con- 
federate Veterans, was born in Clarke County, Georgia, May 
10, 18-16. Son of Dr. W. M. Durham and Sallie Lowe, the 
latter of whom died when he was but eight years of age. In 
1859 he came to Atlanta, where he passed his youth until fif- 
teen years of age, when in 1862 he enlisted as a private in 
Company K. Forty-second Georgia infantry, nndcr Captain 
W. L. Calhoun and Colonel Eobert J. Henderson. In 1862- 

266 PiONEEK Citizens^ 

63 he participated in the East Tennessee^ Kentucky and Mis- 
sissippi campaigns, hghting at Tozweii, Tenu., Perryviiie, Ivy., 
Chickasaw iiayou, BaKier's Creek and Big Black iiiver. Miss., 
and was on duty in the trenches of Vicksburg throughout the 
seige. . 

When General Pembleton surrendered he was paroled, af- 
ter Avhich he walked most of thee distance home to Atlanta. 
His regiment rendezvoused at Decatur, near Atlanta, and there 
the whole command was exchanged in time to participate in 
the battle of Missionary Eidge, November 25, 1863, and his 
brigade, under the command of General Stovall, was as- 
signed to Stewart's Division, Hood's Corps, army of Tennes- 
see, with this command he was engaged in the battles of 1864 
at Eocky Face Gap, Eesaca, New Hope church, Pumpkin 
Vine Creek, Kennesaw Mountain, Peachtree Creek, Atlanta 
(July 22d and 28th), Jonesboro, Franklin and Nashville. 
After the battle of Nashville, 186-1, he was promoted to adju- 
tant of his regiment, which rank he held to the close of the 
war. In the campaign in the Carolinas in the spring of 1865 
he fought at Edisto Eiver, Binaker's Bridge, Orangeburge, 
Kinston and Bentonville, and surrendered with Johnson's 
army at Greensboro, N. C, April 26, 1865. Throughout this 
active and gallant career he was never wounded or missed a 
day's service from his command. The war being over he at 
once commenced the study of medicine with his father, and 
attended lectures in Atlanta. 1866, completing his stduies in 
Philadelphia in 1868, twenty-three years after his father re- 
ceived his diploma in that city. Since then he has had a 
highly honorable and successful career in Atlanta. He has 
been Professor of Surgery in the Georgia College of Eclectic 
Medicine and Surgery for twenty years ; is an ex-president of 
the National Eclectic Medical Association, and has been sec- 
retary of the Georgia Eclectic Medical Association for twenty- 
seven years. 

Dr. Durham was married in 1870 to M}Ttis "Vincent, of 
Athens. Ga.. who died in 1887. and has one daughter. Lucy 
Vincent Durham. He has always taken a prominent interest 
in all Confederate movements, is a staunch friend to every 

History of Atlanta. 267 

measure that could benefit his comrades and untiring defender 
of their good name and fame. He has faithfully discharged 
his duties in all official stations. 


Was born in Danville, Va., in 1815. He married Miss 
Marion ]\IcHenry Lumpkin in Fors}i:h, Ga., in 1835, and 
lived on a farm in Houston countv for manv vears. In 1853 
he was appointed agent of the Western and Atlantic Eailway, 
by Governor Herschell V. Johnson, and moved to Atlanta to 
assume his duties with that road. His position expired with 
Governor Johnson's term of office. He was twice a member 
of the City Covmcil and took an active part in every public 
movement looking to Atlanta's prosperity and progress. He 
was appointed postmaster about 1858 by President Buchanan, 
and held the office until Georgia seceded from the Union, at 
which time he resigned his office, and later, in connection with 
Lucius J. Gartrell, G. J. Foreacre, Wilkes Ball and others, 
began to organize the famous Seventh Georgia Eegiment, to 
which General Gartrell was elected colonel, and W. T. Wilson 
commissary, with the title of captain. At the first battle of 
Manassas Captain Wilson rushed to the front with his regi- 
ment and was severely wounded in the foot. He returned to 
his home, remaining only thirty days, just long enough to 
learn to walk on crutches. On his return to Virginia the 
regiment was reorganized and General Gartrell retired from 
the army. Captain Wilson was elected colonel of the regi- 
ment without opposition. He led the regiment through va- 
rious engagements with dash and fearlessness, and was spoken 
of by General Joseph E. Johnson in his report to President 
Davis as ''the gray-haired hero of many hard fought bat- 
tles," notably the bold and dangerous charge upon Dam N'o. 1 
at Yorktown, and the second battle of Manassas. Just as the 
day was declining and the brave Seventh was charging the 


Pioneer Citizens' 

enemy, Colonel Wilson was shot through and through hy a 
Belgian gun, f roin which he died in a few hours. General H. 
L. Benning, afterward passing by, paused by the stricken 
man and enquired who he was. The dying soldier looked him 
in the face and smilingly said. "I am dying, but, thank God, 
I've lived long enough to loiow that we have whipped the 


jankees twice on the same field." His remains were taken to 
Warrenton, Va., by his son, Dr. H. L. Wilson — who was sur- 
geon of the regiment — and laid to rest. About one year after- 
ward his remains were taken up and brought back to Georgia, 
where he wished to be buried, and the gallant soldier lies in 
Oakland Cemetery. 

History of Atlaxta. 269 


Judge and Mayor of Atlanta, was born at Decatur. Ga.. Xo- 
vember 21, 1837. His father was James M. Calhoun, of Cal- 
houn settlement. Abbeville District, South Georgia, who 
moved to Decatur, Ga., in 1835, and Atlanta in 1852, dying in 
1875, and who was Captain of Cavalry in the Creek war, State 
Senator and Eepresentative and Mayor of Atlanta from 1862 
to 1865, during the fateful and historic capture and destruc- 
tion of the city. Him mother was Emma Eliza Dabney, 
daughter of A. W. Dabney, of Georgia. In 1853, at the age 
of sixteen, he entered the law office of his father in Atlanta, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1857, becoming his law partner 
until his father's death in 1875. when he continued practice 
alone, until 1881. In March, 1862, he enlisted in the war in 
Company K, 42 d regiment, Georgia Infantry, becoming First 
Lieutenant, and then Captain, serving to the end of the war 
with conspicious gallantry. He was at Knoxville. six months 
in the memorable seige of Vicksburg, and forty-seven days in 
the trenches ; fought at Baker's Creek and shared in Johnson's 
famous retreat through Georgia, beginning at Dalton, until 
he was wounded at Resaca. The surrender occurred as he was 
on his way to rejoin his command, recovered from his wound, 
having in the meantime been with General Hood in part of his 
Tennessee campaign. 

After the war he resumed his law practice with his father 
in Atlanta. He was elected to the legislature in 1872 as a State 
Eepresentative. serving in the sessions of 1873 and 1874. and 
re-elected to the sessions of 1875 and 1876, and acted on the 
important committees of the general judiciary, corporations 
and finance. In 1879 he was elected mayor of the city, follow- 
ing in the footsteps of his worthy father, and perpetuating this 
distinction upon his family name. Among the notable things 
of his nmnicipal administration was the funding of the city 
floating debt of $600,000. from a high to a 6 per cent, rate of 
interest, and the procuring the legislation necessary for the 
inauguration of the street paving system. He was elected in 
1881 Judge of the Court of Ordinary of Fulton County, to 
which office he was re-elected every four years up to 1897, hold- 

270 PioxEER Citizens^ 

ing the office sixteen years. He married in 1857 Miss Mary 
J. Oliver, of South Georgia, and they have six children. From 
1889 to 1894 he was president of the Confederate Veterans' 
Association of his County, increasing the membership from 
fifteen to seven hundred. 

He has been Master Mason, Odd Fellow, and from 1890 
was Lieutenant Colonel of Battalion for three years. Judge 
Calhoun in every capacity, as soldier, lawyer, judge, legisla- 
tor and mayor, has displayed the highest qualities of personal 
worth, capacity, judgment, well poised temper and integrity. 
He is a well rounded character and model citizen. Adding 
the finest sauvity to his force of nature and well balanced in- 
telligence, he has held the esteem and confidence of the public, 
and attracted respect by his unvarying dignity. He was an 
Influential legislator, grasping state questions and a leader in 
committee and on the floor. As a Judge he has been impar- 
tial, learned in the law and scrupulously upright. In his 
social and domestic relations he is a delightful gentleman. 


Eichard Peters was born in Germantown, Pa., now a part 
of Philadelphia, in 1810. on November 10th. His mother was 
Catherine Coughland ; his father, Ealph Peters, being the son 
of Judge Eichard Peters. 

The subject of our sketch received his education in Phila- 
delphia. His first work as a civil engineer, for which he had 
been fitted, was with Mr. Strickland, civil engineer on the 
Delaware Breakwater. Here he worked for six months, and 
was next engaged upon the survey of the Camden and Amboy 
Eailroad. After the completion of this work he was asso- 
ciated with Mr. J, Edgar Thomson in the survey of the Phila- 
delphia and LancastcK road, now a division of the Pennsyl- 
vania system. At this time. 1830-1832, it had not been ascer- 
tained that locomotives could be used to advantage; therefore 

History of Atlanta. 271 

the line of road was constructed for horse power, with six 
hundred foot curves put in whenever a hundred dollars could 
be saved. It was not until 1835 that locomotives were used. 
From being a pioneer in the survey of the first 
railroads constructed in the Xorth, Mr. Peters received an ap- 
pointment from J. Edgar Thomson to act as rodman for liim 
on the survey of the Georgia Eailroad, between Augusta and 
Atlanta. He reached Augusta in February, 1835, having left 
Philadelphia when there was six feet of snow on the ground 
and making the trip by sea in a miserable side-wheel steamer, 
arriving in Charleston in a snow storm. The first day they 
went into the field ten miles from Augusta, where the camp 
of the surveyors was located, they were obliged to give up work 
on account of the severe cold — he spoke of this as the famous 
"cold Friday" of which so much has been written. 
When the survey was completed and trains began 
to run, Mr. Peters was made superintendent, which position 
he held until 1815. Of this period Mr. Peters says, in his 
memoirs of these days : "I worked hard to invent a spark 
arrester and to arrange for headlights for the engines, and 
sleeping accommodations for the passengers, as ours was the 
first railroad of any length in the United States that risked 
running at night." The result of these experiments was a 
wooden shelf which projected in front of the smoke-stack of 
the engine, covered with sand upon which pine knots were 
burned at night. This was the first headlight to an engine 
ever used and foreshadowed very faintly the brilliant electric 
headlights of the present day. Pullman's sleeping-cars were 
also anticipated by the comfort of the passengers at night. 
Short boards were laid across the seats. Upon these valises, 
shawls or bundles made improvised pillows, while the weary 
traveler doubled himself up for a night's rest. George Pull- 
man, upon a visit to Atlanta before his death, remarked upon 
this being the first attempt ever made to inaugurate a "sleep- 
ing car." 

In 1846, Mr. Peters says in his memoirs, the Georgia rail- 
road was completed to Atlanta, then known as Marthasville. 
This name had been given the place by my old civil engineer 
friend, Charles F. M. Garnett, when chief engineer of the 

272 PioxEER Citizens' 

Western & Atlantic railroad in honor of Miss Martha, the 
daughter of Governor Lumpkin. 

AMien the Georgia road was completed to this terminus, I 
consulted our chief engineer, Mr. J. Edgar Thompson, about 
changing the name of "Marthasville" because it was so long 
to write. After several letters on the subject, he proposed the 
name "Atlanta" to designate the terminus of the Western & 
Atlantic road. This he referred to in his letter thus : "At- 
lantic, masculine; Atlanta, feminine, a coined word, but well 
adapted." I accepted it at once and issued circulars by the 
thousand for distribution throughout the country from Au- 
gusta to Tennessee stating the fact of the completion of the 
Georgia railroad, also giving the rates of the freight and pas- 
sage. The passenger rates was five cents a mile, the freight^ 
fifty cents per hundred pounds. The head lines read. "Com- 
pletion of the Georgia railroad from Augusta to Atlanta." 
The name gave universal satisfaction except to my friend Gar- 
nett, who was very much annoyed, but he could not overcome 
the popular move and at the next meeting of the legislature a 
charter was granted to "Atlanta." 

Mr. Peters also adds to this authentic statement of the real 
circumstances attending the naming of our city in its youth, 
that the first name was "Whitehall," but this was really the 
name of the postoffice located at the present "West End." 
Fred Armes, he says, was appointed postmaster at "White- 
hall," and on the office being removed to Atlanta, Wash Collier 
became ihe postmaster. 

Having purchased the stage line running from the end 
of the Georgia road to Montgomery, Mr. Peters resigned his 
position as superintendent of the Georgia road to give his at- 
tention to the stage business. 

Mr. Peters was identified with all enterprises which had 
for their object Atlanta's good. About 1847 he l)ought a 
farm in Gordon county, which he still owns. That farm has 
for years been a model place. 

As an advisory member of the young farmers' club of the 
Southern States from its organization. Colonel Peters was al- 
ways ready and willing, without charge, to give advice and 
kindly assistance to young farmers seeking the best methods 

H]"3T0RY OF Atlanta. 273 

of farm work. Unselfph and generous in all his impulses, he 
has for nearll' lialf a lentury given his best investments, his 
best thoughts and his most earnest efforts to the promotion of 
Southern agriculture, with as little personal ambition as a 
man could display. 

Mr. Peters was a man of great public spirit and a fine 
scholar, being probably one of the best read and best informed 
men in the South. His knowledge of geology and of all the 
sciences was something wonderful. He was connected with 
. all public enterprises, especially railroad enterprises, and Avas 
one of the original lessees of the Western and Atlantic Kail- 

Possessing a kind and benevolent disposition, he was per- 
sonally liberal and charitable. He contribute 1 liberally to 
every enterprise for the good of his people and his city, and 
has always been identified with Atlanta's every interest, and 
ever responded at her calls for assistance. 

He was a kind and affectionate husband, a loving father, 
and a faithful and efficient Christian. He was a member of 
the Episcopal C^iurch. 

After a long and useful life, a short illness closed his 
career in the iff/enty-ninth year- of his age, on the morning of 
February 6, 1889."' 


a retired cotton merchant and capitalist of prominence, was 
born near Huntsville, Ala., June, 1828, his parents being of 
Eevolutionary ancestry. When quite young he was left an 
orphan and was taken by his brother, Shadrach W. Inman, 
of Dandridge^Tenn., given an education and trained for busi- 
ness life. 

When still young, ]\Ir. Inman became a partner with his 
brother in a mercalitile business and was fairly prosperoiis, 
was married in 1855 to Miss Cordelia Dick, of Dandridge. 

274 PioxEER Citizens "V 


Their children are Mrs. James E. Gray, Mr. W illiam H. In- 

man, Mr. J. Walter Inman and Mrs. Morris Br.andon. 

At the beginning of the Civil War h^ -was doing a prosper- 
ous banking business in Atlanta. In common wMi other busi- 
ness men in the South his fortune in a large measure was 
swept away by the war, but with energy and patience he went 
to work and soon placed his family in comfortable circum- 
stances. His success was constant, and was the natural con- 
sequence and reward of business skill, foresight and honesty. 
In 1893 he retired from business with an ample fortune. 

In 1869 Mr. Inman became a member of the widely known 
firm of cotton merchants, S. M. Inman & Company, of At- 
lanta, and afterwards of Inman & Company, of Houston, 
Texas. His long experience as a banker peculiarly fitted him 
for handling the finances of this business, the largest of its 
kind in the world, covering some twenty millions annually. 

Says "America's Successful Men" : "The leading in- 
stincts in Mr. Inman's life have been devoted to his home, 
family, friends and church, a strict sense of btisiness integrity 
and a broad and liberal sympathy and charity toward his fel- 
low man. His hand has ever been open to those in distress 
and he enjoys the imiversal esteem of his community. In a 
quiet way he has attained the success most to be desired in 
life — a good home, a family raised in the fear of God; the 
ability and disposition to help those in need; and the ap- 
proval of his conscience in feeling that his success in life has 
been due to honest methods and moral principles." 

History of Atlanta. 275 


Avas born in Lincoln County, N". C, February 6, 1833. 

Mr. Berry's father was a farmer, and he being the oldest 
boy was early made practically acquainted with all kinds of 
farm work — securing the special commendation of his father 
as a fine driver of horses ; this may be accepted as well merited, 
as, since then, he has shown fine capacity as a "driver" of busi- 
ness. Old field schools l^eing convenient, he graduated when 
quite young from one of those time-honored institutions. 

In 1835 his father, contemplating removing to Georgia, 
brought young Madison with him to Georgia, leaving him 
with an uncle. Dr. "W. Cox, at McDonough, Ga., who was en- 
gaged in merchandising. About a year afterwards Mr. 
Berry's father removed to Georgia, and settled on a farm about 
eight miles west of McDonough. Going to his new home he 
worked on the farm about twelve months, when his father 
opened a store and installed him as clerk; but the venture 
proved a failure. 

In 18-12, attracted by the excitement about gold in Ran- 
dolph County, Ala., his uncle. Dr. Cox, determined to go there, 
and took the subject of this sketch with him — who worked 
liard for little pay about a year. In the meantime the Clerk 
of the Court of Chancery having taken a fancy to him, he took 
young Berry into his home and office to copy and register 
legal papers, and started him to school with a view to giving 
him a liberal education; but after going to school a few 
months he availed himself of an apparently excellent offer, and 
entered the employ of Mr. James Isbell, who was then con- 
ducting the largest dry goods house in Talladega. At the end 
of three years his health failed, and he gave up his position 
and returned to Georgia. 

Mr. ^Yilliam Markham, his brother-in-law, was then 
largely engaged in selling clocks, having them peddled over 
the country. ^Mr. Berry entered into partnership with Mr. 
Markham, and sold clocks in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi 
and Tennessee, with splendid success. 

Having accumulated some capital he retired from the 
clock trade in good time , and engaged in the negro traffic, but 

276 Pioneer Citizens' 

tiring of that, and of floating around he concluded, as he was 
now about thirty years old, to marry and settle down for life. 
In reference to this Mr. Berry says : "On October 3, 1854, I 
was married to Miss Hattie E. Key, of McDonough. the best 
woman alive — so I think. I decided to settle down and go to 
farming again, so I bought two hundred acres of land, now 
known as "Ormewood," three miles east of Atlanta, and 
bought a few negroes. But after two years trial, and losing 
three negroes by death, and getting discouraged, I removed 
to Atlanta in 1857. Soon after coming to Atlanta I engaged 
with Mr. T. G. Healy in house building, which business I fol- 
lowed with fair success until 1861, when the wide-spread "un- 
pleasantness" put a stop to our operations. „Being in impair- 
ed health and not feeling very beligerant, or anxious to engage 
in the unpleasant pastime of killing Yankees, I sought and ob- 
tained the position of Money Clerk in the Southern Express 
Compan5^'s office, which position I retained until the war- 
cloud had about spent its force." 

Peace having been proclaimed, Mr. Berry and Mr. Healy 
resumed the house building business which they cawied on 
profitably to themselves and beneficially to Atlanta. 


was born in Albermarle County, Va._, on the 21st day of Au- 
gust, 1820, and was the son of Xathan and Ann Anderson 
Harris; his three brothers — Clem R., W. A. and John T. Har- 
ris — were men of prominence in Virginia, Clem R. was a 
prominent physician, W. A. a celebrated educator at Staunton, 
and John T. Harris represented the Harrisonburg District 
for twenty years in the lower house of Congress at "Washing- 
ton, D. C. The subject of this sketch married Miss Elizabeth 
Brown, of Culpepper Coimt}'-, Va., and four children blessed 
this union, viz : Miss Lucy P., Xathan, Clem R. and Dan B. 
Harris. Miss Lucy reached the age of womanhood, but died 

History of Atlanta. 277 

soon after. Nathan, who was so popular, both in the medical 
and social circles, was stricken down very suddenly with that 
dreadful malady, apendicitis, and before his friends barely 
knew of his illness, they were appalled to learn of his untime- 
ly death; the two remaining children, Clem E. and Dan B.^ 
are both well, and favorably known, as both of them are 
prominent in insurance circles. When the tocsin of war was 
sounded, and its clarion notes went verbulating throughout 
the length and bredth of the land, the subject of this sketch at 
that time living in Virginia, did like the majority of his asso- 
ciates, buckled on his armor, and went forth to fight for the 
cause, and principles that he believed to be right and just. 

In the fall of 1863 he procured a discharge from the army 
and came to Atlanta, intending to make it his future home. 
He at first engaged in the mercantile pursuits, but soon found 
that it was not congenial, and immediately after the close of 
the war was elected to the office of sheriff, the duties of this 
office were not strange and unfamiliar to him, as he had served 
the people of Culpepper County, Va, in the same capacity, 
and was therefore fully prepared to discharge, at that time, 
the onevous and difficult duties of this office. Ever after this 
and as long as his health would permit he continued in politics 
and from his continued and unquestioned success, he proved 
conclusively that he was a natural born politician. He also 
held at different times, the office of City Marshal, City Tax 
Collector and State and Coiinty Tax Eeceiver, the latter posi- 
tions he held for years, and up to about a year before his death 
declining to be a candidate for re-election, (though he had no 
opposition), on account of his bad health. He was, without 
exception, one of the most popular men in the county, and 
knew more people, both men, women and children, than any 
other resident of the county. He was familiarly known by 
every one, both old and young, white and black, and had a 
kind word and a hearty hand-shake for all, and his purse was 
ever open to the needy and distressed. 

For years he had been a faithful and true Odd Fellow, be- 
ing a member of Central Lodge No. 28. His loving and de- 
voted wife lived for several years after him, now lying beside 
him and their two children in the beautiful city of the dead — 


History of Atlanta. 279 

Oakland cemetery . SeveraLyears before liis death he embraced 
religion and connected himself with the Central Presbyterian 
church, living the remainder of his life a consistent Christian. 
After a long and painful illness, which he bore humbly and 
patiently, surrounded by his loved ones, on the 22nd of July, 
1891, his noble sprirt took its flight from this earthly tene- 
ment to that land where the "weary are at rest, and the wicked 
cease from troubling," and yet when it began to be known gen- 
erally throughout the city that J. 0. Harris was dead, not one 
but felt that he had met with a personal bereavement, as he 
had lost a good, true friend. 

Since the writing of this sketch, Clem E. Harris, the oldest 
living son of J. 0. Harris, died very suddenly in Atlanta, on 
the night of April 22, 1901. This leaves Dan. B. Harris, the 
youngest son, the only surviving member of his immediate 


was born at Sharon, Litchfield County, Conn,, August 25, ( 
1830. Passed his early years on a New England farm, at- 
tending school two terms of four months each during the year. 
As he grew older his services at home were more indispensa- 
ble, so that he had but one term in school. Later he attended 
Waterloo College to study the higher branches of science and 
literature, and won the first prize in each class of this college. 
In 1850 he went to Catskill, N. Y., to engage in business in 
which he was very successful. Three years after going to New 
York he married Miss Frances Josephine Hovi;, daughter of 
Starr Hoyt, of Huron County, Ohio, and removed to Stan- 
ford, Conn. He was there employed as foreman and con- 
tractor, but having contracted an asthmatic trouble, he de- 
termined to move South. The first place he stopped at was 
Atlanta. Eeturning to Connecticut (owing to the scarcity of 
work), his asthma afflicted him again. He determined to try 
the South again in 1858, and coming to Atlanta located per- 

280 Pioneer Citizens' 

manently. He found business and, with his characteristic vim 
and energy, soon worked up to a responsible position with his 
employer. His career was upward from that day. In 1859 
he decided to get into business for himself, and in connection 
with A. H. Brown and Edwin Priest erected the second plan- 
ing mill in the town. The war between the states unsettled 
business — a member of the firm joined the Confederate army. 
Mr. Peck then, at Governor Jos. E. Brown's suggestion, be- 
gan the manufacture of pikes for the Georgia State troops. 
Soon after this a reward was offered for a certain pattern of 
rifle, and although he had never had any experience in that 
line, he made the effort and succeeded. The currency of the 
Confederacy having declined and the sum offered by the gov- 
ernment not adequate to pay the expenses of ma'nufacture, Mr. 
Peck sold them to the Ebswell, Ga., factory. They were cap- 
tured by General Sherman later, and two are now in the 
museum at Washington. Mr. Peck was then employed as su- 
perintendent of woodwork in the arsenal for a few months, but 
his health failing him he once more sought the ISTorthern cli- 
mate. Armed with letters from the Provost Marshal and 
others he made his way to Minnesota, where he remained till 
his health was inproved, and in August, 1865. returned to At- 
lanta. In connection with Mr. Schofield he rebuilt his plan- 
ing mill and conducted this till 1883, when it was replaced by 
a larger and more elaborate plant. Two years later it was 
sold to Mr. Wm. Markham and converted into a hotel for him 
by Mr. Peck. In 1866 he erected the old capitol, which stood 
on the northwest corner of Marietta and Forsyth streets, and 
four years later he built the Kimball House at a cost of $643,- 
000. When the International Cotton Exposition was organ- 
ized he was superintendent of construction and a member of 
the executive committee. He was one of the original promo- 
ters and a stockholder in the first Atlanta cotton mill. At 
the great exposition held here in 1895 he held the same posi- 
tion as he did in the first. When the United States Custom 
House and Postoffice was erected he had the contract for the 
woodwork. He was also an organizer of the Fulton County 
Spinning Mills. 

In religious matters Mr. Peck holds to the faith of the 
Unitarians. He is a member of the Eoyal Arch Masons. 

History of Atlanta. 281 


The subject of this sketch was bom in Abbeville District, 
South Carolina, October 10, 1831. His parents were of 
Scotch-Irish and AVelch descent, and both were native South 
Carolinians. Early in life his father migrated from South 
Carolina to Tennessee, moved thence, in 1845, to Savannah, 
Ga., whence, in 184G, he moved to Atlanta and engaged in 
merchandising on Decatur street, near the northeast corner 
of Decatur and Peachtree. He built up a large and profitable 
trade and was prominent in all movements looking to the 
growth and prosperity of Atlanta, and active in all church 
and Sunday-school work. Soon after Atlanta was chartered 
as a city he was elected treasurer, and continued in office a 
number of years. Mr. Houston began life as a clerk for Mr. 
Jonathan' Norcross soon after coming to Atlanta. His unus- 
ual business aptitude — his proficiency and efficienc}' — were 
flatteringly evidenced by his having been elected, at the age 
of seventeen, cashier of the first bank agency established in 
the city, and he enjoys the honor of having received the first 
deposit ever made in a bank in the town. He left tlie bank 
in 1851 and entered the employ of the Georgia Eailroad, as 
assistant agent, since which time his active business life has 
been with railways. He next went with the Western & At- 
lantic Eailroad, under Superintendents Wadley and James F. 
('ooper, and remained with it until the second year of Gov- 
ernor Joseph E. Brown's administration, when he accepted 
the position of general passenger and freight agent of the At- 
lanta and West Point Eailroad, acting in connection with 
duties of this office as transportation agent of the Confed- 
erate States Government until the fall of Atlanta, after which 
he was detailed in the engineer service, under Colonel L. P. 
Grant, as superintendent of reconstruction of railroads de- 
stroyed around Atlanta. In 1876 he resigned and retired to 
private life on his farm in Delvalb county — finally as he then 
thought. But when General Manager G. J. Foreacre assumed 
the management of the (then) Atlanta and Charlotte Air 
Line Eailroad, he called for Mr. Houston's services as assist- 
ant, witli the official title of general passenger and ticket 

282 Pioneer Citizens' 

agent. While acting in this capacity he -^'as the first to re- 
d^^ce local passenger fares to three cents a mile, which created 
no inconsiderable stir in railway circles. When the line be- 
came part of the Richmond and Danville system, he declined 
the offer of general passenger agent, because it would necessi- 
tate his removal to Eichmond, but, by request, he remained 
with the system as assistant to the general passenger agent, 
at this end of the line, for a year, and then permanently re- 
tired to his farm. 

Mr. Houston enjoys the distinguished honor of having 
suggested the organization of the Eailroad Commission of 
Georgia, the bill for which was drafted at his request and 
pressed forward to adoption by Representative W. R. Rankin, 
of Gordon county, and. though urgently pressed by admiring 
friends and the press of the State to serve on the commission, 
he declined. His action throughout was cordially endorsed by 
General Manager Foreacre and by President Sibley, of the 
Atlanta and Charlotte Air Line, his sanction being practi- 
cally demonstrated by an increase of salary exceeding that of 
a Railroad Commissioner. Appointed one of the commission- 
ers, by Governor John B. Gordon, to appraise the property of 
the Western and Atlantic Railroad, before it was transferred 
to the present lessees, he rendered invaluable service, and sub- 
sequently, by Governor W. J. Xorthen, as assistant to the 
State's attorneys in defeat of the betterment claim made by 
the old lessees, especially charged with the special duty of 
preparing the rebuttal accounts, which were sustained by the 
commission and judgment rendered in favor of the State. In 
November, 1893, he received, from Hon. Hoke Smith, Secre- 
tary of the Interior, unsolicited, the appointment as chair- 
man of a commission to negotiate a treatv with the Yuma 
Indians of Southern California and Arizona. A treaty was 
submitted and pronounced by the Indian Department the 
most satisfactory of any made under the administration of that 
day, and, under special message of President Cleveland, it 
was approved by the Senate and became a law without altera- 
tion. ]\Iore than one-half of the money appropriated for that 
special purpose was returned to the treasury. In 1894 he 
was elected, by a handsome majority, to represent Delvalb 

History of Atlanta. 283 

county in the General Assembly. Here, as in every other po- 
sition to which he was called, he proved to be one of the most 
faithful and hard-working of all members. Thoroughly post- 
ed, broad-minded, public-spirited and progressive, fully 
abreast with the advanced thought and methods of the times, 
and always at the post of assigned duty, it is not possible to 
exaggerate the value and efficiency of his services to his con- 
stituents and the State. He was placed on the most import- 
ant standing committees, where he measured up to the high- 
est standard of legislative thought, action and duty, demon- 
strating his true democracy by introducing the bill electing 
judges and solicitors by the people. 

He was a charter member of Atlanta Fire Company No. 1, 
the first volunteer fire company organized in the city, and 
was secretary of it many years. As might be expected, Mr. 
Houston entertains the most liberal and advanced views in 
regard to public schools, and advocates the most generous 
legislation and expenditure for their betterment and exten- 
sion. He is also an ardent and unflaggingly active worker 
in the Sunday-school cause. It was he, in connection with 
Hon. Milton A. Candler and William G. Whidby, who issued 
the call for a State Sunday-school Association. He has de- 
voted a quarter of a century of service to the County Sunday- 
school Association, as chairman of its executive committee, 
and has done much in gaining for it the honor of being the 
banner association of the State. So long continued and unaf- 
fectedly self-sacrificing has been his devotion to this work 
that he is known to every man, woman and child who annually 
attend these gatherings. "I would not exchange the smiles 
and greetings of these good people," he exclaims, "for all the 
honors the political field can bestow." 

Mr. Houston is a member of the Scotch-Irish Society of 
the United States; a member of the Pioneer Citizens' So- 
ciety of Atlanta ; a member of Atlanta Lodge, No. 59, F. and 
A. M., and was the first person exalted to the Eoyal Arch De- 
gree in Atlanta, after the Chapter was removed from Decatur 
to this city, and is a prominet and influential member of the 
Presbyterian church; for forty years a deacon, and later an 





1S>4T. manritei'i Miss MaTT 
-7 J a I'le'Toiii': _ 

and Wes 
ceflias E:: 
Cliarle^ ' 

da - 


. wiio Iiad be- 

-^ Atiianto 

. _ . X rlan r.- 

'.Mxm to Atkiita) 

' ie, were Mar- 

"^ (now Mrs. 


~ S<cott and 

. at tiie age ot eleremu and another 

^lo'igan, tiie widow of Joseph B. Mor- 

; ; i.r - .-gjjj^ -^Q -^j-gg g staff offlScifflr with 

^ .:e was hom in FisMiead Vallev. 

Mr. Ilnomton was a son of Elijali Thornton, who owned 
the lann on tite lailzoad now called Ordhiard Hill, bnt whidi, 
whsa. the laiEmd was hmlt and before^ was caled Thornton. 
HaTsng a step-mofhor. Mr. Thornton was reared to young 
manhood bj Ms grandfather, Wiley Thornton (who owned 
siames), on what is now idbie Lorender farm, the former prize 
farm of Pi^ coimtj. Wilejr Thornton, an aiistocrallie old 
geiitSsnan, a trpieal English gentlonan, died in Pike at a 
\&j ripe age in IS&L He was related to Wa^iington and 
held HnTuniaiMlT aloof rmmwn poIit]£&. 

Upon the azrifal of Mrs. Thornton wij& her four dul- 
drai in Atlanta, Mr. Thosnton inotalled them, in a boarding 
hooise, or qaam hofed, ova- a store in a three-storr bride boild* 
ing cm the sontheagt comer of Whitehall and AlaKyma streeta, 
which was loept by a heritable, genial gentleman named Cole- 
man, probably Frank C.^ who owned the store nndemeatti. 

Latex' Mr. Thornton bnilt a house two squares south, but 
tm a Gross street near the railroad. He fimiiffliipii jdiat house 
the day Crockett was hung. IJater he built another house, a 
large fFame. in the woods on a ridge where is now the inter- 

HiSTOET OF Atlaxta. 285 

section of Xelson street and Form wait. It was at this large 
frame honse the family resided during the shelling of Atlanta. 
and had a big bomb-proof in the vard, and from which the 
family were exiled south throngh Eongh and Eeady by Sher- 
man. Some of the family saw their house go to ruin as they 
went over the hill into the road now known as Walker street. 
Tlie lumber was used for breastworks. After the war Captain 
Thornton, with the aid of Ms bovs and Sergeant Frank C- 
Aiken, built a house of brickbats on part of the old site. 

ilr. Thornton had not been a resident of Atlanta many 
years until he was curiously enough drawn into politics. He 
was induced to bec-ome a candi<iate for c-onstable,. but with no 
serious thought of being elected- In those days any Tnan run 
for any offic-e as best pleased him- but. of c-ourse. with his par- 
ty. Mr. Thorntons name was on the f^r/.rratic ticket, as 
he was a strong democrat. His two eld^^: : :ts went to the 
City Hall, where the polls were and solicited votes for their 
father all day long while he was on his run from Macon to 
Atlanta,, the train arriving about half past four p. m. 

The result of the election was that S. W. Thornton led 
the whole ticket and everybody else, in the number of votes re- 
c-eivedi From that time he was a popular candidate to com- 
bine with. Some newcomers in later years thought his son 
rec-eived a scratch or accidental vote when he ran for an o^c-e. 
But the two boys assiste^i their father at every election when 
he ran for an office, and he was never defeated, up to the war. 

Mr. Thornton belonged to the Fulton Dragoons: and. al- 
though he voted against sec-ession and was a strong advocate of 
the Union, he went with the Dra£r'X)ns into < ■ ' "; ^7^- 

and to Tirsinia and was made a servant. alil---._ .::- 

tested against it. Sleeping in the water and in the mud. 
with a rail for a pUlow. in front of Yorktown. brought about 
deafness and he was ordered home. Governor Joseph E. 
Brown thereupon, as soon as his hear:^ r — ~ ? slightly restored[, 
co mm issioned him a c-aptain in the G . _ _,-. Stare Eeserve In- 
fantry, with Joe Green Scrutchin. Thomas L. Wells and Her- 
man Bellingrath as his lieutenants, and they, with their c-om- 
pany. helped to defend Atlanta. 

Captain Thornton was killed on the railroad in Atlanta,, 


May 26, 1870, at the early age of forty-one, he having returned 
to railroading after losing money at farming in Alabama dur- 
ing the four years previous. The war had already deprived 
him of all he had saved except the bare ground. 

Captain Thornton was a devoted Atlantian. He was a con- 
sistent member of Evans Chapel, now Walker Street Church. 
He was also a Mason. He lies in Oakland ; also his wife and 
Scott and Salena, where so many Atlantians had gone before 
and have gone since. 


was born in Selma, Ala., January 16, 1828, where his early 
youth was spent, and where first he began the study of medi- 
cine, and his entry into pharmaceutical life, a profession he 
ever after followed. There, too, was he married to Miss Susan 
Carlton Dillard, whose father, John W., of Greensboro, had 
emigrated early in his life from King and Queen county, Vir- 
ginia, and became one of the largest cotton planters of the 

Coming to Atlanta in 1854, he was associated for a while 
first with Dr. A. Alexander, father of J. M. Alexander, hard- 
ware merchant; then with Dr. H. A. Ramsey, who was suc- 
ceeded by Smith & Ezzard. In 1858, forming a copartnership 
with Mr. Calvin W. Hunnicutt, under the firm name of Hun- 
nicutt & Taylor, they began in a small frame building ad- 
joining what is now the Healy building, awaiting the comple- 
tion of the brick store which Mr. George W. Collier had agreed 
to erect for their special use. 

At the close of the war, returning while the city was yet 
smoldering in ashes, he opened his drug store again; his health 
impaired from the effects of the war, still continued in active 
business until advised to try the baths at Hot Springs, where 
he died January 14, 1878. 

Doctor Taylor was a man of average height, with a genial, 
handsome face, of most pleasing personality; magnetic, few 

History of Atlanta. 287 

men acquired friends as he — and lasting in their regard and 
esteem. He entered into the pleasures of life, never into the 
dark sides. He was one of the organizers of the old Atheneum 
that added so much to the enjoyment of Atlanta's early days. 
He was a member of the volunteer fire department, first as 
member of old "Xo. 2," from which he resigned to b^ecome a 
charter member and first president of Tallulah Fire company 
No. 3. 

Exempt through physical disability, and though opposed 
to the war, yet when his state seceded, no man was more loyal 
to the Confederacy. An active force in the hospital corps, he 
at the same time organized and became the first captain of the 
"Foster Guards," with Albert Howell and James Purtell as 
lieutenants. (Lieutenant Howell becoming captain and after- 
wards colonel, and James Purtell captain in the Confederate 
service.) When the Guards left for Savannah he of course 
remained with the department he was attached to until the 
demand for more troops in the defense of Atlanta, when he 
organized and personally equipped the "Tallulah Yidettes," 
becoming its captain, with Ed. Murphey as first lieutenant, 
with whom he remained until the hospital was ordered to 
move on South, first to Milner, and then below Macon, until 
the surrender gave him his discharge. 

Dr. Taylor loved family, home and State. He loved At- 
lanta, loved his fellow citizen. Tolerant of all opinions, with 
faith too wide for doctrine, and a benevolence untrammeled 
by creed, generous to all, rich and poor, white and black, ac- 
quiring a fortune and spent it, (for his generous, kindly dis- 
position never knew the word "no") his whole life was full of 
sunshine and hope, and he was wont to instil this into others; 
pinning flowers on the breast of the sorrowing, plucking thorns 
from the saddened heart, trying ever to add pleasure where he 
found woe. That he was loved in return was never more at- 
tested than on the memorable day of his funeral, when all 
classes overflowed the old First Methodist church, and rever- 
ently followed his body to Oakland cemetery, where now a mar- 
ble shaft marks his grave, beside which his wife has since been 
laid. There, as his old friends pass by and note the inscrip- 
tions, the name, add from their remembrance the single trib- 
ute : "ISTone knew him but to love him." 


History of Atlanta. 289 


' Among the pioneers of Atlanta, there was not a more hon- 
orable and useful citizen than Hon. James M. Calhoun. He 
was born February 12, 1811, in Calhoun Settlement, Abbe- 
ville District, South Carolina. His father, a cousin of the 
Hon. John C. Calhoun, was a planter, in moderate circum- 
stances, and his mother, a lady distinguished for her intelli- 
gence and Christian virtues; both his parents were members 
of the Presbyterian Church. At the age of eighteen years his 
father and mother having died, he left the old homestead and 
removed to Decatur, Ga., where his elder brother, the late Dr. 
Ezkiel N. Calhoun, then resided. At the suggestion of his 
brother, he made his house his home for a time and for two 
years attended the village school taught by David Kiddoo, ob- 
taining a fair English education and some knowledge of the 
ancient languages. In the Spring of 1831 he commenced the 
study of law in the office of the late Hon. Hines Holt and was 
admitted to the bar on February 22, 1832. As a lawyer he 
was able and successful, and throughout his life was engaged 
in an extensive, laborious and profitable practice of his chosen 
profession, having had at various times as partners, his broth- 
er-in-law. Colonel W. H. Dabney, Colonel B. F. Martin, 
Colonel A. W. Stone and his son, William Lowndes Calhoun. 
He was very fond of agriculture, and devoted his spare time 
in looking after the cultivation and development of his farms. 
In 1832 he was married to Miss Emma Eliza Dabney, daugh- 
ter of Anderson Dabney, Esq., of Jasper county, Georgia, a 
lady of intelligence, education and refinement. Of this mar- 
riage there were bom to him eight children. In 1836 Mr. 
Calhoun entered the service of the United States as a captain 
in the war with the Creek Indians, and, in July of that year, 
while temporarily in command of a battalion, was engaged in 
a severe and bloody battle with the Indians, near Fort Mc- 
Crary, in Stewart county, Georgia, in which the enemy was 
driven some distance. His deportment in this battle was such 
as to elicit warm eulogies from his officers and men. In poll- 

290 Pioneer Citizens' 

tics Mr. Calhoun was a Whig and labored under the disadvan- 
tage of residing in a district largely Democratic. In 1837 he 
was elected to represent DeKalb county in the Legislature. In 
1850 he was elected a delegate to the State convention, which 
convention was called to consider the series of laws known as 
the Compromise measures then lately enacted by Congress, in 
which he took a prominent part in securing the passage of 
resolutions favorable to these measures. In 1851 he was 
elected to a seat in the Senate of Georgia. He became a resi- 
dent of Atlanta in December, 1852, living for many years at 
the head of Washington street, and was a member of the cele- 
brated Legislature of 1855-6, as Senator from Fulton and was 
the author of many of the most important Acts of that distin- 
guished body. As a member of the judiciary committee he par- 
ticipated in perfecting the many beneficial changes made dur- 
ing that session in our statutes. In 1859 he was one of the 
vice-presidents of the convention which nominated Beell and 
Everett for president and vice-president of the United States. 
In 1862-3-l:-5 he was mavor of the Citv of Atlanta and in 
1862 was appointed Civil Governor of the city by General 
Bragg: but, doubting the legality of this appointment, he de- 
clined to act. The following is the conclusion of the memo- 
rial prepared by the committee of his brother members of the 
bar and entered upon the minutes of the Supreme Court : 

"In 186-i, during the stormy period of the seige and occu- 
pation of the city by the Federal army, when the Confederates 
evacuated the place, the unpleasant duty of surrendering At- 
lanta to General Sherman devolved on him. Xo one can fairly 
feel, or actually describe the bitterness of his sorrow as he saw 
the aged, the feeble, and the helpless, laboring under the crush- 
ing weight of the exactions, robbery and terror to which our 
afflicted people had to submit during the occupancy and after- 
wards. His letter remonstrating against the order of General 
Sherman expelling the women and children from the city dur- 
ing the hard fall of 186-4 will live in history and carry his 
name to posterity as a man of true courage and generous sen- 
sibility. The letter of General Sherman in answer, in which 
occurred the expression, "war is cruelty and cannot be refined,'' 
conveys but an imperfect idea of the feeling of indifference and 

History of Atlanta, 291 

revenge with which our sufferings were viewed, and the temper 
with which the faggot was applied to our cherished liomes and 
rising city. Colonel Calhoun, in the midst of the sea of fire 
around him, did what he could to support the weak and to aid 
the suffering. As the city sank amid the lurid glare of incin- 
diary war, its Mayor stood like Marius, looking in gloom and 
despair, upon its dying emhers. It is a matter of sincere con- 
gratulations to know that he was spared by Providence to see 
the city of his choice and his love arise from its ashes, and 
again put on the beautiful smiles of peace and prosperity ; but 
from the tears and sorrow of its thousands of victims of unde- 
served wrong and oppression the grand proportions of opu- 
lence and refinement have returned to cheer and IdIcss his and 
their descendants. As a public speaker he was earnest, careful, 
often vehement and impassioned. The latter, however, were 
exceptions to his style. Ho argued to convince the understand- 
ing rather than to please the fancy. As models for imitation, 
the zealous pursuit of his purposes by honest means, and the 
reliant manhood of his nature, are worthy of public notice. In 
private life he was gentle, truthful and courteous, without the 
tinsel of attractive display in company which is possessed In- 
some; he won the confidence of those around him by his re- 
fined feelings and attention to time, place and person so well 
that few forgot a first interview with him, or ceased to regard 
him with esteem and respect. His death occurred on the 1st 
day of October, 1875. and he now sleeps in Oakland cemetery, 
and it may be truthfully said of him that his life, taken alto- 
gether, was an eminent success, and he left the world with 
friends, relations and a great city to mourn his loss." 

292 Pioneer Citizens' 


On the 18th day of July, 1838, Mr. Ryan was born in Tal- 
bot County, Ga. At the age of eighteen months his parents 
removed to Jasper County, where his father died. His mother 
with her two boys in 1849 visited Bridgeport, Conn., where 
the subject of this sketch remained at school for two and a 
half 5^ears. There he received the rudiments of a first-class 
education. At the end of that time he returned to Georgia, 
where he was received at his old home, Monticello, with much 
enthusiasm by the people. Dressed in a gray uniform, wear- 
ing a Kossuth hat, he was the cynosure of all eyes. He re- 
mained in Monticello until July, 1853, when he made his ad- 
vent into Atlanta, for the purpose of learning the druggist 
trade, but not fancying the business he soon returned to his 
old home, and resumed his studies. Again he turned his face 
towards Atlanta, arriving here in February, 1854, and im- 
mediately resumed his studies till July, 1855. In October of 
that year Mr. Ryan went to work in the Georgia Railroad ma- 
chine shops to learn the machinists trade; he remained there 
until 1859, when his mother moved to Arkansas. Two years 
after, the Civil War coming on, he cast his fortunes with the 
Confederacy. In the spring of 1861 a company was formed 
in Des Arc, Ark., called the Rector Guards, named in honor of 
the governor of the State. Shortly after its formation the 
company repaired to Mound City, on the Mississippi river, just 
above ;^Iemphis, where a regiment was formed, electing the af- 
terwards celebrated and renowned general (Pat Cleburne) 

After remaining with this regiment for six months, 
it being an infantry one. Mr. Ryan was transferred to a cavalry 
company, called the Des Arc Rangers. It was under the 
command of General Ben McCullough, the famous "Partisan 
Ranger." Shortly after joining this cavalry company the bat- 
tle of Elk Horn was fought; it was Mr. Ryan's first engage- 
ment. He was actively engaged in the war between the states 
until after the 20th of September, 1863, when at the battle of 

History of Atlanta. 293 

Chicamauga he received a gunshot wound that necessitated the 
amputation of the left leg above the knee. After he received 
the wound he was connected with the commissary dpartment 
■until the close of the war in 1865. In 1867 he was clerk of 
the market of Atlanta. He served in this capacity for three 
years, when in 1870 he was elected by the mayor and council 
tax receiver and collector, filling the office one yCar. During 
the years of 1871 and 1872 he was employed by Mr. Seal Love, 
clerk of the city, as his assistant, and served as such two years. 
In January, 1873, he was elected Clerk of the City, and served 
continuously until July 1879. He was a member of the city 
council from the Second Ward during the years of 1882 and 
1883. In the fall of 1882, at the regular election of County 
officers, he was elected on the ticket with Judge C. H. Strong 
as Clerk of the Superior Court, and served as one of his 
deputies in 1883 and 1884. 


Dr. Henry L. Wilson was born in the Old Dominion, on 
the banks of the Dan river, in the city of Danville, July 2, 
1839. He came to Atlanta in 1853. His father was the gal- 
lant Colonel William T. Wilson, who was killed in the second 
battle of Manassas, while fighting several yards in advance of 
his regiment. Before the war Dr. Wilson went to LaGrange, 
where he acquired his academic education. From there he 
went to Emory College, at Oxford, Ga., where he graduated 
with distinction in 1858. The following year he obtained a 
second diploma from the Atlanta Medical College, and was 
commissioned with the title of "Doctor" to go out and heal 
the sick. His success was evinced from the start by his ap- 
pointment as first city physician. After the first battle of 
Manassas Dr. Wilson went to Eichmond, Va., and there, after 
a rigid examination, was commissioned in an important posi- 
tion as surgeon of the Seventh Georgia Eegiment. He held 

294 Pioneer Citizens' 

this office until the last two years of the war, when he was 
made chief surgeon of the conscript department of the State 
of Georgia. After the war he returned to Atlanta and entered 
his old profession. In 1872 his popularity was such that he 
was complimented by his fellow-citizens with an election to 
the Citv Council. He was chairman of the street committee, 
and in that capacity was largely instrumental in bringing 
Whitehall, Peachtree and Marietta streets to their present 
grade. Dr. Wilson was elected a member of the county board 
of commissioners in 1886. He was chairman of the com- 
mittee of public works, and held the office of commissioner 
until January, 1893, when he was succeeded by Mr. Joseph 
Thompson, he himself not being a candidate for re-election. 
In 1885 Dr. Wilson was thrown from his buggy and received 
a severe wound, which terminated in the limp which now 
characterizes his gait. Soon after he entered the drug business 
on the corner of Broad and Marietta streets, and remained 
there until he sold out to his successor, Mr. C. 0. Tyner. He 
then entered the real estate business and has since been en- 
gaged in that employmnt. For a while he was in partnership 
with Mr. Frank P. Pice, but is now by himself. He is a con- 
sistent member of the First Methodist Church. Dr. Wilson 
Avas one of the original directors of the Cotton States and 
International Exposition Company, and a member of the ex- 
ecutive committee, biiilding and ground committee and also 
chief of the live stock committee. He was a liberal contribu- 
tor of time and money to the exposition. He is one of the 
largest and boldest real estate men in the South. 

History of Atlanta. 295 


The subject of this sketch, Evans Boylston Walker, was 
born in Boston, Mass., descended from an old English family, 
whose connections have given to councils and history some 
of its most illustrious names — John Adams, John Quincy and 
Charles Francis Adams, the Eichardsons, Boylstons and oth- 
ers ; all related to that branch from which sprung Edward and 
Dudley Walker. At the early age of thirteen, he determined 
to start out in life, to help repair his father's broken fortunes. 
The lad walked all the way from Boston to Philadelphia, 
where he met with bitter disappointment, and, retracing his 
steps, tramped back home. Undaunted by his misfortune, 
he accepted assistance from a friend who offered him trans- 
portation to New Orleans. Arriving there, unknown and 
friendless, his courage did not forsake him; he secured work 
and by dint of economy (studying at night), he soon accumu- 
lated enough capital to enter business, which resulted in a 
very successful one. Later he moved to Texas to become a 
planter, but soon became involved in the misfortunes of his 
former partners and lost his property. He then came to 
Georgia, first to Macon and then Atlanta, which he removed 
to in 1849. He soon becailie identified with the Western and 
Atlantic Eailway. His advance was rapid, each succeeding 
administration retaining him on account of his splendid abil- 
ities and high integrity. During the Civil War the Western 
and Atlantic Eailway was one of the most important feeders 
possessed by the Confederacy, the demands upon it being very 
heavy. General Joseph E. Johnson complimented Mr. Walker 
upon his masterly handling of the transportation of troops, 
supplies, etc., over the road. When the war ended, returning 
from his enforced refugeeing, Mr. Walker found his home in 
ruins and his wife an invalid. After a period of service with 
the Macon and Western Eailroad, he retired to his farm near 
Atlanta, at the age of seventy-three, and died at the ripe age 
of eighty-one. 

As a pioneer he did much personally, and in and by virtue 

296 Pioneer Citizens' 

of his commanding position towards giving and fashioning the 
strong characteristics that mark Atlanta as one of the most 
creative and progressive of modern cities, and is alike worthy 
of that monumental record that is being lovingl}' made for his 
colleagues. The very hearts of those of his employees who 
survive him will beat in tender emotion in memory of him, 
their friend. 


Eldest son of General William Wallace and Margaret 
Chamberlain Wallace, was born in Blount county, East Ten- 
nessee, on the 24th day of March, 1822. He was descended 
through a long line of hardy, enterprising and thrifty peo- 
ple, who were more or less distinguished for the tenacity with 
which they asserted and maintained their legal rights, and 
also what they claimed to be God-given liberties. • 

Alexander M. Wallace was educated at Maryville Col- 
lege, originally known as the Southwest Theological Seminary. 
At the age of nineteen he, much against his own inclination, 
was connected with his father in a general merchandise busi- 
ness. After some years of experience he removed with his 
family to Atlanta as a larger field of trade, and established a 
wholesale commission house for the special sale of Western 
produce and later accepted the position of agent of the Bank 
of the State of Georgia in connection with an insurance busi- 
ness. "While thus engaged, the election of Lincoln to the pres- 
idency, in 1860, seriously impressed him with the danger to 
the South which the accession to the power of the Eepublican 
party threatened to precipitate. He was also deeply impressed 
with the thought that immediate secession from the Union was 
the only honorable course left the South to take in order to 
preserve and maintain its constitutional rights and the man- 
liness and self-respect of its people. With such convictions he 
threw the whole ardor of his nature into the struggle that fol- 
lowed. At that time he was in command of the "Atlanta 

History or Atlanta. 297 

Greys," an infantry company, but which had been recently 
changed to artillery by direction of Governor Joseph E. 
Brown. He resigned this commission in Jamiar}^, 1861, 
against the advice of Governor Brown, to accept like ranlc in 
the "First Eegiment of Georgia Kegulars," composed of select 
men enlisted for three years, of which (General) William H. 
Hardee was colonel. He served the first year of the war in 
Virginia with his regiment, and the spring of 1862 was pro- 
moted by President Davis to the rank of lieutenant-colonel 
of the Thirty-sixth Georgia Eegiment. He was severely 
wounded at the battle of Missionary Eidge, from which, at 
intervals, he suffered during the remainder of his life. In 
the fall of 1863 the incident of the service promoted him to 
the colonelcy, but. worn out with disease and hurts, caused 
by over three years of active service, he could remain in the 
field but a short time longer, he was invalided and sent home, 
where, as strength permitted, he found ample work useful in 
assisting the cause so dear to his heart. 

Colonel Wallace was twice married. His first wife was the 
daughter of Mr. Nathaniel Cox, of Louisville, Tenn., who 
was the mother of Captain Charles and George A. Wallace 
and Mrs. S. D. Mitchell, of Athens, Ga. In 1855 he married 
Frances Garland Singleton, youngest daughter of Dr. Joseph 
J. Singleton, of Lumpkin county, Georgia. The children of 
this marriage are Mrs. Wallace-McPherson, of Xashville, 
Tenn.; Mrs. E. Twitchell, Cincinnati, Ohio; Mrs. Donald Wil- 
son, Valley Town. X. C. ; Mrs. Willard H. Cutting, :\Irs. Lo- 
gan Blecklv, Miss Anne Wallace, Mr. Joseph S. Wallace and 
Alex W. Wallace, of Atlanta. 

298 Pioneer Citizens' 

J. J. TOON" 

was born in Williamson county, Tennessee, on the 3d of March, 
1818. His father, James Toon, was a thrifty planter, after 
the style of the ante-bellum days, and the boyhood of Major 
Toon was spent amid the lavish and opulent civilization of the 
old South. He was given a thorough schooling, and his mind, 
as it unfolded under the influence of the culture that was 
brought to bear upon it, indicated a decided literary inclina- 
tion. From his boyhood he was a terse and entertaining 
writer, a perfect master of English, and he took a special de- 
light in reading those books which were calculated to supply 
him with information and improve his mind. After reaching 
manhood he taught school for several years, also contributing 
to the columns of some papers and magazines. Later he and 
Mr. John Xelson bought out the large book store of Graves & 
Shankland in Nashville, Tenn. ; continuing there for a few 
years, he sold out his interest. Having been elected financial 
secretary and treasurer of the Southern Baptist Publication 
Society, he located in Charleston, S. C, in 1856. On the 26th 
of February, 1857, he was united in marriage to Miss Sarah 
Josephine Lane, moving at once to Charleston. They were 
residents of that city during the exciting time of secession, 
and were, eye witnesses to that memorable scene on that early 
Saturday morning, the bombardment of Fort Sumter by Gen- 
eral Beauregard, April, 1861, and was the recipient of a walk- 
ing cane made from the shattered flag-staff by one of the offi- 
cers who entered the fort at its surrender by Gen. Robert An- 
derson. After resigning his position with the Society he re- 
turned to Xashville and soon after was placed on Governor 
Isham G. Harris's staff, appointed to collect arms for Ten- 
nessee troops. In May, 1862, he moved to Atlanta, and soon 
after purchased the Franklin Printing House of Hanleiter, 
Eice & Company, doing work for the Confederate government 
until July, 1864, when he, with many others, sent their presses 
and other machinery to safer quarters. After the evacuation 
of Atlanta bv the Federals he, with many others, hastened 

History of Atlanta. 299 

back to help build up the waste places and begin life and 
business anew. In connection with his office, he bought the 
Christian Index of Rev. Samuel Boykin, of Macon, Ga. The 
same year, or early in 18G5, he bouglit the Southwestern Bap- 
tist and merged that into the Index; thus the paper carried 
three heads for some time. He continued thus till the summer 
of 1873, when, owing to failing health and the advice of physi- 
cians and friends, he sold out to James P. Harrison & Com- 
pany. Retiring from these arduous labors, and being a lover 
of agricultural and horticultural pursuits, and hoping to 
benefit his health, he looked after his farming interests in 
Cobb county, near Marietta, for several years. In 1888 he be- 
came interested in the Atlanta Commonwealth, a prohibition 
paper; but again, owing to failing health, he was compelled to 
give that up, giving his time and attention to writing articles 
for agricultural and religious periodicals. 

Major Toon died on the 16th of November, 1893 and was 
buried at Oakland Cemetery. He was an active member of the 
Second Baptist Church, and just after the war was the super- 
intendent of the Sunday-school. He was a life member of the 
Young Men's Library Association and a Confederate Veteran. 


The subject of this sketch, senior member of the firm of 
Everett, Ridley & Co., came of Puritan stock — his family con- 
nections being closely identified with the Everetts, Clafflins 
and Spragues of jSTew England. His father was a Baptist 
minister, and was born in Massachusetts. Captain Everett 
was educated in the district schools of his native State, com- 
pleting two terms at the academy at Ithaca, N". Y. Imbued 
with a desire to gain practical knowledge he spent most of his 
time during vacations at work on the farm. He afterwards 
clerked in stores, for which he seemed naturally inclined, and 


History of Atlanta. 301 

thus gained his knowledge of the business which he has in 
later life made so successful. 

In 1857 his parents removed South, settling in Georgia, 
but shortly after moved West. Captain Everett came to At- 
lanta in 1857. The young lad began business as a traveling 
salesman in Georgia of books, sheet music, etc. — after a few 
months securing a position in Atlanta with J. L. Cutting & 
Co., dry goods merchants, continuing till January 1, 1862. 
The war between the states had in the meantime been precipi- 
tated, and young Everett, although of Northern blood and 
education, immediately took up arms for the land of his 
adoption. He enlisted in Company "A," Ninth Battalion 
Georgia Artillery, receiving the appointment of Second Ser- 
geant. The company was soon recruited to such numbers as 
to make two companies necessary — Company "A" and Com- 
pany "E," in which latter he was made Senior Second Lieu- 
tenant and was promoted through all the grades to the rank of 
captain in 1864. Captain "E" — also known as "Everett's Bat- 
tery"' — was one of the distinguished batteries in both the army 
of the West and East — was engaged on several fields of bat- 
tle, and having the proud distinction of never losing a gun. 
The company was detached from his battalion for special duty 
a large part of the time, with Captain Everett in command 
either as lieutenant or captain of the company. At the battle 
of Chicamauga his battery played a conspicuous part on that 
dreadful field of carnage. Previous to this engagement the 
battery was in East Tennessee, but was detached from that 
battalion at LaFayette, Ga., reported to General Bushrod 
Johnson, at Dalton, and from that point first met the Federals 
at Einggold. Fighting with Forrest in the advance the bat- 
tery crossed Chicamauga creek late on Friday afternoon at 
Eeed's Bridge, and was in the engagement on Saturday, Sep- 
tember 20th. They day following the battery was in active en- 
gagement, pouring shot and shell into the Federals as they 
retreated from their positions and succeeding in blocking the 
roads with guns and caissons which the battery had disabled, 
thus making the enemy's retreat doubly irksome and danger- 
ous. Running out of ammunition about this time the intrepid 

302 Pioneer Citizens' 

men of Everett's Battery served their guns out of that cap- 
tured from the Federals. 

After this engagement Captain Everett went with General 
Longstreet into East Tennessee, after which he returned to 
Virginia, and was detailed and sent with McCausland's 
Cavalry to meet Hunter who was threatening Lynchburg. 
This gallant company was then ordered -to join General Early 
in the campaign of the Valley of Virginia. The last service 
was in defense of Eichmond, and in Lee's retreat to Appo- 

The writer of this sketch here takes the liberty of copying 
a few of the seventeen allusions made to Everett's Battery in 
reports of commanding officers in the famous Chicamauga 
battle. In his report, published under the direction of Hon. 
Eedfield Proctor, Secretary of War, of the "Official Record of 
Union and Confederate Armies," General Bushrod Johnson 
says: * * * ^'j cannot here speak too highly of the gal- 
lantry of the men and officers of Dent's and Everett's batteries 
on this occasion. It elicted my highest admiration, and I at 
once endeavored involuntarily to express personally to the 
commanders my high appreciation of the work they had so 
nobly done." It is claimed by Johnson's Brigade that they 
rallied to a man at the batteries. Colonel Jno. S. Fulton, 
commanding Johnson's Brigade, says: "In this engagement 
Everett's Battery fired very effectively, being in the thickest 
of the fight. I commend the officers of the battery to favora- 
ble consideration for their fidelity and good conduct while un- 
der fire." 

Captain Everett returned after the surrender to Atlanta, 
riding his horse all the way over the intervening mountains 
and valleys. After his arrival he brought his family from 
LaGrange, Ga., where they had refugeed. and as the city was 
destroyed it was necessary to improvise a home, which he did 
by securing some hospital tents. In these his family were en- 
sconsed till a house could be procured. 

Captain Everett naturally fell back into his old line of 
business, notwithstanding the demoralization consequent on 
the war; he began traveling for Claghorn & Herrin. of Phila- 
delphia, which he soon abandoned for the business of selling 

History of Atlanta. 303 

dry goods. In the latter part of 1868 he went with the firm 
of M. C. and J. F. Kiser, and in 1872 he was admitted as a 
partner where he remained till the firm was dissolved, at 
which time the firm of Everett, Eidley, Eagan & Co. was or- 

Captain Everett was married in 1860 to Frances G. 
Haynes. They have four children: Fannie 0., wife of Mr. 
W. 0. Jones; Clarence, of the firm of Everett. Eidky, Eagan 
& Co.; Edward Q. and Myrtle M., wife of Thos. B. Lump- 


Capitalist, Atlanta, Ga., son of Thomas and Elizaheth (Keyes) 
Murphy, was born in county Wicklow, Ireland, in 1829. His 
father was born in county Wexford, Ireland, in 1804, and his 
motlier in county Wicklow, adjoining. They emigrated to 
the United States in 1838 and settled first in Schuylkill coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania. Subsequently he went with his family to 
Iowa, where he lived some years. He came south in 1878 and 
died the following vear. 

Anthony was nine years of age when his parents emigrated 
to this country, and lived with them until the age of eighteen, 
receiving his education in the public schools. At eighteen he 
went to Trenton, ?s". J., where he was apprenticed to the 
machinists' trade. After serving three years he went to Pier- 
mont, X. Y., worked there a year in the Erie railroad shops 
and then went to the Pittsburg, Pa., shops, where he worked 
at his trade another year. 

It was during ]\[r. ]\Iurphy's connection with the Western 
and Atlantic Eailroad. April 12, 1862, that the famous "en- 
gine chase" and capture of the locomotive "General" occurred. 
He was foreman of the machine and motive power, which was 
absolutely under his control. 

That morninir he was called to examine an engine which 


n''|nPi"i &• " '"111 

HiSTOiiY OF Atla^fa. 305 

supplied tlio pcnvor to cut wood nnd pump water for tlie loco- 
motives at Altoona. 

While at Big Shanty — now Kennesaw — at breakfast he 
heard a noise as of escaping steam, and at tlie same time no- 
ticed that the engine was moving. 

"Some one is moving your traiii," lie remarked to the 
engineer and firenuin. 

Enshing to the door, he saw the engine and three cars mov- 
ing out of sight! 

Murphy started a man on horseback to Marietta to wire 
the superintendent, and he himself went off on foot with the 
conductor and engineer, knowing there was a squad of section 
hands with a hand or pole car just ahead. 

Taking this, the pursuit was continued until they ob- 
tained an engine, with which, after overcoming many ob- 
structions, they overtook the fugitive locomotive just north of 
Ringgold, where the raiders had left the road to seek refuge in 
the woods. 

But for his knowledge of the road and his control of the 
motive power, which ho utilized, the result might have been 
very different, Mr. William Pittenger, one of the Federal 
raiders who escaped, in a book published by him, says: 

"The presence of Anthony Murphy that morning w^as 
purely accidental. As an officer of high authority on the road, 
commanding all engineers and firemen, knowing all the en- 
gines and everything about the road perfectly, his presence at 
that time was most unfortimate for us. He was a man of 
gVeat coolness and good judgment. His first act was far- 
sighted. He sent a man on horsel)ack to Marietta to notify 
the superintendent at Atlanta by wire." 

To Mr. Murphy, more than to any other man, is due the 
successful termination of that exciting "engine chase," which 
fills one of the most thrilling chapters of our war history. 

It will be remembered that the leader of the Federal raid- 
ers, Captain Andrews, was afterward executed at Atlanta with 
several of his followers. The object of the party was to de- 
stroy the bridges between Atlanta and the Confederate army 
in Tennessee. 

In 1866 Mr. Murphy was elected a member of the Atlanta 
City Council. He was twice re-elected, and it is generally 

30G ?ioxEER Citizens' 

conceded that he rendered very efficient service during the 
most trying period of Atlanta's history. He inaugurated the 
waterworks movement in 1866, was president of the water- 
works board for some years and floated the bonds issued for 
their construction — the work being completed in 1874. 

During this period he originated and superintended the 
construction of immense cisterns for saving water for fire 
extinguishment, was the principal mover in the matter of 
adopting steam fire engines, and purchased the first one. He 
actively co-operated with the late Dr. O'Keefe in establishing 
the present magnificent public school system. 

Mr. ]\Iurphy's early training, together with his practical 
common sense and strictly business methods, made his services 
at this time of inestimable value to the city. He was a jury 
commissioner a number of years and served two terms on the 
county board of roads and revenues, of which he was chair- 
man of the committee on buildings, and built the present 
model almshouse. 

He advocated the building of the Georgia Air Line, after- 
wards the Eichmond and Danville, and later known as the 
Southern, and represented the city's stock. He was also an 
important factor in saving the Georgia Pacific Eailway, was 
one of the promoters of the building of the Atlanta cotton 
factory, and as one of its board of directors was an earnest 
and watchful worker during its construction. He was one of 
the committee of forty-nine which formulated the present city 
charter, which saved the city from bankruptcy, and was ap- 
pointed by Governor Gordon one of the commissioners to 
appraise for the State the value of the road, rolling stock and 
laetterments of the Western and Atlantic Eailroad. 

Mr. Murphy came to Atlanta in 1854. He was married in 
1858 to Miss Adelia McConnell, who, and her parents before 
lier, were natives of Georgia. Her mother was a Bell on the 
paternal side and Hampton on the maternal side — connected 
with the distinguished South Carolina family of that name. 
This xmion has been blessed with eight children, seven of whom 
are li^'ing. Annie E., wife of G. H. Tanner, Clerk Fulton 
Coimty Superior Court; Kate F., wife of Charles E. Sciples 
(of Sciples' Sons, Atlanta) ; Eobert E., John K., Adelia, 
Anthonv. Jr.. and Charles C. 

History of Atlanta. 307 


is a native Georgian, having been born in Clark county, 
March 24, 1835. Here he passed his boyhood days, learning 
from the simplicity of his rural surroundings the great truths 
taught by nature, which lend strength and fortitude to char- 
acter. At the age of fourteen years he began the study of 
text books and advanced rapidly, displaying a superior talent 
and ability. In 1852, becoming imbued with the gold fever 
so prevalent with the young men of the South, and fascinated 
by the love of travel and adventure, Mr. Thomas left his na- 
tive State, and, in company with a number of friends, em- 
barked for California, where, after enduring many priva- 
tions and having his health undermined, he determined to re- 
turn. Consequently, in 1856, he returned to Gwinnett county, 
Georgia, opened a general store and operated it with success 
until 1862. When the tocsin of war was sounded and the 
South rallied to the support of her honor and the assertion 
of her rights, Mr. Thomas, in the spirit of loyalty and justice, 
raised a company of soldiers from the neighboring country 
and drilled them. Governor Brown, in recognition of his 
martial ability, and the control possessed over his comrades, 
appointed him captain. The company, when ready for march- 
ing, was assigned to the Forty-second Georgia Eegiment and 
known as Company A. In the engagement at Eesaca, Ga., 
1864, our subject commanded the entire regiment, and in 
the deference of fortitude here displayed was promoted to 
major. As the war progressed his superiority became more 
manifest, and a short time before the battle of Bentonville, N. 
C, he was made lieutenant-colonel of the regiment. Colonel 
Thomas remained in the war till its close, participating in the 
following battles: Cumberland Gap, Tazewell, Tenn., the 
campaign around Vicksburg, lasting forty-seven days, includ- 
ing Baker's Creek, Big Black and others; the campaign in 
North Georgia and the defense of Atlanta and the adjoining 
vicinity; on with the army to Tennessee, and in North Caro- 
lina, where the last gun was fired in the war between the 


History of Atlanta. 309 

States. He passed through them, all unscathed, except at 
Kennesaw Mountain, where he was slightly wounded hy a 
shell. During the seige of Vicksburg, Colonel Thomas was 
captured l)y the Federals and kept a prisoner for a week. 
When the war ended he came to Atlanta with only a tattered 
uniform, his horse and twenty dollars in gold. With these 
limited possessions, but a determination and indomitable will 
that assured the triumph of ambition over the gloom of en- 
vironment, he began anew the struggle of life. For twelve 
years succeeding the close of the war he acted in the capacity 
of traveling salesman for a number of firms throughout the 
State with marked success, and in 1879 was honored by elec- 
tion to the office of chief of police of Atlanta, which position 
he held one term and then resigned to accept the position of 
deputy sheriff. In 1884 he was elected sheriff of Fulton coun- 
ty, and as such served three consecutive terms. He was also 
a member of the City Council. 

Colonel Thomas' private life, as his public career, has 
been one of felicity and happiness, yet seasons of sadness and 
grief have crept in to add melancholy to pleasure. He was 
first married in 1857 to Jennie J., daughter of W. J. Peeples, 
of Gwinnett county. She died in 1884, leaving seven chil- 
dren, of whom the following survive her: Lovick P., Jr., 
Fannie J., wife of C. S. Winn; Walton L., and Eugene P. 
x\fterward he was married again to Jeannette E. Payne (nee 
Wagnon), three children surviving the mother, Annie 0., 
Alice L., and Edward L. Colonel Thomas has been promi- 
nent in many business affairs of this city, having been presi- 
dent of the Peachtree Park Association, president of the Cot- 
ton States Building and Loan Association, and commander of 
the United Confederate Veterans' Association of Fulton 
county. Was at one time a prominent dealer in real estate. 

He is considered one of Atlanta's post-war founders, a 
pillar of this municipality, who has ever had the welfare of the 
city at heart, and guided her faltering footsteps through the 
darkness of reconstruction, and now that she has become the 
foremost metropolis of the South, feels a pardonable pride 
in recalling his efforts toward the growth and unfolding of 
her greatness. As an officer of the Confederate Veterans' As- 

310 Pioneer Citizens'" 

sociation, he was esteemed and loved by his comrades. He 
has been prominent in every undertaking, for in the fulfill- 
ment of both public and private duties he has demonstrated 
remarkable versatility and force of character. As a solid, 
substantial business man, a promoter of enterprise and thrift, 
a strong thinker, a cultured, chivalric gentleman and a val- 
uable personal friend. Colonel Thomas has impressed the com- 
munity and the State. 


was born in Lumpkin County, Ga., December 5, 1834. His 
grandfather, Hilary Hendrix, served under Francis Marion 
in the Eevolutionary war, and his mother was the daughter 
of Joseph Hubbard, of South Carolina, also a Eevolutionary 
soldier. At the beginning of the war between the states he 
assisted General Ira E. Foster, Quartermaster of the State, in 
organizing and equipping regiments for the Confederate ser- 
vice, after which, in August, 1861, he returned to his old 
home in Lumpkin and raised a Confederate battery, of which 
he was made First Lieutenant, electing Thomas H. Bomar, of 
Atlanta, for Captain. The battery was made a part of 
Wright's Legion, composed of ten companies of infantry and 
two of artillery, and ordered on duty at Savannah. The 
artillery companies remained at Savannah after the infantry 
was reorganized as the Thirty-eighth Georgia regiment, and 
sent to Virginia, and Lieutenant Hendrix continued at Savan- 
nah with his command until January. 1863. Then he was 
ordered by the war department to repair to Atlanta and or- 
ganize a company of cavalry for special duty in the mountains 
of Georgia and North Carolina where there was much active 
hostility to the Confederacy. Three others companies were 
put under his command, the four forming the Fourth Geor- 
gia battalion. In October. 1863. he was ordered by General 
Wright, then commanding the Department of Georgia, includ- 

History of Atlanta. 311 

ing Atlanta, to proceed to North Carolina and East Tennessee, 
with authority to take charge of all local companies en route- 
Thus his command was swelled to twelve companies, 
including one of Indians from North Carolina. On Oc- 
tober 27, 1863, at Tellico Plains, Tenn., his command 
encountered Captain Goldman Bryson, a notorious bush- 
whacker operating under General Burnside, and a run- 
ning tight ensued in which Bryson and many of his command 
were killed and captured. Being informed at the close of the 
day's operations of the approach of a large body of Federal 
troops from Lundon, Tenn., Colonel Hendrix retreated, carry- 
ing with him four hundred prisoners, which he brought in 
safety to Atlanta. He served in command of his battalion 
in the campaign from Dalton to Atlanta, and after the battle 
of July 22d was transferred to the staft' of Governor Brown 
with the rank of Colonel and the duty of organizing the State 
reserves. In performance of this duty he was at Macon when 
that city and Milledgeville was threatened by the Federal 
raider. General Stoneman. There were about 2,600 men of 
the reserves at Macon, half of whom he sent to Milledgeville, 
and with the remainder he gave battle to the Federal troops 
before Macon, causing the retreat of General Stoneman. Soon 
afterward Stoneman was captured by General Iverson's com- 
mand. Colonel Hendrix was yet on duty at Macon at the 
close of the war. He was once slightly wounded and his 
horse shot from under him at Macon. After the war Colonel 
Hendrix was engaged in mercantile and manufacturing pur- 
suits for several years. During the past twenty years he has 
been prominent in the real estate business of Atlanta. In 
public office he has served as member of the city council and 
school board, and for three years was secretary of the State 

He was married in 1854 to Mary Elizabeth Mooney. and in 
1859 made his home in Atlanta. There are six of the child- 
ren born to them living: Samantha. wife of W. H. Smith; 
Austin L., Nettie, wife of J. W. Davidson ; Georgia, wife of 
Saxon Douglass; Mamie, wife of A. L. Anderson; Johnnie — 
a daughter. Colonel Hendrix is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. 


History of Atlanta. ,313 

and a Royal Arch Mason. He is also an active member of the 
Grace Methodist church. He was superintendent of Payne's 
Chapel Sunday School for fourteen years, and has been super- 
intendent at Grace church for twelve years. 


of Atlanta, was liorn in Goslien, Conn.. October 9, 1811, and 
was a son of William and Ruth (Butler) Markham. His 
paternal ancestors came from England and settled in Middle-' 
town. Conn., in 1663. His father was a farmer, and for many 
years resided at New Hartford, where he died at the age of 
seventy-one years. At the latter place the sul)ject of this 
sketch was educated and remained until 1833, when he came 
to North Carolina, and spent two years in that State. In 1835 
he came to Georgia and located in Augusta, and for the follow- 
ing year his business called him to different parts of the 
State. In 1836 he located ill McDonough, Henry county, 
where he remained for fourteen years, engaged in farming 
and merchandising, and while residing here, in 1839, married 
a daughter of William Berry, of that county. Two children 
were born to them, a son, ]\Iarcellus 0. Markham, and a daugh- 
ter, Emma C, wife of Robert J. Lowry, of Atlanta. 

Colonel ]\Iarkham was successful in his business ventures 
in McDonough, and in 1853 moved to Atlanta. At this time 
the city contained but three thousand eight hundred inhab- 
itants, and bore little reseml)lance in appearance or size to 
the Atlanta of today. In 1856 he established, with Lewis 
Scofield, a rolling-mill, the first ever started in the South, and 
engaged in rolling railroad iron until the latter part of the 
war, when the concern was sold to the Confederate Govern- 

314 Pioneer Citizens' 

ment. So thoroughly did Colonel Markham become identified 
with the new city of Atlanta after his arrival, both by pur- 
chase of real estate and connection with its business interests^ 
that during the same year of his arrival he was elected on the 
Whig ticket as Mayor of the City. At that time the city 
contained a large number of lawless characters, to restrain 
whom devolved almost solely upon the mayor. Mayor Mark- 
ham was fully equal to the task, and during his administra- 
tion the laws were rigidly enforced, and a period of unusual 
quiet and order prevailed. During his term the City Hall 
was built and several measures of great public necessity were 
carried out. 

After the lapse of nearly a quarter of a century since the 
war. Colonel Markham had naught to regret for the course he 
pursued during this trying period of the nation's life, and 
considered one of the richest legacies he had to leave his chil- 
dren the fact that he was then true to the Government of the 
United States. 

In June, 1865, Colonel Markham returned to Atlanta and 
was one of the first of its refugee citizens to return. He im- 
mediately began to do his part in the rebuilding of the city, 
and by the erection of buildings, both private houses and 
stores, did much to restore confidence in its future. After his 
identifications with the city he erected a large number of build- 
ings, which include" some of the finest dwellings and business 
blocks in Atlanta. In 1875 he built the Markham House, 
which was one of the leading hotels of the city, and after the 
war his time and attention were almost solely devoted to the 
management of his extensive real estate interests. 

Colonel ]\rarkham contributed in many ways to the ad- 
vancement of Atlanta. Here all his interests were centered, 
and his money and talents were almost solely devoted to the 
development of the city. He was a man of good business 
judgment, careful and methodical in his habits, and proved 
his unbounded faith in the future growth and prosperity of 
the Capital City. He freely contributed to all benevolent ob- 
jects, while his private charities, always unostentatious, were 
bestowed in an unstinted way. His sturdy honesty and un- 
bending integrity in all business affairs were known to all 

History of Atlanta. 315 

who had business relationship with him. and no man in At- 
lanta possessed more unreservedl}^ the trust and confidence of 
the community. His life, viewed from all sides, was a suc- 
cess, and in all the relations of a father, husband and citizen 
alike honorable and worthy of imitation. 


The subject of this sketch was born in Hanover, Germany, 
October 26, 1840. At the age of six years he, with his parents, 
immigrated to America, landing at Xew Orleans in 1846, re- 
maining there only a short time, the family removed to Indi- 
ana, where his father died when he was eight years old. After 
the death of his father he worked on a farm. In 1858 at the 
age of eighteen he went to Cincinnati, where he apprenticed 
himself to a baker for the purpose of learning the trade, re- 
maining there for several years engaged at his trade. In 1864 
he came South, to Chattanooga, where he remained for a short 
time, removing then to Cleveland, Tenn., and in 1865 coming 
to Atlanta. Notwithstanding he found Atlanta in a mass of 
ruins, the result of General Sherman's visit, his keen judgment 
and business sagacity influenced him to settle here, as he be- 
lieved that the future had something good in store, both for 
Atlanta and himself. With that constant perseverance and 
close attention to business which has ever characterized him, 
he went to work with a vim and increasing energy, to build up 
the waste places, and lay the foundation for that handsome 
competency which has so richly crowned his efforts. He estab- 
lished soon after his arrival in. Atlanta a bakery and for years 
prosecuted it with continued and renewed success. He had not 
been a citizen of Atlanta long before he connected himself with 

316 Pioneer Citizens' 

Mechanic Fire company Xo. 2, and as long as the volunteer 
service was in vogue,, he took great interest in serving the city 
in the capacity of a fireman. He was the foreman of Xo. 2 
for several terms, and served it faithfully in other ways, as its 
president for two terms, and when the volunteer fire depart- 
ment was disbanded by reason of the introduction of the paid 
fire department, he was serving as Chief, and not until the 
paid fire department was introduced and adopted did he cease 
to take a deep interest in the company of his choice, "Xo. 2," 
and when it was disbanded and ever\i;hing connected with the 
company was about to be scattered, and probably destroyed, 
he preserved the book of minutes and other relics, and laid 
them carefully away; he still guards- them closely, as he at- 
taches much interest to them as a reminder of the* past, that 
while it forced him at times to do a great deal of hard work, 
and often lead him into danger, yet also afforded him" much 
pleasure, and as at times he reviews their time-stained pages it 
brings forcibly to his mind the recollection of that gallant, 
joyous crowd of associates, the majority of whom have joined 
that innumerable caravan beyond the stars, and have solved the 
hidden mystery. Mr. Ivarwisch is now rightly enjoying the 
fruits of his early labors, having a nice home, surrounded by 
a loving wife and dutiful, obedient sons, and while he is ac- 
tively engaged in business, it is not so much for the profit, as 
it is to introduce and direct his sons in the business world. 

History of Atlanta. 317 


Patrick Lynch was born in 1812 in County Meath, Ire- 
land. He was married in Ireland and came to America and 
to Atlanta in 1848. He was one of five brothers who located 
in Atlanta in the forties, Michael, John, Patrick, James and 
Peter ; the latter is the only one now living, he is still in busi- 
ness on Whitehall street. Patrick came to Atlanta with no 
money, and did any kind of work he could get to do. Early 
in the fifties he was probably the only contractor in rock 
work in the city, obtaining rock for his first contracts from 
the quarry on the Dunning property, just back of where the 
T. S. Lewis cracker factory now stands. Soon buildings be- 
gan going up so rapidly in that vicinity this quarry had to be 
abandoned. In about 1854 or 1855 he bought the quarry 
where the electric plant is now situated. The first building 
he put up was the Georgia machine shop in about 1850. Later 
he built the Georgia depot, basement of the church of the 
Immaculate Conception, and the basements of the building on 
Broad street between the bridge and Alabama street. After 
his death his son, Patrick, continued this line of work and all 
over the city can be seen the blue rock that came out of his 
quarry. At the time of his death, in 1871, he had accumu- 
lated property valued at over $100,000. 

In 1849 he bought a piece of property on Gilmer street and 
in 1852 built the house now known as ISTo. 26, which is one of 
the oldest houses now standing in Atlanta; when building 
this house he often worked on it himself on bright moonlight 
nights, after having worked some place else all day. 

His wife is living, aged 82, on some of the land bought 
in 1850, she has never been out of Atlanta but four days since 
coming here fifty-two years ago. She came in 1849, one year 
later than her husband. Patrick Lynch in 1861 weighed over 
three hundred pounds and could not take any active part in 
the war. But the United States government refused to pay 

318 , PioxEER Citizens' 

to his heirs a government claim, for which they had vouchers, 
because it was proven that he gave material aid to the Con- 
federate cause. His sons were in the army, but he and his 
family never refugeed. They went during the shelling to his 
plantation five miles out on the McDonough road, but came 
back to the city before Sherman took Atlanta. During the 
burning of Atlanta he saved many houses from being burned. 
With Father Thomas O'Eiely he went to the Federal authori- 
ties and had guards placed around the church of the city 
regardless of denomination or creed. With the aid of his 
negro slaves many fires were put out in his neighborhood. The 
Federals had started to burn the old Meade house on the cor- 
ner of Ivy and Gilmer streets, he with one of his men went in 
the house and he told the negroes to put the fire out, which 
they proceeded to do; a Federal soldier present told him he 
would shoot him if he put the fire out. The negroe replied: 
"No you won't shoot me while my old master is around." This 
so amused the Yankee that the house was saved. After the 
war manv of his slaves remained with him and worked for 
him until his death, and afterwards worked for his children. 
When many of the older men of the city were sent to prison in 
Macon for not entering to army, he went with Father O'Reily 
to Macon and brought them food and provisions and finally 
secured their release. He loved Atlanta and believed in her 

History of Atlanta. 319 


The subject of this sketch was born in England, but at an 
€arly age he, with his family, immigrated to New York, where 
he spent the most of his boyhood. At the age of seventeen he 
went to Charleston, S. C. to learn the calling of a pilot, but 
this he abandoned. In 1856 he entered the Georgia Railroad 
machine shops, for the purpose of learning to be a machinist. 
After serving three years, and getting his certificate as a mas- 
ter machinist, he was given an engine to run on the Atlanta 
& West Point Railroad, where he served them faithfully for a 
number of years, being known as one of the best engineers and 
skillful workmen on the line. When the Air Line Railroad 
was completed he transfered his labors as engineer to that road, 
where, after running for several years, he went to the Macon & 
Western Railroad, where he was running an engine, when in 
1876 he was appointed Chief Engineer of the Atlanta Water 
Works. Here he served most acceptably for several years, after 
which he was made Superintendent of the Water Works depart- 
ment. During the transfer of the works from South to Chat- 
tahoochee river, and the construction of the new and present 
system, he labored continually and faithfully, and the present 
efficient and complete engine house, with its powerful engines 
and 'other attachments, are due to his knowledge of machinery, 
and his constant and faithful supervision during its construc- 
tion. He was a charter member of No. 2 Mechanic Fire Com- 
pany, and contributed largely in establishing it on the firm 
basis it enjoyed in the old volunteer department; he partici- 
pated actively with it for five or six years, doing willingly and 
correctly every duty assigned him. He was a consistent mem- 
ber of the Central Presbyterian church, and every Sunday, 
when not detained by sickness or imperative business, he could 
be found in his accustomed seat. 

He married Miss Jacque Haynes in his early manhood, and 
that union has been blessed by six children, two boys and four 
gilrs, viz: Robert H., Harry, Emma, Katie, Teddy and Fan- 


History of Atlanta. 321 

nie, all of whom survive him, except Teddy, who married 
Charles Wurm, the celebrated mxisiciaii. In 1885 she was 
attacked by a severe case of scarlet fever, which, after a lin- 
gering illness, resulted in her death. 

William G. Richards was a loving husband, an indulgent 
father, an excellent citizen, and a true and devoted friend. 
In October, 1895, surrounded by his sorrowing family and 
friends, he peacefully laid down his earthly labors. He was 
followed by a large concourse of his fellow-citizens and co- 
laborers to his last resting place in Oakland cemetery. 


was born in England, August 18, 1818, and in 1829, at the 
age of eleven years, he. with his parents immigrated to Amer- 
ica, and settled in Philadelphia, his father dying four years 
later. After the death of his father he learned the machinists' 
trade, and for several years remained in Philadelphia working 
at his trade. 

In ISTovember, 1846 the subject of this sketch went to 
Augusta, Ga., intending to make it his future home, but in 
1847, the Georgia railroad having completed a fine and exten- 
sive machine shop at Atlanta, he was tendered the lucrative 
and impotrant position of Master Machinist, which he ac- 
cepted, and in 1847 came to Atlanta. His sterling worth and 
high efficiency were soon recognized, not only by the Georgia 
Eailroad, but by the citizens of Atlanta at large, and lie was 
therefore called upon to fill many positions of honor and trust, 
and none that he ever agreed to accept, but what ho filled it 
with zeal and fidelity. He took great interest in organizing 
and establishing volunteer fire departments, and whenever 

323 Pioneer Citizens' 

occasion demanded the services of the department, he was 
faithful and true in discharging the onerous duties of a fire- 
man, as the humhlest member. He was one of the charter 
members, as well as one of the first officers of Mechanic Fire 
Company- Xo. 2. Of the one hundred and more employees that 
he superintended, as Master Machinist, not one but really 
loved and respected him; while he was faithful to the trust 
reposed, and guarded closely the interest of the railroad, yet, 
while firm, he was kind and considerate, and while all knew 
that they had their duties to perform to a letter, they also 
knew that if any grievance arose, they would have a patient 
hearing and right examination by the boss, and all difficulties 
would be rightly adjusted. He was a faithful and consistent 
Crhistian, a regular attendant of the First Presb}i;erian 
church, and afterwards of the Central Presbyterian church, 
for years. During the bloody struggle between the states he 
was faithful and true to the interests of the South, and in 
more instances than one furthered an important movement 
by the skillful and judicious handling of the trains under his 
control. He invented and constructed a cannon during the 
war which did effective service, and often advanced very im- 
portant and beneficial ideas during the construction of the 
breast works and fortifications in and around Atlanta. In 
every position he was faithful and true, respected and loved 
while in life, and bemoaned and lamented in death. 

He died November 24, 1881, surrounded by a loving and 
devoted family, and followed to his last resting place in Oak- 
land cemetery by a large concourse of his fellow-citizens, 
some of whom had been associated with him in places of honor 
and trust, and knew of his sterling worth and high integrity, 
and that in every position he attempted to fill, he did it with 
honor and credit. 

History of Atlanta. 323 


was born in Cherry Valley, N. Y., April 12, 1823, and died in 
Iowa City, la., March 38, 1880. He settled in Atlanta 
shortly after the close of the civil war. 

Although a northerner by birth and education, and 
a federal soldier who had just, emerged from that 
dreadful conflict. Dr. White was so impressed with this sec- 
tion of the country that he determined to cast his lot for life 
here. Of a warm and generous nature, he saw the unpleasant 
situation of destroyed Atlanta and the prostrate people of the 
state. But he knew they were ripe for reconciliation. He 
began a series of letters to newspapers in the west, at first 
largly devoted to a careful and weU conceived review of the 
social conditions of Georgia, its wonderful resources and splen- 
did climate. Those articles attracted great attention and were 
widely copied. In 1876 a Wisconsin paper slandered the state 
by publishing an article headed, "The Fraud in Georgia." Dr. 
\\Tiite replied vigorously to the paper in question, dealing ex- 
tensively with the relation existing between the whites and 
blacks, convincing the people of that section of the falsity of 
the position assumed by the Wisconsin paper. The doctor's 
letter was copied by a great many papers, and produced a won- 
derful change of opinion in the people north. 

Later on Dr. White planned a series of excursions by west- 
ern people to Georgia. A large and representative delegation 
of Chicago, Cincinnati and Cleveland business men visited At- 
lanta where they were received and hospitably entertained by 
the citizens. They returned to their homes to spread the news 
of Atlanta's wonderful recuperative powers and her generous 
and wide-awake citizenship. Pressing Dr. "\t\Tiite to accept 
some token of their high appreciation of his self-abnegation 
and labor of love, this large party of business men of the great 
west, the doctor would accept nothing at their hands but a flag 
of our country. When the large and handsome flag arrived, 
the city was gathered to receive it, and to hear the Hon. Ben 

324 Pioneer Citizens^ 

Hill (Dr. White's personal friend) deliver the welcoming ad- 
dress. And thus practically began the era of reconciliation of 
Atlanta and the people north which continued with unabated 
vigor until the bloody chasm was forever bridged. In all of 
which Dr. White was one of the prime projectors. Xo man, 
it is safe to say, ever so endeared himself to a people as did 
he — and that, too, without hope of reward other than the con- 
sciousness of a duty well done. Up to his death, he was a fore- 
most figure in many of the great enterprises that have made 
Atlanta famous. Ever and always he was at the good work of 
helping better the condition of the city he had come to love 
more than any place on earth. And of him it can be truly 
said, he lived for his country and left behind him an imperish- 
able monument — which was the love and respect of the peo- 
ple whom he had so faithfully served voluntarily and without 


was born in Oglethorpe county, Ga., on the 17th of June, 1827. 
In 1830 his parents moved to Upson county, and settled on a 
farm near Thomaston, where the subject of this sketch worked 
iintil of age. His educational advantages were limited to 
about four years' schooling. In 1851 he was married, and in 
1857, with his family, he moved on a farm where he remained 
until he moved to Atlanta, in 1858. On his arrival he en- 
gaged as clerk in a hardware house until the outbreak of the 
civil war. In 1861 he formed a partnership with Robert 
Faulkner, and this firm gave valuable aid to the Confederate 
government in furnishing and forwarding supplies to the 
army. Mr. Eichardson received frequent letters from Gener- 
als J. B. Hood and Joseph E. Johnson, commending his loy- 
alty in the efficiency with which he promoted the cause of the 

History of Atlanta. 325 

South. After the desolation of war had interrupted Atlanta's 
development, he was among the first to become identified with 
the rebuilding of the city. During the destructive small pox 
epidemic of 1866, Mr. Richardson displayed a devotion and 
sacrifice that the people of the city will never forget. He was 
chairman of the relief committee of the municipal council and 
worked with untiring energy for the sufferers from that loath- 
some disease. The city treasury was depleted, and could ren- 
der no assistance, but this fact did not discourage him, for 
after gaining consent of the council, he applied to other cities 
for aid and succeeded in raising a large sum of money and 
many supplies for the distressed victims. Mr. James E. Wil- 
liams, mayor at this perilous time, said of his conduct : "Dur- 
ing the whole of Mr. Richardson's term of office no man could, 
in my opinion, have discharged his official duties more effi- 
cietly. I shall never forget his noble work during the small- 
pox epidemic of 1866. I have known him nearly forty years, 
and I do not know of any one who has done more both for the 
moral and physical welfare than he." Mr. Richardson, from 
his early youth w\as a member of the Methodist church, and 
labored in the field of Christianity with a true appreciation of 
the Gospel's teaching, and a love of morality and honor that 
bestowed on his endeavors the respect, confidence and admira- 
tion of the people. For many years he served as superintend- 
ant of Trinity Sunday school. He founded a Sunday school 
on Fair street, which grew into St. Paul's church, and gave 
years of ardent labor in that field. He also, with Dr. T. A. 
Kendall and Miss Laura A. Haygood, established Trinity ]\Iis- 
sion Sunday school, for which he labored as superintendent 
twelve years and up to his last illness. His especial delight was 
to help the poor and friendless, and no man in Atlanta was 
ever more beloved among that class of its population. A beau- 
siful evidence of their devotion to him was given at his funeral 
when hundreds of poor children marched past his coffin, each 
laying thereon a simple flower as token of their love for their 
dead superintendent. He was one of the most active factors 
in building up ]\Iethodism to its great strength in Atlanta. 
Mr. Richardson for many years was engaged in the stove and 
house furnishing business in Atlanta. In 1882 he accepted 

326 PioxEEK Citizens'' 

a position as General Southern Agent for Jones & Abbott, stove 
manufacturers of Zanesville, 0., and held it with marked suc- 
cess until his death. He left a widow and four children. The 
eldest of these is Mr. Frank H. Eichardson, editor of the At- 
lanta Journal ; the others are : Mrs. E. W. Eood, Atlanta ; 
Edward Eichardson, of the United States Pension Office, and 
E. W. Eichardson, an Atlanta journalist. Eev. Allen Eichard- 
son, father of the subject of this sketch, served in the war of 
1812, and moved from Virginia to Georgia in 1825. 


Born in Habersham county, Ga., February 26, 1829, where 
he spent his boyhood and early manhood tilling the soil, and 
securing such education as the country afforded, which was 
very limited. In 1860 he moved to Atlanta, and was soon en- 
gaged in newspaper work — for which he proved himself highly 
capable. He was editorial writer for several publications, 
editor-in-chief of the Southern Confederacy, a daily paper of 
considerable enterprise, published here in the early part of the 
Civil war. Being incapacitated for military service, by reason 
of a wound in the foot received while splitting rails on the 
farm, Mr. Smith, on retiring from the position of editor, re- 
turned to the country, where he remained a good portion of 
those eventful years. He is now and has been for many years a 
citizen of Atlanta, honored and respected by all who know him. 
Mr. Smith was martied to Miss Cenith L. Young, March 1, 

History of Atlanta. 327 


was born in Bloomfield, New Jersey, in 1826, and was a mem- 
ber of tbe Presbyterian church of East Bloomfield. He was 
a machinist by trade, and learned that trade in Newark, N. Jj 
He moved to Atlanta, Ga., in 1849 ; was master mechanic of 
the machine and motive power of the Western & Atlantic rail- 
road until 1857, and was in charge of the State's property 
when the shops were located near the Union Passenger Depot 
and Alabama street, moving and placing the machinery in the 
new shops and round houses in 1854. 

Pie was a good mechanic and a faithful officer to the State, 
at the same time commanded the respect and esteem of all men 
under his charge. 

Shortly after leaving the Western & Atlantic railroad he 
went to Montgomery, Ala., and had charge of the shops and 
motive power of the Montgomery & West Point railroad. His 
health failing he returned to Atlanta where he died June 24, 
1860. During his abode in Atlanta he was well known as a 
prominent and progressive citizen. He was President of the 
Volunteer Fire Company "No. 1." from 1853 to 1858, con- 
tributing liberally to maintain and repair the engine and pro- 
tect life and property in this city. He was a member of coun- 
cil in 1854 and 1855. 

328 PIO^^EER Citizens' 


The subject of this sketch was born in Laurens District, 
S. C, Jiine 13, 1807. In his early manhood he taught school 
in Alabama, and in 1834 moved to Villa Eica, Ga., and en- 
gaged in mining and merchandising, making a financial suc- 
cess. In tliis village he married ]\Iartha T. Burns— two 
children were born to them— Edmund Holland and Martha 
Louisa Holland. 

In 1848 he moved to Atlanta, his family following in 
1851, engaging in the brokerage business. (In 1856 he and 
General Alfred Austell bought the Bank of Fulton— E. W. 
Holland, President; A. Austell, Cashier; E. S. Holland, 
Teller. This bank did a prosperous business until the war 
between the states. Be it said to the credit of Holland and 
Austell that they redeemed every available note, dollar for 
dollar.) He remained in Atlanta until threatened by Sher- 
man's invading army, and then he refugeed to Angelena 
County, Texas ; from vrhere he moved to Burrville Parish, La., 
near Arcadia — this being the home of his daughter, Mrs. Lou 
Sartain ; and it was at this place, at the close of the war, that 
he liberated over fifty slaves. In the year 1865 he returned 
liorae (Atlanta). His first business venture was to help or- 
ganize the Atlanta Xational Bank, being one of its main 

He had no political aspirations, but was appointed coun- 
■cilinan at one time and acted in that capacity for a short 
period. After many successes and failures, joys and sorrows, 
he went the way of all the earth, at his son's residence, 904 
Decatur avenue, on the 11th day of December, 1885 — his wife 
having proceded him on the 23d of May, 1883. 

History of Atlanta. 329 


was born in a little village known by the name of Tarversville, 
in Twiggs County, Ga., on the 10th of June, 1833. His 
father was a distinguished minister of the Baptist church, 
whom many Georgians will remember as Eev. E. C. J. B. 
Thomas ; his mother was Miss Mary Ann Gilbert. His 
parents were born in Hancock County, Ga,, making him a 
true, blue-blooded Georgian. 

He came to Atlanta on the 5th of June, 1855, to take pas- 
toral charge of the Christian church. On account of the fee- 
ble financial strength of the church. Dr. Thomas was con- 
strained to supplement his salary by teaching a private school. 
Many of his pupils have been and are still among the promi- 
nent citizens of Atlanta. In 1857 he married Miss Addie 
Eeynolds. He held the charge of the Christian church until 
the outbreak of the civil war, when he went to the front as 
a chaplain of the Seventh regiment Georgia Volunteer In- 
fantry. He served with ability and distinction while with 
"The Bloody Seventh." In 1858 he received the degree of 
doctor of medicine from the Atlanta Medical College. When 
the civil war began he was professor in the Atlanta Female 
Institute. Among the many ladies who were his pupils in 
the institute may be named Mrs. General Clement A. Evans, 
Mrs. Lou Cozart Haralson, Miss Tid Mayson and many 
others. Dr. Thomas has held many positions of honor, as 
University Professor, President of College, etc. His ability 
as a scholar and educator has been recognized by different 
institutions in conferring on him the degrees of A. M., M. D., 
Ph. D., L. L. D. Dr. Thomas is still living, his home being 
in West End (Atlanta), and he still is recognized as one of 
Atlanta's most scholarly sons, and one of the leading minis- 
ters of his church in the country. He is chaplain of the 
Pioneer Citizens' Society of Atlanta. 

330 Pioneer Citizens' 


was born Xovember 2, 1816, in Jackson County, Ga., of 
Scotch-Irish lineage. His father was John McConnell, and 
his mother was a Townsend, of Hancock County, Ga. He 
was brought up in the Presbyterian church, but is now a mem- 
ber of the Methodist. 

He was one of eight brothers, the least of them being six 
feet tall and weighing one hundred and seventy-five pounds. 
Wm. McConnell was a mill wright and bridge builder by 
trade, having built a nimiber of mills and bridges in this 
state. He moved from Cobb County to Atlanta in 1849, and 
with J. L. Dunning, built the large steam flouring mill for 
Richard Peters. He was elected Marshal of Atlanta in 1851. 
In 1858 he built the long Howe Truss wooden bridge on 
Broad street; this was replaced by the present iron bridge. 

In 1861 he went with the first Confederate company from 
Atlanta to Pensacola. Eeturning to Atlanta, he organized 
a company of which he was elected captain, and went to Mo- 
bile, from there to Fort Pillow, winding up in Atlanta at the 
end of the war, where he now lives. His wife was a Bell, her 
mother being a Hampton of South Carolina stock. They 
had ten children, seven daughters and three sons, the eldest, 
Adelia E. McConnell, now being Mrs. Anthony Murphy of 
this county. 

History of Atlanta. 331 


Rev. Henry Carr Hornady, D. D., was boru in Jones Coun- 
ty, Ga., February 22, 1822, and died in Montezuma, Ga., 
March 30, 1893, in the 78d year of his age. His only educa- 
tion was obtained in the common schools of his native county ; 
but he was largely indebted for teaching and guidance to Mr. 
Zachariah Harmon and Mr. David Dumas, two excellent 
school teachers in an adjoining county. Subsequently he be- 
came a pupil of Professor Whaley, one of the most prominent 
educators of that section, whose teaching inspired him with 
yet intenser desires for knowledge. Passionately fond of 
reading, his mind was stored even in early youth with the his- 
torical facts of the past. Before he professed religion he was 
a steady and deeply interested Bible student, and acquainted 
himself with the history and doctrines of the inspired volume. 

In 1843. at the age of twenty-one, he was converted, and 
was received into the Baptist church at I^ayneville, Ga., by 
the Rev. A. T. Holmes. The following year Dr. Hornady was 
married to Miss Emily Cherry, a beautiful and attractive 
young lady. 

Feeling himself called to proclaim the Gospel, Dr. Horna- 
dy applied himself at once to preparation for the solemn 
duties of his life-work, and was ordained at Harmony church, 
Dooly County, Ga., in December, 1848, and for the remainder 
of his life was a consecrated and eloquent ambassador of the 
living God. 

Accepting a call to the pastorate of the Baptist church at 
Americus, Ga., he remained there eight years. Leaving 
Americus, he came to Atlanta in 1858, and entered upon the 
pastorate of the First Baptist church, continuing as such for 
about seven years, and may justly be credited with laying the 
foundation for. so far as human agency is concerned, and mak- 
ing possible, its present prosperity and commanding influ- 

332 Pioneer Citizens' 

From Atlanta Dr. Hornady went to LaGrange, Ga., about 
1863, where he remained for three years, doing as usual, a 
great work for the Master. Leaving there he went to Macon, 
Ga., to accejDt the general agency of Mercer University, a posi- 
tion he did not retain long, as he preferred being pastor of a 
church. Accepting a call from the Baptist church at Senoia, 
Dr. Hornady went to that town. 

In the fall of 1879 Dr. Hornady returned to Atlanta in 
response to a call from the Third Baptist church, whose pul- 
pit he occupied for many years with great acceptibility, and in 
the highest degree beneficially to the church and the commu- 

In addition to being wonderfully instrumental in building 
up every church he was connected with, in numbers, fervency 
and spiritually, Dr. Hornady was extraordinarily successful in 
improving and building houses of worship — notably in Ameri- 
cus and Atlanta. The present house of worship of the First 
Baptist church, in Atlanta, built under extremely embarrass- 
ing circumstances, and when built was regarded as a fine 
specimen and marked advance, here, in church architecture, is 
largely due to his perservering energy and zeal; the same is 
true of the Third Baptist and other houses of worship in At- 

In 1852 Dr. Hornady had the misfortune to lose his first 
wife. Two years later he married Miss A. M. Smith, who, 
with several children, survive him. A short time before he 
died Dr. Hornady had the supreme gratification of aiding in 
the ordination of one of his sons to the ministry. 

Dr. Hornady was a great reader, and a man of extensive 
and varied information. Xo man could have been more use- 
ful in his chosen sphere — none in his denomination better 
known or more highlv esteemed. He was kindhearted and 
tender in the extreme, extraordinarily sympathetic, and never 
happier than when doing good to those around him, regard- 
less of social status or denominational fraternization. Im- 
mediately after the war he went to Kentuclcv where he raised 
a large quantity of provisions for the destitute here and 
superintended their proper distribution. Though intense in 

History of Atlanta. 333 

his convictions and profoundly devotional in his pastorial 
ministrations, he was no ascetic; but possessed a genial and 
jovial disposition, which made him a welcome member and 
lovable companion. After a life spent in doing good, and 
zealous labor in the Master's vineyard, he was called to receive 
that crown promised the faithful workers and bearers of the 


The subject of this sketch was born October 18, 1826, in 
Oneida county, iST. Y. Here he spent his boyhood days, after- 
wards going to Michigan and there finishing his limited edu- 
cation. In 1850 he came South, arriving in Atlanta in July. 
His first employment was that of route agent on the Westren 
& Atlantic railroad. In 1852 he was appointed special agent 
of the postoffice department. Later on he was employed in 
the Southern Express Company's office. In 1859 Mr. Fowler 
entered the mercantile business — the firm being Carrol & 
Fowler. At the outbreak of the war between the states the 
firm was dissolved, and Mr. Fowler entered the firm of Foster, 
Queen & Co. This firm soon dissolved and this subject moved 
out of town. Later he returned and was an active member 
of the "Fire Brigade" until the occupation of the town by the 
Federals, when he removed with his family to Dawson, Ga. 
After the surrender he returned to Atlanta, where he has re- 
sided ever since. In 1866 he. in connection with Jno. E. Wal- 
lace, entered the real estate business, in which they were very 
successful. Mr. Folwer is one of the oldest real estate dealers 
in the city. He was in 1864 a member of the city council, but 
has never been an office seeker. He was married in 1856 to 
Miss Florida McKeen, of Athens, Ga. 


History of Atlanta. 335 


When but nine years of age the subject of this sketch came 
to Georgia with his father's family. They located in Atlanta 
when it was a straggling village of about 1,200 inhabitants. 
His father early laid the foundation for the boy's future 
prosperity and happiness by inculcating in the lad's mind the 
duty and necessity of application to some compensating labor. 
Appreciating this the boy determined to fortify himself by 
learning a trade which would serve him in case of adverse 
fortune. He entered the book-bindery of William Kay, as 
an apprentice, where he bound himself to stay a number of 
years, sufficient to prove himself a master of the profession. 
This contract he faithfully obeyed, and this fact, together 
with his energ}-, honesty of purpose and industry, was the 
forerunner of a life of devotion to the high ideal of every 
honorable man. Atlanta was at this time beginning to assume 
considerable growi;h, and he abandoned his trade to enter the 
business of contracting for stone masonry, and other material 
improvements, from which he soon realized substantial profits. 
He had scarcely arrived at manhood when he engaged to con- 
struct all the stone work on the line of the Savannah, Griffin 
and jSTorth Alabama Eailway, which he carried out to the 
satisfaction of the company. When the war between the 
States came on, Mr. Eice joined the Third Eegiment of the 
State Troops and was chosen lieutent of Company B. At the 
termination of his service he was appointed special agent of 
the Atlanta and West Point Eailway, which position he held 
with diligence and success. Wlien the war ended and Atlanta 
was in ruins, he, with praiseworthy efforts, aided in rebuild- 
ing and rehabilitating the stricken city. One of the enter- 
prises which he wisely considered a great factor in the up- 
building of the city was the Air Line Eailway (now the South- 
ern). He gave freely of his time and influence to this road 
before its completion, and as an earnest of his faith in it, 
purchased large bodies of land along the surveyed route, giv- 

336 Pioneer Citizens' 

ing the right-of-way through his purchases. When the road 
was finished he went into the milling and lumber business on 
an extensive scale, and for eighteen years prosecuted it with 
great success, furnishing a great deal of lumber used in re- 
building Atlanta. Another iron artery destined to play a 
great part in the advancement of the city was the Georgia 
Western Eailway, designed to connect Atlanta with the great 
coal fields of Alabama, had been chartered. After manv vears 
of defeat and delay in the project, the charter fell into the 
hands of a s}Tidicate which was inimical to its completion, 
and Mr. Eice, recognizing the danger, determined to rescue 
the proposed road. With others, he prepared a charter for a 
road running from Atlanta to Alabama on pretty much the 
same lines and having equally as good privileges granted the 
Georgia Western. The syndicate, seeing that the road would 
be built, sold their franchise and the Georgia Pacific was com- 
pleted under the new grant. His entry into the political arena 
was largely due to his having devoted many years of his life 
to the advancement of his friends. He was frequently chosen 
delegate to political conventions to nominate candidates for 
city, county and federal offices. The time came when the 
people, convinced of his political sagacity and foresight, re- 
garded his services of more worth to the community; and in 
1871 he was elected a councilman for the city. In the years 
1873, '75 and '77 he was re-elected to the same office. His 
majorities were always large. 

]\Ir. Rice assisted in establishing the splendid system of 
public schools, which has proved such a blessing to the chil- 
dren of Atlanta. The first appropriation of $100,000 to this 
grand educational conception received his favor and vote. No 
one has been more in sympathy with the policy of general 
education, nor has any one proved a more earnest advocate of 
the most liberal system of free schools that could be supported 
by the people. He has uniformly given his influence to At- 
lanta's educational system, so adjusted as to distribute its 
benefits equitably to the children of the several wards without 
respect to race or color. As councilman he has always been 
placed on the most important committees, such as finance, 
tax, public property and others, involving the greatest amount 

History of Atlanta. 337 

of practical work in behalf of the material interests of the 
city. He has invariably favored the judicious application of 
available funds to the solid improvements, embracing streets, 
sewerage, etc., and has always given his aid to the organiza- 
tion of an efficient fire department and an effective police 
force. Mr. Eice was one of the organizers of Atlanta's board 
of health, and was a member of the board continuously for 
nine years. Wlien the question of locating the State Capitol 
was submitted to the people of Georgia, Mr. Rice, as a member 
of the citizens' committee, labored most zealously in behalf of 
Atlanta, and deserves, with others of that committee, credit for 
the result that followed, namely: the selection of Atlanta as 
the capital of the State. In the year 1869 he was elected to 
the House of Representatives from Fulton county, defeating 
his opponent by a very large majority, and leading all other 
candidates in the race by several hundred votes. He was re- 
garded as one of the most practical members of the house, and 
pursued a course that gave him the highest standing with the 
members of that body. He was elected to succeed himself in 
1882, the term of service being two years. During his member- 
ship of the House of Representatives, he was placed upon 
many standing committees, among which may be mentioned 
the committees on finance, corporations, railroads, public prop- 
erty and military affairs. He was also appointed as a member 
of several special committees of importance, such as the com- 
mittee to draft and report a general railroad law and to redis- 
trict the State. During the session of 1880 a bill was intro- 
duced by a member of the House to provide for the building 
of a new Capitol for the State of Georgia in Atlanta. This 
measure was defeated, notwithstanding the ability with which 
it was advocated. Its defeat had the effect to place the loca- 
tion of the capital again in a condition of uncertainty, many 
regarding the action of the House as an expression of public 
sentiment, indicating danger to Atlanta. In 1882 Mr. Rice 
impressed with the very great importance of finally settling 
the question in favor of Atlanta, resolved to devote all of his 
influence to the passage of a bill providing for the building of 
a State Capitol which would satisfy the people and prove equal 
to the demands of the commonwealth. Actuated with this 

338 Pioneer Citizens'" 

purpose he went into the council studying the question ear- 
nestly and critically. He then prepared a bill which com- 
manded the approval of his judgment and introduced it into 
the House of Eepresentatives on November 3, 1882. For this 
measure he labored day and night until it received the execu- 
tiv sanction on September 8, 1883. He was untiring in the 
advocacy of this bill, and watched every step of its progress 
with sleepless vigilance. Although unaided in the prepara- 
tion of the bill, in the work of passing it to a law, it became 
necessary to command the support of each branch of the 
General Assembly, and for this object he labored constantly. 
He followed the measure to the finance committee of the 
House, to which it was referred, urging a favorable report 
with all the zeal and abilit}' possible, and having gained his 
point there, followed it back to the House, where its passage 
was secured by his able advocacy. Still inspired by his resolve 
to make this bill a law, he pursued it into the Senate, and 
having no voice or vote in that body he used every influence in 
his power with the finance committee and with individual 
senators to insure its success. In the interims of legislative 
sessions he called upon members of the House and Senate in 
detail, urging the importance of settling the capitol question 
and passing the bill. If any legislator ever deserved credit 
for a legislative enactment, Mr. Rice deserves the gratitude 
of the people and the State at large for his achievement in 
this case. It was built at smaller cost than any similar build- 
ing on this continent and without any extra appropriation. 
Mr. Rice also introduced and conducted to a successful 
issue the bill by which that great corporation, the East Ten- 
nessee, Virginia and Georgia Railroad (now the Southern) 
was chartered. The importance of this road and its vast ben- 
efits to Atlanta and the State cannot be overestimated. He 
was a member of the special committee that framed and re- 
ported to the House the present railroad law of Georgia, and 
gave his influence to its enactment. During both of his terms 
of service in the House of Representatives he answered to 
every roll-call, and was present at every meeting of the com- 
mittees of which he was a member. All who were associated 
with him then will bear testimony to his constant industry, 

History of Atlanta, 339 

his keen perception of every measure of legislation, and his 
watchfulness of everything which directly or indirectly af- 
fected the interests of his constituents or the people of the 
State at large. On questions of finance, taxation, education 
and internal improvements his opinions were always sought^ 
for his judgment was considered an unerring guide. As a 
consequence his views were generally impressed on the re- 
ports of the committees of which he was a member. In 1882 
he was one of a committee of the General Assembly appointed 
to visit and report upon the technological schools of the 
North. For some time he had considered the establishment 
of such a school for Georgia. When the committee returned, 
his zeal in behalf of this measure was greatly increased. The 
visit referred to was the beginning of a movement by the Leg- 
islature which resulted in the establishment of a technological 
school in Atlanta for the State. 

October 3, 1888, Mr. Rice was elected to the State Senate 
from the Thirty-fifth Senatorial District, composed of the 
counties of Cobb, Clayton and Fulton, and served in the ca- 
pacity of senator during the years 1888 and 1889. In the 
campaign he had a severe contest. He defeated his opponent 
in the primary election by a majority of more than 500 votes. 
Although placed before the people as the Democratic standard- 
bearer of the district, he was opposed by an independent can- 
didate who used every effort in his power to secure his own 
success. The election of Mr. Eice by a majority of about 1,500 
votes was the result. Entering upon his senatorial duties he 
was appointed as chairman of the committees on corporations 
and public property, and as a member of the committees of 
finance, railroads and auditing. Many of the bills which were 
referred to that committee were in confiict with the constitu- 
tion of the State. None of these escaped the critical observa- 
tion of the chairman, but were reported back to the Senate 
with a clear expression of his views, which in every instance 
were approved and confirmed by that body. He was a member 
of the special committee that framed the bill providing for the 
lease of the Western and Atlantic Railroad and aided in its 
passage through the Senate. This was a measure of im- 
portance to the people of Georgia, resulting in the lease of 

340 Pioneer Citizens' 


that road for a term of twenty years at an annual rental of 

In 1891 Mr. Eice was elected an alderman of the City of 
Atlanta and served as such for three years. During this pe- 
riod he rendered most efficient and beneficial service to the 
city. As chairman of the finance and tax committees he was 
untiring in his efforts to advance the financial interests of 
Atlanta. His reports as chairman of the committees men- 
tioned, submitted in 1893, show a perfect familiarity with the 
city's resources. A fund of information is contained in each 
of these reports, which could have been obtained only after a 
degree of investigation which no other person but Mr. Rice 
was likely to perform. These reports are tabulated and com- 
parative, showing the property, resources, etc., of the city, 
not only for the year of the reports, but of previous years, so 
that at a glance the true financial status of Atlanta could be 
known. It is a most creditable fact that under his adminis- 
tration as chairman of the finance committee all the current 
expenses of the city in 1891 were paid from her income, leav- 
ing a clear surplus of $16,300. The current expenses of the 
year were also paid from the city's income, leaving at the end 
of the year a surplus of $6,000. During his aldermanic term 
as chairman of the tax committee, large sums were added to 
the annual receipts of the city treasury. The splendid bridge 
Avhich spans the railroad on Forsyth street is mainly due to 
the influence of Mr. Rice. As one of the committee to whom 
the execution of the plan was confided, he worked with his 
nsual zeal and energy until its completion and delivery to the 
authorities of Atlanta. Mr. Rice was a member of the board 
of directors of the Cotton States and International Expo- 
sition, and also a member of the executive committee. Xo 
one connected officially with this grand enterprise was more 
thoroughly determined to make it a grand success, and no one 
did more to insure that result. 

The parents of Mr. Rice were educated, intelligent and 
moral. They took special care to impress him with correct 
rules of life. Yielding cheerfully to their advice and instruc- 
tion, he has pursued a moral, honorable and charitable career. 
About 1885 he became a member of the First Metbodist 

History of Atlanta. 341 

Church of Atlanta, and very soon thereafter was chosen as 
one of the stewards of that church. He often expresses regret 
that lie deferred this step so long, but since his membership 
has been a zealous worker in the cause of Christianit}'. 

By frequent and judicious investments and close atten- 
tion to business he has become one of the most wealthy men 
of Atlanta. It is a remarkable fact that although he has 
made a great many sales of real estate in and around Atlanta, 
there has never followed therefrom a single controversy. This 
indicates his customary care in the examination of titles and 
an integrity that avoids everything that savors of unfairness. 
He has certainly demonstrated that a man may become rich 
while scrupulously preserving his honor. For many years he 
has been a close student. He has one of the best selected libra- 
ries in Atlanta. Every volume is a treasure, while the whole 
comprises all that a gentleman may need to fit him for use- 
fulness in social, business or political life, or to gratify his 
taste for history, poetry and romance. He is devoted to his 
library and has gained therefrom a fund of varied and useful 
information, constituting him one of the best posted men in 
Georgia. Naturally modest, he makes no display of knowl- 
edge which is not necessary for practical purposes, though 
versed in all matters pertaining to the past or present. Mr. 
Eice has been an extensive traveler, and has learned much by 
this means. A close observer and strong thinker, he has gath- 
ered great information in passing from place to place and 
from country to country. 

It is no exaggeration to say, in a quaint and popular 
phrase, that he is the "best all round man" in Georgia. From 
the beggar on the streets to the president in his mansion he is 
the same — always genial and cordial, and ready to speak or act 
as becomes an intelligent, noble man. Promotion makes no 
change in his demeanor, and whether he meets the rich or 
the poor, he wears the same kindly expression, willing to lis- 
ten to the wants of all without discrimination. As council- 
man, alderman, representative or senator, he could be ap- 
proached by all of his constituents with perfect freedom and 
with full confidence that he would hear and consider their 
wishes carefully and practically. An impartial review of his 


History of Atlanta. 343 

record will reveal him as an honorable, good and eminently 
useful man, who has done his utmost to serve his city, county 
and State, and advance the welfare of each. Those who know 
him best have unlimited confidence in his integrity and judg- 
ment, and many consult him on all questions affecting their 


was born in Greenville district, South Carolina, on the 29th 
of September, 1777. His ancestors w^ere Scotch-Irish, coming 
from the old country and settled in Pennsylvania; Dillsboro 
and Dillston being named for them. A colony branched off 
and located in South Carolina. In his early manhood he 
moved to Decatur, Ga., soon after the Indians left there; 
here he practiced medicine for a long while. His skill as a 
physician gained for him a very extensive practice, and his 
name was a household word in every family in that section of 
Georgia. Just as he had arisen to the highest degree of 
fame in his profession, he was seized with an attack of in- 
flammatory rheumatism, on which account he was forced to 
give up his profession and devote himself to a less exposed 
and less arduous occupation. Accordingly he became pro- 
prietor of the hotel at Decatur, to which village the Georgia 
Eailroad was projected. He was largely instrumental in se- 
curing the right-of-way for the Georgia Eailroad from De- 
catur to Marthasville. After the completion of the railroad 
Dr. Thompson, at the request of the officers of the railroad, 
removed to this city and became proprietor of the new hotel 
which they had built, on the ground where the Kimball House 
now stands. It was a two-story structure of brick and sur- 
rounded by ample grounds, adorned w4th shade trees. A few 
years later he purchased the hotel and grounds, together with 
a farm of two hundred acres, which covered the space from 

344 Pioneer Citizens'" 

Whitehall street on one side and Capitol avenue on the other, 
and from Fair street to Georgia avenue, upon which many 
handsome residences and imposing business structures now 
stand. During his hotel career he entertained magnificently, 
and his fame as a host extended into many States. He was 
jovial and good humored, and the weary traveler was ever 
eager to reach Atlanta Hotel, where he would be refreshed and 
entertained in the most delightful manner. It was his pleas- 
ure always to care for the clergy, no matter of what denomi- 
nation. Dr. Thompson continued in business here until dur- 
ing the war, when his hotel was destroyed by Sherman's forces. 
After the destruction of his hotel Dr. Thompson removed to 
his wife's plantation in Houston county, where he resided 
until the close of the war, when he returned to Atlanta, to 
find much of his property in ruins. In addition to these mis- 
fortunes he found himself confronted by security debts 
amounting to nearly sixty thousand dollars, every dollar of 
which he soon paid in gold. As illustrative of the character 
of this good man for honesty and integrity, there was one se- 
curity debt for ten thousand dollars, and while Confederate 
money was at par, or nearly so, he had that amount in bank; 
friends urged him to settle the claim with it, but he said, "No, 
the debt was made when we had gold currency," so the Con- 
federate money was lost, and the gold used in payment. Even 
by these heavy pecuniary misfortunes he was not brought to 
poverty. His great business sagacity and frugal manner of 
living had enabled him to amass quite a fortune, and at the 
close of the war, after all obligations had been discharged, he 
found himself possessed of many valuable building lots in the 
very heart of the city. Dr. Thompson was married three 
times. His first wife was Mary Ann Tomlinson, a young 
widow of David Young, a prominent young lawyer of Deca- 
tur; a wife of only seventeen months, she was left a widow, 
two months after her son David was born. At the close of her 
year of widowhood, her friend and former admirer, Joseph 
Thompson, prevailed upon her to allow him to become her 
helpmate. A small party of friends, including the Presby- 
terian clergyman, were invited to tea by Mrs. Young. During 
the course of the evening the marriage ceremony was per- 

History of Atlanta. 345 

formed. The children by this marriage were Mary Jane (now 
Mrs. Richard Peters), James William, who died young; Sarah 
Aveline, who also died in infancy; George Harvey (the first 
captain of the Gate City Guard, 1860-1863, and was made 
lieutenant-colonel before his death, in 1864; Julia Caroline, 
wife of William P. Orme, who was for twenty-seven years 
treasurer of the Atlanta and West Point Railroad; Joseph 
Thompson, who is in business in the city; Joan, who married 
Thomas M. Clarke, and J. Edgar, also of Atlanta, who died 
in infancy. Mrs. Thompson died at the birth of her last 
child, April 23, 1849. 

In 1851 Dr. Thompson married Mrs. Jane A. Reeder, of 
Columbia, S. C. She was the mother of Mrs. W. L. Calhoun, 
of this city. She died in 1854. In June, 1858, Dr. Thomp- 
son married Mrs. E. H. Thompson, widow of Dr. Thompson, 
of Macon, Ga. She was the mother of Lizzie Thompson, now 
Mrs. R. H. Elliott, of Birmingham, Ala. 

Dr. Thompson was, up to his death, president of the At- 
lanta Medical College, and signed many diplomas for young 
men in the South. He was a life-long Presbyterian, and 
one of the charter members to organize the First Church on 
Marietta street, and afterwards was a most generous contrib- 
utor to the new Central Presbyterian Church, and was the 
first person to be buried from that church. He was kind and 
good to all men, and died lamented by the whole community, 
on August 23, 1885, in the eighty-eighth year of his age. 

346 PioxEER Citizens' 


^yas born December 6, 1815, in Beechtheim, Germany, and 
died April 24, 1890, in Atlanta, Ga., in the 75th year of his 
age. During his boyhood and youth Mr. Mayer received the 
best education at his home that the small towns and the times 
afforded. He, however, studied dentistry in early manhood, 
which he practiced for several years with marked success. In 
1839 he came to America and settled in Washington, Wilkes 
County, where he continued the practice of his profession. 
Finding this too confining for his active temperament Mr. 
Mayer abandoned it and engaged in merchandising. After 
eight years of prosperous mercantile life, he, in 1847, re- 
turned to his old home in Germany, where, July 28, 1847, he 
married Miss Elise Weilman. Shortly after this happy event 
Mr. Mayer returned to Georgia, and stopped awhile in Sparta, 
Hancock County; but in August, 1848, came to Atlanta, 
where, in company with Mr. Jacob Haas, Sr.. he conducted a 
profitable business until the war. Accepting a position on 
the staff of Governor Brown, he served until the close of the 
unhappy conflict. 

Soon afterwards he went to Xew York; but, dissatisfied, 
and longing for his Georgia home and associates, he returned 
to Atlanta in April, 1869, and forming a partnership with 
Mr. Levi Cohen established a wholesale liquor house. In 
1873 Mr. Cohen retired from the firm, and Mr. Mayer ad- 
mitted his oldest son into partnership with him — continuing 
the business in Atlanta until 1883, when the house was re- 
moved to Cincinnati. Ohio. 

Mr. Mayer was an enthusiastic friend and supporter of our 
system of public schools — was an original member of the 
Board of Education, and was Vice President of it until within 
a few years of his death : but continued to serve as treasurer 
until that event. Before "Mr. Maver died he gave a valuable 
eligibly located lot to the city for school purposes. Mr. 

History of Atlanta. 347 

Mayer was also an ardent Mason, filled many important and 
responsible offices, and was held in the highest esteem by that 
time-honored fraternity. At the time of his death i\Ir. Mayer 
was Vice President of the Hebrew congregation in this city; 
Vice President of the Capital City Bank and Vice President 
of the Benevolent Home. 

Few men had a nobler nature, a grander manhood, a 
larger or a warmer heart, or was moved by more generous im- 
pulses than that of David Mayer. He was a fast friend and 
an earnest and whole-souled worker in all charitable institu- 
tions and movements, and his heart beat and his purse opened 
responsively to every call of deserving charity. 


The subject of this sketch, William Allen Fuller, was born 
in Henry County, Ga., April 15, 1836. and was raised a farm- 
er's boy on his father's plantation, and remained there until he 
was eighteen years old, receiving a liberal education. Cap- 
tain Fuller is descended from Eevolutionary heroes, both on 
the paternal and maternal side ; his grandfather on his father's 
side was John Fuller, who served immediately under General 
Washington, and was at the defeat of Braddock, and was un- 
der Gates at the battle of Camden when DeKalb was killed ; on 
his mother's side, was Jesse Allen, a close relative of Ethan 
Allen, of Vermont, known in history as the "Green ]\Iountain 
Boy." In 1855, at the age of eighteen, he came to Atlanta 
and secured a position with the Western & Atlantic railroad 
(known as the State Eoad), where, after serving in a minor 
way for two years, he was promoted to the important and re- 
sponsible position of passenger conductor, which he filled with 






^> ■.! 




History of Atlanta. 349 

skill and courtesy for twenty-five years. He was known from 
one end of the road to the other by the people li\dng along its 
line, and they considered it a privilege to ride on his train, as 
he was always so thoughtful and kind. When it was settled 
that there would be war between the states, Captain Fuller 
fully imbued with that patriotism and love of native land, 
which was characteristic with all young Southerners in 1861, 
at once formed a company and was made its captain. Gover- 
nor Brown, knowing the valuable services which Captain Ful- 
ler had rendered the Western & Atlantic railroad (owned by 
the State, and under the control of the Governor), believed 
that he could be of more service to the Confederacy in that 
capacity than in the field, at once had him detailed, and there- 
fore had him remain on the road. It was while serving aa 
conductor during the war that he became engaged in one of 
the most exciting and thrilling events of those terrible times. 
It was the chase and capture of Andrews, a Federal spy, who, 
with a gang of men, undertook to burn and destroy all the 
bridges on the Western & Atlantic railroad between Atlanta 
and Chattanooga. It is known in history as the Andrews 
Eaid, or the Bridge Burners. In Alex. H. Stephens' History 
of the United States, page 797 is found the following allusion 
to the raid: 

"Some of the most daring and romantic acts of the war 
were by the cavalry service on both sides. On the Confed- 
erate side may be mentioned Stewart's, Forest's, Wheeler's, 
Morgan's and Mosby's. The capture of the bridge burners on 
the Western & Atlantic railroad, in Georgia, by Captain Wm. 
A. Fuller (holding no position but a railroad conductor), was 
one of the most wonderful achievements in the annals of war." 

He had his captain's commission renewed three times, and 
in 1864, when the Federals had gained nearly full control of 
the Western & Atlantic railroad, Captain Fuller, by order of 
the Governor organized the white railroad force into a com- 
pany, which took chargee of the entire rolling stock and other 
property belonging to the road, and removed them to places of 
safety, the archives of the, state were later entrusted to his com- 
pany's care and protection, and for tlie remainder of the war 
removed them from place to place under the direction of the 

350 Pioneer Citizens' 

Governor, and thereby kept them secure from being captured 
by the Federals. When hostilities ceased this command re- 
turned them intact to their former and proper place in At- , 
lanta, thus by this small command thousands of dollars 
worth of property was saved to the State, where otherwise it 
would have, been ruthlessly destroyed. In 1865 he was made 
Marshal of Atlanta (which at that time included the duties of 
Chief of Police), and filled that arduous and responsible posi- 
tion with that same skill and fidelity which has ever charac- 
terized him. It was immediately after the war, and every- 
thing was disrupted ; law and order had not 3'et been restored,, 
making it a most difficult and dangerous position to fill. 
During the Bullock administration and for two years he served 
the Macon & Western railroad as General Freight and Passen- 
ger Agent, after which he returned to the Western & Atlantic 
railroad, his first love, where he remained in the capacity of a 
passenger conductor until he voluntarily retired. 

After leaving the railroad he engaged in the mercantile 
business, and for six years conducted it with that success- 
which has ever followed him. Captain Fuller was the first 
that suggested the formation of a Pioneer Citizens Society ; it 
was through his efforts and encouragement that it was made 
possible; and ever since its inauguration he has aided and 
assisted it, taking great interest in its meetings, and in Visit- 
ing and associating with its members. He has been its his-« 
torian since its beginning, and has collected the larger portion 
of the data which has made the history of the early days of At- 
lanta a reality. In every position that the Captain has been 
placed in he has filled it with judgment and discretion, and 
has always given entire satisfaction to his superiors. He is 
now, December 1, 1900, engaged in the real estate business, 
buying and selling real estate, as well as improving vacant 
property, thus still contributing to the up-buildiug of the 
city, which he has so largely aided in the past, yet possessed 
of excellent health, and mixing and mingling actively each 
day with the people who venerate and respect him for his pres- 
ent as well as past services. 


353 Pioneer Citizens' 


was born in Llalandon, near Swansea, South Wales in 1833. 
His parents were English. In 1852 Mr. Withers came to 
America to join his parents, who had preceded him. They 
lived a short while in Wilkesbarre, Pa., and from there they 
came to Savannah in company with the Nobles, now of Ala- 
bama, for the purpose of starting the first foundry in Rome, 
Ga. Mr. Withers caught the first ladle of iron in that estab- 
lishment. In 1853 the family came to Atlanta, his father be- 
ing the foreman in Winship's foundry. The subject of this 
sketch was employed seven years in those works. In 1862, in 
company with Mr. Solomon, he started a foundry for the pur- 
pose of making buttons, spurs, etc., for the Confederate gov- 
ernment. Later the business was sold to Hendrix & Taylor. 
Mr. Withers then moved to Bartow county to be convenient to 
the raw material, continuing with the government. After the 
close of the war in 1865, he returned to Atlanta, where he has 
resided ever since. His first work was superintending the 
building of the Hogue Mills foundry, the first built after the 
war. This being completed, he determined to start for him- 
self. It was an humble beginning, but his indomitable will 
stood him well in hand. With only eight dollars capital, he 
began his life work. Some time afterwards the foundry was 
sold to Hoyt & Harlton. Three different times afterwards he 
established a business which was just beginning to prosper 
when having taken in partners they forced his business into 
bankruptcy. After this failure Mr. Withers received the con- 
tract from the Southern Railway for building a large shop on 
Windsor street, which burned to the ground just after being 

Notwithstanding these reverses of fortune, although his 
head was silvered with gray, he still possessed energy, a determ- 
ined will and faith in his Maker, which has ever cheered and 
sustained him. A large brick foundry was soon erected and 
grew and prospered. While it is a monument to him, it also 

History of Atlanta. 353 

stands as a monument to the thrift, energy and noble resolves 
of his sons, who have stood by him in his endeavors for many 
years. The foundry is now well equipped and furnished in 
every respect, and is one of Atlanta's most prosperous works. 
In his dealings with his employes, Mr. Withers has always 
sought their comfort, believing they were his co-workers. Such 
faith and will power and generous feeling has brought that suc- 
cess which a well rounded life is capable of. 


Attracted hither early in 1850 by statements of Atlanta's 
possibilities, for even at that early date Nature's generous 
gifts to our fair locality were loudly proclaimed by those liv- 
ing here, came Aaron Alexander with his wife and sons, 
Joseph, Jacob and Julius M., from Athens, Georgia, to share 
with those few already located, the joys and sorrows of the 
untried village. 

Born in Charleston, South Carolina, in ]\Iarch. 1812, he 
passed his boyhood there and early imbil^ed that courtesy, 
geniality and hospitality that ever endeared him to those who 
knew him. and rendered the acquisition of friends, a natural 
sequence. In connection with these attributes for winning 
success in his new home was the aid of his good wife, Sarah 
M. Alexander, of blessed memory, who was not only a help- 
mate to him, Init a benediction to all in trouble and affliction 
whose sorrows were brought to her notice or discovered by her, 
in her solicitude for the welfare of the helpless and despon- 
dent. Many today in our community can doubtless recall 
the unselfish care and ministration bestowed in the past by this 
noble Mother in Israel to the forlorn and afflicted. Thus 
equipped for the battle of life came the subject of our sketch 
who opened perhaps the first exclusive drug store in Atlanta ; 

354 Pioneer Citizens'" 

properly qualified by intelligence and experience in his voca- 
tion, he at once secured the confidence and esteem of his fel- 
low villagers which was ever retained, his cordiality and oblig- 
ing ways caused his store to be a common center and attractive 
gathering place for the worthy, and none came with views 
for discussion, no matter how dissimilar to those entertained 
by him, but went away fully impressed, that unity of esteem 
existed, even when ideas still differed. 

Mr. Alexander, Mr. A. J. Brady, Mr. H. Haas and some 
others, constituted the first Jewish settlers of this community, 
and it is a deserved tribute to say of them, that to their useful 
and loyal lives partially are attributable that kindly fellow- 
ship that has ever existed in cosmopolitan Atlanta. 

The subject of our sketch never held or sought to hold of- 
fice, his only desire being always to secure by his influence 
those best qualified, and his earnest efforts, in conjunction with 
those similarly impressed towards this end, are best shown 
by the sturdy growth of Atlanta, due to a proper administra- 
tion of its affairs. 

Mr. Alexander conducted the drug business until 1859, 
when he sold out to Messrs. ^lassey & Lansdell, (Dr. Massey 
now resides here), and moved north. His absence then, how- 
ever, was of short duration, for the Civil War breaking oiit, 
caused him to return South. Descended from an ancestor 
whose aid helped, under the first bearer of the honored name 
of Wade Hampton, to make possible the independence and for- 
mation of this great Eepublic, he naturally was impressed 
with the unwisdom of the movement which contemplated the 
dissolution of the Union. Upon the close of the struggle, Mr. 
Alexander removed from Columbus, Georgia, where he lived 
during hostilities, to Atlanta and here began again as a good 
citizen to assist in the upbuilding the home of former days. 
The chief enterprise with which he with J. D. Gray and Jos. A. 
Alexander became prominently identified was the construc- 
tion of a mammoth iron mill for manufacturing railroad iron 
— the ravages of war had destroyed the railway's equipment 
and thousands of tons of rails were needed for reconstruction. 
This enterprise was aided to a success by a loan of $40,000 
from the Central and Georgia Eailroads. 

History of Atlanta. 355 

Mr. Alexander after being interested in commercial life 
for many years, died in this city, June, 1876, maintaining the 
esteem due an honorable man. He was buried in his natal 
city. His well beloved consort survived him until 1893, when 
those who had been together for 57 years, were again side by 
side in the grave. Their memory is a precious heritage. 


The subject of this sketch came to America from his birth- 
place, Hamburg, Germany, in 1842, and located in Athens, 
Georgia, from which place he moved to Atlanta in the early 
part of 1849. Here he first began his successful career as a 
hardware merchant. This was conducted with such eminent 
success that it became necessary in 1858 to locate himself in 
New York city in order to better supply the business in At- 
lanta. The firm at this time was known as Brady & Solomon. 
Mr. Brady's career in Athens had been such that the Southern 
Mutual Insurance Company of that city constituted him its 
agent in Atlanta. The Georgia Eailroad and Banking Com- 
pany, on establishing its agency in the new town, also made 
him agent, which business he handled with great success, 
large sums of money passing through his hands. x\lthougli it 
was customary to require bonds by the company of its agents, 
Mr. Brady never gave one, the company accepting him solely 
on the recommendation of his neighbors. His strict integrity 
and business qualifications prompted his acquaintances to un- 
hesitatingly commend him to his employers. Mr. Brady was 
so well balanced that his judgment was sought for in many 
things pertaining to affairs of public or private matters. His 
home was always open to his many friends at all times; his 
acquaintanceship extending all over this section and the 
State. His name was a synonym for probity and honor. 

35G Pioneer Citizens' 

The close of the Civil War found him owing large sums of 
money for goods (as did many other Southerners) to North- 
ern merchants. It is to his credit that he paid every dollar of 
his indebtedness directly after the war, thus evincing his integ- 
rity and high sense of honor. His relations were such and his 
high standing so well recognized that at the end of the strug- 
gle he was offered a responsible position by New York under- 
writers which was for the purpose of reorganizing the insur- 
ance business of the South which had been paral^'zed by the 
war. He was also offered a salary of $15,000 a year by a large 
New York firm to establish a branch house in New Orleans. 
This he declined. Mr. Brady was a well educated man, 
imbibing his knowledge from the institutions of learn- 
ing in the city of his birth. His long career of business 
aptitude and usefulness to his adopted city and State was 
brought to a close in Augusta, Georgia, in the year 1893. 

And while capable of filling and honoring official position, 
he never sought or held one — with him "the private station 
was the post of honor." 


No work giving the early history of our city would be even 
partially complete, without containing a sketch of one of the 
first schoolmasters who were attracted here before Atlanta had 
discarded her long dresses. A. N. Wilson was a native of 
Greenville, Tennessee. Imbibing in early youth tlie sturdy, 
vigorous ways characteristic of his mountain home, they con- 
tinued always with him, and a careful educational course 
served but to intensify a strength of character inflexible in its 
integritv. His mission to Atlanta was to teach, and his sue- 
cess was assured from the very start. In those days the pro- 
vince of the master was not only to teach from the books, biit 

History of Atlanta. 357 

to instil and to intensify the lessons of the hearthstone; Ig 
do this was Mr. Wilson's successful ambition. Many todlT- 
of our citizens acknowledge an everlasting debt of gratitude to 
this good man's conscientious methods. Honest in his views 
and upright as the tallest peaks in the rugged mountains near 
his natal home, this man clung to the traditions of the Union 
and with all the earnestness of his nature, strove to avert the- 
caJamity of Civil War. After the cessation of hostilities he 
fill'"l a position granted him by the government where he 
could, and did do much good in behalf of his fellow citizens. 
His remains rest in Oakland cemetery. "After life's litful 
fever," he sleeps well. 

"A man severe he was, and stern to view ; 

I knew him well, and every truant knew. 

Yet he was kind, or, if severe in aught. 

The love he bore to learning was in fault." 


The subject of this sketch came to Atlanta in ISrovember,. 
1856. He found Atlanta at that time quite a busy little 
city of about 8,000; though the population and capital was 
small, the pluck and energy of the citizens at that time Avas 
equal, in proportion to the population, to that of the present 
day. Being a native of Georgia, his home was not far dis- 
tant from Atlanta, and he soon found himself perfectly at 
home within her borders. He went to work on a small 
salary, but by close attention to business he accumulated a 
sufficient sum in four years and in connection with a friend, 
started a grocery business in the fall of 1860 — the same j-car 
that Abraham Lincoln was elected President. In the spring 
of '61 his partner, Mr. T. Castleberry, left him with the busi- 
ness and joined the army of ISTorthern Virginia. During the 







History of Atlanta, 359 

year '61 he did a splendid business. In January '63, seeing 
the demands for soldiers, he sold out and volunteered his ser- 
vices. Joining Co. H., 44th Georgia regiment. They encamp- 
ed at Griffin for a few weeks after which they left for Ihe 
army of Northern Virginia; however, they were stopped at 
Goldsboro, N. C, to protect that place from an expected ad- 
vance from the enemy at Kingston. They soon went on to 
Richmond where they were stationed just east of the city in 
the vicinity where the "Battle of Seven Pines" was fought; 
there they remained on picket duty until the morning of June 
26th. Their command was marched in the direction of Rich- 
mond until they reached the suburbs, marching around Rich- 
mond imtil they reached the Mechanicsville road out which 
they marched to near Meadow Bridge and here they halted 
and were filed into a skirt of woods and remained until the 
afternoon. The soldiers all believed they were going to join 
Jackson, not knowing that he was so near. They crossed 
Meadow Bridge about 4 o'clock in the afternoon under a 
heavy cannonade from the federal batteries which kept up con- 
tinuously the remainder of the afternoon. After crossing 
Meadow Bridge they marched directly in line of battle down 
to the right where the federals were strongly fortified at 
Gaines' Mill, and there they were ordered to charge. In mak- 
ing this charge they passed through an apple orchard and 
down a considerable slope at the base of which they were con- 
fronted by an old mill race about eight feet wide and eight feet 
deep which was impassable. On the banks of this diteli the 
regiment was cut to pieces. In "Co. H," the one to which Mr. 
Rogers belonged, there were sixty-five men; forty were killed 
outright ; he being one of the wounded ; and in company with 
several others^ made their way back to the Mechanicsville road 
and remained there all night. The following morning they 
went to Richmond and there reported to Seabrook's Hospital. 
Having a very severe wound in his left arm Mr. Rogers re- 
mained in Richmond for seven weeks, where he received the 
best attention from the hospital authorities, and also from 
the citizens who never failed to show their kindness and sym- 
pathy for the soldiers and the cause which they had espoused, 
the memory of which has always filled his heart with profound 

360 Pioneer Citizens' 

gratitude; and if there is a spot on earth more sacred to him 
than another, it is Virginia. After recovering sufficiently 
from his wound he received a furlough to return to Atlanta, 
expecting at some future time to rejoin the army in Virginia, 
but the wound was of such a nature that the fractured bones 
never knit together. After remaining in the service for twelve 
months after he was wounded the medical board of examina- 
tion pronounced the wound as permanent and rendering him 
unable for duty, he was therefore given an honorable discharge. 
In 1864 he went into a small business at 99 Whitehall street, 
and was here during all the exciting times of Sherman's march 
from Chattanooga to Atlanta. . During this time he joined 
what was then called a fire brigade, and while not engaged in 
his business was on guard in the city. During the seige At- 
lanta was shelled day and night from Sherman's batteries. 
The inevitable came — Atlanta had to fall. The fire battalion 
was drawn up in front of the old city hall, where the capitol 
now stands, and temporarily disbanded to report to General 
Wright at Macon. After remaining in Atlanta for about ten 
days, and as all had orders to leave the city within twenty days, 
he secured a pass from Provost Marshal's office and went to 
Macon and reported to General Wright, who issued him a pass- 
port at will. He returned to Atlanta immediately on Sher- 
mian's departure and of course found Atlanta an entire wreck, 
the center of the city being entirely burned out and residence 
portion torn away for the purpose of building winter quarters 
for Sherman's army. He immediately built a small house 
at his present location on Wliitehall street, and went into busi- 
ness again and continued until several years ago, when he re- 
tired from business, but still retained the ownership of the old 
site which he purchased forty years ago. He has been a tax 
payer from the year after he came to Atlanta up to the present 
day, and has always done all in his power for the growth and 
advancement of Atlanta. 

History of Atlanta. 361 


was born in Clarke county, Georgia, in the year 1833. 
His education was limited for want of facilities. After 
the death of his father he came to Atlanta; this was in 
the early part of 1849. He was a clerk in Dr. Angler's drug 
store for a while, and after this was in the otiice of Sheriff Al- 
len E. Johnson. Leaving this pursuit he engaged as a con- 
ductor on the Western & Atlantic railroad, which at that time 
was only completed to Dalton. About a year after this he 
was assigned to the agency of the road at Kingston, where he 
remained till the fall of 1851, when he went to California. 
While there he was for a time engaged in mining ; then served 
as deputy sheriff of Butte County, and an enrolling clerk for 
the California legislature — this was in 1853. Leaving Cali- 
fornia he returned to Atlanta, and was soon given employ- 
ment on the Western & Atlantic railroad, serving as conductor 
and assistant agent at Dalton. Abandoning railroad service 
he engaged in the wholesale grocery business on the southwest 
corner of Alabama and Pryor streets — the firm name being 
McMillan & Fleming. About the time the war commenced 
he formed a partnership under the firm name of Brown, Flem- 
ing & Co. After the war, all broken up, he accepted an ap- 
pointment as state agent for the Widow and Orphans' Life 
Insurance Company. 

Mr. Fleming was a member — of long standing — of the 
Odd Fellows, and was at one time Grand Master of the State, 
and a representative to the Grand Lodge of the United States 
in 1865 — the first general meeting after the war. A few 
years after this he represented a pork packing establishment 
in the west, with headquarters in Atlanta; and continued in 
this business until 1874, when he came partially paralyzed. 

362 PioxEEE Citizens' 


was born on a plantation owned by his father in Henry Coun- 
ty, Ga., July 14, 1830. His boyhood and early manhood days 
were spent on the farm, assisting in the work till he was 
twenty years of age. At this time the young man moved to 
the growing town of Atlanta, where he began his successful 
business career clerking for ten dollars a month and his 
board. For three years he worked with great energy, and at 
the end of that time was receiving $700 a year and his board. 
He then concluded to travel through the Southern States sell- 
ing books, jewelry and fancy goods at auction, at which he was 
eminently successful. In 1859 he was married to Miss S. C. 
Leonard, of Talbot County, Ga., and returning to his first 
place of business settled here. During the civil war in com- 
pany with his wife, Mr. James spent two years in Canada, in 
Nassau and the Bahama Islands. When the war ended he 
returned to Atlanta and began the banking business, which 
he has pursued continuously to the present time. Mr. James 
has occupied no political position save one, that of mayor of 
the City of Atlanta. 

History of Atlanta. 363 


son of General E. E. Mills, at one time superintendent of the 
Western & Atlantic railroad, was born in Cobb county, Ga., on 
the 9th of February, 1856, came to Atlanta in 1870, and was at 
once employed on the Georgia railroad as route agent. At 
the time of his death, in March, 1892, Mr. Mills was a member 
of the Citizen's Pioneer Society of Atlanta in good standing. 
In matters religious he was a member of the Methodist church, 
and a firm believer in the Christian religion. On his death 
the Pioneer Citizen's Society paid a tribute to his memory as 
follows : 

"Wliereas, in the Providence of God our dear friend and 
brother, Franklin Mills, has been recently taken from us, and 
though he is the first member of the society to die since our 
organization, yet we feel he has gone only a short while before 
us ; therefore be it 

"Eesolved, That in the death of our brother, the societ}^ has 
lost a true friend, the country a good citizen, and the fanaly 
a devoted husband and father." 

364 Pioneer Citizens' 


Among the earlier residents of Atlanta who made his mark 
was C. E. Hanleiter. He cast his lot with the young but vig- 
orous town just as it was emerging from the village of 
Marthasville in 1847 to become Atlanta. His Urst venture 
was the publication of a paper (which he had removed from 
Madison, Ga.), called "The Southern Miscellany." Previous 
to this time, however, he had been connected with various pub- 
lications as publisher, editor, printer — in all of which posi- 
tions he demonstrated a high order of ability. In 1853 he 
published "The Eeveille," a weekly. In 1857 he established 
the "National American," one of the most persistent advo- 
cates of manufacturing industries, the construction of the 
Georgia Air Line and the Georgia Western railways, and other 
internal imj^rovements. In 1860 Colonel Hanleiter organized 
a company and established the Franklin Publishing Com- 
pany, which was disposed of while he was in the Confederate 
service — and for which he never received a dollar. Early in 
the '70's he, in connection with Colonel B. C. Yancey, pub- 
lished "The Plantation." In 1885 he helped organize the 
Gate City Guard, and was elected a lieutenant of the com- 
pany. While Atlanta was in its swaddling clothes Colonel 
Hanleiter was one of its most progressive, energetic and well 
known citizens. In 1856 he was a member of city council and 
introduced many good measures for the city's welfare. He 
was a Justice of the Inferior Court, and was one of thd most 
earnest advocates of the establishment of a liouse of refuge 
for the poor. About 1870 he was superintendent of the 
Orphans' Home at Bethesda. near Savannah, for which he 
raised $8,000, and saved it from a forced sale. When in 
Macon in 1837-40 he was foreman of Fire Company No. 1, 
and Vice President of the Macon Benevolent Association. He 
was twice married ; first to Miss Mary Ann Ford, of Con- 
necticut, and, who died in 1848, leaving four children ; his 

History or Atlanta. 365 

second wife was Miss Ann Elizabeth Shaw, Atlanta, to whom 
he was united in September, 1850, and who died in 1893, leav- 
ing eight children. Ten of his children attained to maturity : 
Josephine, deceased, wife of Henry Gullatt; William A., Ida, 
unmarried; Katharine Anna, wife of J. S. Peterson; Bertha 
E., unmarried ; Victoria, Mrs. Stowers ; Cora, Mrs. Catchings ; 
George S., Methodist preacher; James M. P.. Savannah mer- 
chant, and Elizabeth, Clerk of Pul)lic Schools of Atlanta. 


Treksurer of Fulton County, is perhaps one of the best known 
men in this community. He was born in iSTewton County in 
1831, and when a lad of thirteen came with his father to At- 
lanta. This was in 1844. The travelers came in on the De- 
catur road. They stopped at a little store kept by Collins 
& Loyd about a square from the present Forsyth street, near 
the present location of the First Presbyterian church, and 
purchased a tin cup to drink coffee from. They pursued their 
way, finding no other house for about ten miles. They se- 
lected a spot about one mile out the Marietta road and soon 
ei-ected a humble home. Soon afterward the subject of this 
sketch began going to school to Miss Martha Eeed, who taught 
about a half mile this side of what is now Oakland cemetery. 
In 1854 he was made clerk of the Superior Court, the first 
after Fulton was cut off from DeKalb County. He held that 
position for four years, when he was succeeded by Judge 
Pittman. "When the war came on he enlisted and served till 
1862, when he returned and was elected tax receiver and col- 
lector, which position he held during the war and two years 
thereafter. In 1868 he was elected treasurer of Fulton Coun- 
ty, and has held that position continuously ever since. 




"Child of Atlanta." 

Mother of Mrs. Withers. 
She is called the " Mother of Atlanta. 

History of Atlanta. 367 


pre-eminently a pioneer citizen and affectionately called "The 
Mother of Atlanta," was the daughter of James and Susanna 
Greer White, of Union District, S. C. In 1828 James White, 
with his family, moved to Georgia and located near Lawrence- 
ville; later he moved to Marietta, where, in 1841, his daughter 
Sarah was married to Willis Carlisle of that place. Acting 
on the advice of Eev. Josiah Burke (who performed the cere- 
mony), the young couple moved to Terminus in 1834, where 
they had great difficulty in procuring shelter — having to first 
live in a rough shanty which had been used as a commissary 
for railroad hands, until better accommodations could be had. 

Mrs. Carlisle was only seventeen years old at this time, and 
her devoted husband was frequently obliged to leave her at 
home alone in almost a wilderness — the nearest neighbors 
being about one mile off. At the beginning of her married 
life she resolved to share every hardship necessary for her hus- 
band to endure. In this beautiful devotion she never faltered ; 
sometimes her finer feelings recoiled at the thought of the 
rude house with its bare floors, and the unprotected surround- 
ings; but remembering that Mary, the Mother of Jesus, was 
only sheltered from December storms, she wondered if she 
should ask for more. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Willis Carlisle were born seven children 
— four of whom only are living, Mrs. Julia Withers, Mrs. D. 
H. Hoyt, Mrs. J. B. Hudson, and Mrs. S. G. Pierce. On the 
24th of October, 1898. this "Mother of Atlanta." waiting for 
the Master's summons, heard the call — happy to the close of 
her well-rounded life, in the love of her children, grand- 
children and great grandchildren and friends, and with per- 
fect trust in Him who had ever been to her "a very present 
help in time of trouble." And of Mrs. Carlisle it may be well 
said she was prepared for her last journey. 'TBlessed are the 
dead who die in the Lord." 

368 Pioneer Citizens' 


The "Pioneer Babe of Terminus," was born in 1842. Her 
childhood da^^s were spent in the little village, roaming the 
forests and visiting the springs numerous hereabout, in the en- 
deavor to find amusement, where there was but little save such 
as nature vouchsafed. She grew to womanhood, watching 
with great interest the growth and changes from the obscure 
settlement until it changed its name to Marthasville, and then 
Atlanta. In 1863 she was married to Mr. Walter S. Withers, 
an Englishman. Their children are: Mrs, J. W. Cherry, 
Mrs. A. B. Sanders, W. G., John and Willie. 

ISTo one is prouder of the growth and advancement of At- 
lanta than she, and now, after a long and eventful life, looking 
back on the years of privation in the wild country of her 
childhood, her rise from that to the growth of the town and 
marvelous changes, she finds consolation in the fact that the 
old Atlanta spirit still pervades the community notwithstand- 
ing the new order of things which naturally attends a city of 
great growth. 


370 Pioneer Citizens^ 


was born in Lincoln County. Ga. His father's family moved 
to Gordon County in his younger days and there he was living 
when the war between the states began, in 1861. He entered 
the Confederate army with a company known as the "Lamar 
Confederates" in June of that year. The company was at- 
tached to the Twelfth Georgia regiment. After a protracted 
attack of typhoid fever which he contracted in the army of 
JSTorthern Virginia, he was discharged in December, as unfit 
for service. However, recovering his health he joined the 
Oglethorpe Artillery of Cusseta, Ga., and was sent to the army 
of Tennessee — afterward attaclied to the Sixty-third Georgia 
regiment, and continued witli the command until the close of 
the war. 

On returning to his native State he found all North Georgia 
invested and laid waste and his own home destroyed. Having 
nowhere to call home he cast his lot with Atlanta in April, 
1865. and has made it his home since. He began in the drug 
business from the first, and has been continuously in that line, 
commencing in a small retail way, growing with Atlanta from 
comparatively nothing to one of the largest wholesale and re- 
tail businesses of the kind in this section. He is considered an 
authority in drugs and pharmaceutical preparations — he him- 
self having made many valuable preparations which are used 
all over the South. He carries a large stock in surgical in- 
struments and general drugs and medicines. 

Mr. Daniel is one of those quiet, modest gentlemen whom 
to know is to respect. His very extensive business requires 
his whole time, and his pride in it is his chief consideration. 
For these reasons he prefers not to mingle with the multitude. 
For him politics has no charm, nor does he participate in the 
social whirl. To direct his increasing business and to person- 
ally superintend every important transaction is to him his first 
duty — in fact, it has become a second nature with him. 
Through these years of his residence in Atlanta he has pur- 


372 Pioneer Citizens' 

sued the even tenor of his way, unmindful of the present, of 
transient pleasures, to the giddy throng, satisfied to find them 
in the exacting cares of his large business. 

Mr. Daniel is a member of the First Presbyterian church, 
where he is generally found when services are held. Here in 
the midst of his friends he finds solace and comfort such as 
the world does not afford. 


The subject of this sketch was born in Wilkshire, England, 
in 1841. When eight years of age he emigrated to America. 
He came to Atlanta in 1854. He inherited from his father, 
who was a blacksmith, an aptitude for working with iron, 
which has developed him into a master machinist as his many 
important positions attest. His father's first work in Atlanta 
was at the Georgia railroad shops as a spring maker. The sub- 
ject of this sketch was apprenticed at Winship's machine 
works and put up the Bartow Iron Works, which he fitted and 
started up for them at Altoona, Ga. At the Atlanta rolling 
mills he was master of machinery, and made the first rail- 
road bars and fish plate connections in the South. He was for 
three 3'ears superintendent at the Southern Agricultural 
Works, later master of machinery in the Atlanta Bridge and 
Axle Works. At one time Mr. Shearer had a large shop of 
•his own, making corn and grist mills, etc. He has rebuilt a 
very large printing press for the Atlanta Paper Company — a 
very complicated piece of machinery. He has also worked in 
Philadelphia, Pa., where his work gained for him the highest 
honors. At one period in his career he went to Savannah, 
Ga., to take charge of high and low pressure steamboats; and 
is the only man in Georgia who ever built and completed a 
steel steamboat which navigated on the coast of Georgia 160 


. Bl 


3T-t Pioneer Citizens' 

luiles with a half ton of coal. He also \rent to Lockport, N. 
Y.. at one time and assistetl in the eonstnietion of a set of 
engines for Denver City. 

-Mr. Shearer has never entered polities, but was honored 
by being elected as one of the iSrst water commissioners for 
Atlanta, in which • position his natural ability and aptitude 
vcere of good service to the city. He served nine years in the 
dre department, with Tallulah Xo. 3. His career has been 
a checkered one. but full of honors in his chosen line, and in 
which he is a master. As a juror in the United States Dis- 
rriet Court in 1S93. ]Mr. Shearer originated the idea of a 
Federal prison to be erected iu Atlanta, which has become an 
iccomplished fact. ^ 

He is now simplyfying a steam engine to be built for half 
the ct>st. and which will give the same power with less fuel and 
~h:ch will be a great power for steamsliips. locomotives and 
^'..idonerv engines. 

Mr. Shearers family c-onsists of sLv sons and two daugh- 
ters : Charlie. George. Harmon. Temon. Thomas and Joseph, 
and Emma (who married Mr. Gilmore of the Southern rail- 
wav), and Bessie. 


Thomas E. Ripley, the subject of this sketch, was bom at 
Salem. Xew York. October 4. lS-23. His father was Allen 
Eipley. of Boston. Mass.. and his grandfather was Jephtha 
Ripley, who was a Revolutionary soldier from the State of 
Massachusetts, in Colonel Dagget's regiment ; and he saw ser- 
vice in the State of Rhode Island and other States during the 
M^&z. Mr. Eipley spent his early days in the State of Kew 
York, and came to Charleston. S. C. in 1S48, and from there 
removed to Atlanta. Ga.. in 1849, when Atlanta was in its in- 
fanev. In 1S50 he establi?!T*''t'! n c-'hin-:i ;i'".-^ r-r.v-ll:t--rv sforo on 




376 Pioneer Citizens' 

Whitehall street near the railroad, and was one of the leading 
merchants of the City of Atlanta for forty-eight years, and 
until the time of his death. In 1852 he married Miss Laura 
D. Conner, who still survives him, and who now resides at 
Kirkwood, Ga. Mr. and ]\Irs. Ripley have raised a large fami- 
ly, and were among the leading citizens of Atlanta for nearly 
half a century. Their old home is on Peachtree street where 
W. D. Grant now resides. Mr. Ripley died in Decatur, Ga., 
September 4, 1888. and is buried at Oakland with two of his 
children. His wife and seven of his children survive him. 
They are as follows: Mrs. Georgia L. Robertson, Warrenton, 
Va.; Mrs. D. S. Henderson, Aiken, S. C; Miss Sarah M. 
Ripley, Kirkwood, Ga. ; Thomas J. Ripley, Atlanta, Ga. ; T. 
A. Ripley, Chattanooga, ^enn., Dr. E. C. Ripley, Barnes- 
ville, Ga., and Allen W. Ripley, Kirkwood, Ga. Xo citizen 
believed more firmly in the future of Atlanta than Mr. Ripley. 
He was a member of the Presbyterian church at the time of his 
death and his wife was a charter member of the Central Pres- 
byterian church of this city. 

Socrates Ivey, the first male baby born in Atlanta (when 
it was known as Marthasville) was born November 2, 1841, in 
a house built on the present Northwest corner of North Pryor 
and Decatur streets. Here he grew up to manhood, being a 
moulder by trade, and connected with the Western & Atlantic 
Railway shops. When the Civil war came on he enlisted in 
Captain Leyden's Artillery, from which he was detailed to 
make shot and shell for the Confederate government. He re- 
enlisted, but was again detailed for that purpose. He was 
married to Lucy Asenath Pittman in 1864. He died March 5, 


378 Pioneer Citizens' 


Grandson of the Eevolution by both Grandfathers McLen- 
don and Ware, was born in j\Ionroe, Walton county, Georgia, 
and reared near McDonough, Henry county, Georgia. He 
became a citizen of Atlanta, Ga., in 1848, in his teens, and 
clerked for A. Dulin, one of the largest merchants and cotton 
buyers in the town. He went into the wholesale grocery busi- 
ness for himself in 1854, and continued in this business until 
the war between the States commenced. Served under Major 
Dillard in the Quartermaster's Department of the Confed- 
erate States during the entire war. At this date, 1902, is still 
a resident of Atlanta, Ga. 


was born about twenty miles from Chester, S. C, His par- 
ents were poor, hard-working people, with little or no advan- 
tages. His school opportunities were very limited; in fact, 
a year's time would cover all the teaching he ever received. 
At about the age of fourteen years he ran away and went to 
Columbia. S. C, and made a contract with a printer by the 
name of Brown to do office work. In the meantime he learned 
to write fairly well and soon began to assist in making up the 
paper. In a year or so he could set type with the best of old 
printers. He went to Augusta and assisted in setting up the 
"Georgia Scenes," a work which grew to be very popular in 
its day. With the disposition of all printers of that day (they 
did not stop long in any place), he worked a while in Mil- 
ledgeville on a weekly paper, and at the early age of twenty 
years he started a little paper in Sandersville, Ga., called The 

History of Atlanta. 379 

Georgian, of which he was editor and printer. Following in 
the wake of all country newspapers, it was not a financial 

Having friends in official positions on the Central Eail- 
road of Georgia, he sought a new field of labor and ran as con- 
ductor for a short while. Being of a roaming, restless dispo- 
sition, full of ambition, and with a desire to get up in the 
world, and faith in the up-country, he went to Dalton, Ga., 
and bought a paper, and published a weekly called the Moun- 
tain Eagle. This was in 18-17. He was always glad to speak 
of the old paper and would often refer to the files, which are 
well preserved and still in the family. 

Through the influence of the late Hon. Alexander H. 
Stephens, Mr. Ware made arrangements to go to Washington, 
D. C, but owing to some political move not in his favor, the 
idea was abandoned. 

Afterwards he accepted a position as mail clerk on the 
Western and Atlantic Railroad, and moved to Atlanta Jan- 
uary, 1850. Later on he was agent for the Western and At- 
lantic Eailroad. 

A. G. Ware had a fondness for newspaper work and was 
somewhat independent. If he was not at railroad work he 
could use pen and pencil for the press. Politics was his great 
fort. He was never better pleased than to lie engaged in 
bringing out a favorite candidate. 

For a while he was traveling soliciting agent for the old 
Macon and Western Eailroad and Central Eailroad combined. 
From this position he was called to accept the local agency of 
the Macon and Western Eailroad. This was in 1858. He re- 
mained here up to the time of his death, February 27, 1863. 

He was not an active member of any church; in faith he 
was a Methodist. He was a good, honest, upright man, char- 
itable and kind to tlie poor, always ready and willing to aid 
the sick and afflicted. 


History of Atlanta, 381 

VoLNEY A. Dunning, the subject of this sketch, was born 
in Kome, N. Y., September 12, 1838; ten years later he re- 
moved to Decatur, Ga., where he attended school for two 
years. In 1850 he made Atlanta his home, where he re- 
ceived the remainder of his education. He then entered his 
father's foundry and learned the trade of niolder. Xot liking, 
this occupation he clerked for a while, and later worked for 
the "Atlanta Intelligencer" newspaper. In 18()0 he was mar- 
ried to Miss C F. Everett. When the war came on in 1861 
he entered the Confederate army, serving till the close, when 
on returning home he became agent for the Southern Express 
Co., serving till 1870, when he resigned and took the position 
of assistant superintendent of the Pullman Car Co. He was 
a member of the city council in 1870 and chairman of the 
finance committee. The question of public schools coming 
up this year, ]\Ir. Dunning, as member of the committee to con- 
sider the same gave it his hearty support. In 1882 he was 
again returned to council and made chairman as before of the 
finance committee. In 1882 and 1883 the work of paving 
with Belgian l)locks was Ijeo'un in earnest, he takino^ an im- 
portant part in that movement. 

Mr. Dunning died in June, 1902, in Atlanta. 

Ezra Andrp:ws was l)orn in Danhurv, Conn., on the 27th 
of April. 1823. His father being a farmer needed what as- 
sistance he could render him, and in the springtime, summer 
and fall of the year he was kept out of school to assist in beat- 
ing out wheat and rye with a hand flail, so that his opportuni- 
ties for attending school were limited to about three montlis in 
the year. In October. 1838, he was apprenticed to a firm in 
Bridgeport, Conn., to learn the saddlery and harness business, 
serving until he became of age in 1844. On the 13th oi May, 
184f), he was married to Miss Fanny Wicks. His health fail- 
ing him in 1850 he came south. He reached Atlanta on the 
20th of May. He immediately rented a storehouse on the 
southeast corner of Whitehall and Hunter streets, and opened 
a stock of saddlery, under the firm name of ]\riller & Andrews, 
and prospered in this business till the fall of Atlanta in 18()4. 

382 PiO]yi^EER Citizens'" 

Isaac Pilgrim^ one of the oldest citizens of Atlanta^ 
came here in 1846. He was born in Putnam County, 
Ga., in 1830. When he was about sixteen years of 
age his father moved to Termiuns. The lad was 
always ready to do his part, and immediately went to 
work with C. E. Hanleiter, the publisher. Under that 
prince of good fellows, young Pilgrim learned the "art 
preservative of all arts." In 1868 he entered the office of 
the Atlanta Constitution, where he has been continuouslv em- 
plo3-ed ever since. He is now foreman of that paper. Mr. 
Pilgrim is one of the most exemplary of men, modest and un- 
assuming, having the respect of every one who knows him. 
'Tjncle Ike," as he is familiarly called, has a very good recol- 
lection of early days in Atlanta, and enjoys talking of old 
times hereabout. 

[Note. Mr. Pilgrim retired recently from the Constitu- 
tion, and is now taking a long needed rest from his labors. 

Wm. a. Downs, born in Gwinnett County-, Ga.. June 1, 
1821, and raised on a farm in Morgan County until about 
twenty years old; was a mail carrier for about a year from 
Social Circle to Athens. He gave that up later on to become 
express messenger on_ the Georgia railroad, under Combs & 
Co. "When the firm sold out to the Adams Express Co.. Mr. 
Downs entered the service of the Georgia railroad as baggage 
master and remained in that business till 1865, when he re- 
turned to the express company for about a year, then he 
went to the Western & Atlantic railroad as conductor until 
1874, when he engaged with the Atlanta (Sr Charlotte railroad 
until 1878, when he permanently retired. Mr. Downs has al- 
wa^'^s been* an active, energetic man. and although having but 
a limited education, ho has always been able to hold hi? own. 

Thomas Haxet was born in Belfast, Ireland, in 1812. 
He came to Atlanta in 1852. 

He began working for the Western & Atlantic railroad 
in the shops of that road shortly after his arrival. During the 

History of Atlanta. 383 

war between the states ]\Ir. Haney ran on the Western & At- 
lantic raih'oad as an engineer. At the close of the war he 
went back to the shops where he proved invaluable as a ma- 
chinist. In all his term of service extended over a period of 
twenty-eight years with the road. In 18G7 he was elected to 
council from the first ward. He was prominent in affairs in 
the early days of Atlanta, and had many friends. To know 
Mr. Haney was to respect him. Up to his deatli, July 20, 
1901, he held membership in the old Volunteer Company, Xo. 
1, of which he had been an active and valuable meml)er for 
many years. 

Henry P. Ivy, son of the first settler, Hardy Ivy. is 
a resident of ISTorcross, Ga. He is at this writing (1900) in 
his eighty-third year. He married in 18-13. His house was 
built in the woods, about this time, on the spot now occupied 
by the Moore & ]Marsh building, Northwest corner of Pryor 
and Decatur streets. There were but three other families be- 
sides the Ivy's at that time, namely : the Forsyth, Carlisle and 
Joe Silvey families. Henry Ivy's first son was born in that 
rude cabin; he received the name of B. S., and was familiarly 
called "Sock." He die'd about 1897, leaving a family consist- 
ing of a wife and several children, who are still residing in 

IT. L. Wright, one of the energetic and highly respected 
residents of Atlanta in her younger days, was born in 
Butts county. Georgia, in . and came to Atlanta in 1845. 

He was a large dealer in merchandise, and was also agent 
for some time of the Central Railway & Banking Co. He left 
Atlanta about 1858 for California, where his son and daughter 
resided, and there he died. His career in Atlanta was marked 
by his genial and frank disposition, and a great faith in the 
fixture of the town. He was ever alert for Atlanta's interests, 
taking special pride in her onward career. He was a man of 
excellent character and generous impulses. 

Peter F. Jones was born in Gwinnett County, Ga., July 
18, 1836, and came to Atlanta in 1858. His first occupation 

384 PioxEER Citizens' 

was that of clerk for Silvey & Dougherty. He was a member 
of the Gate City Guards, Co. F, 1st regiment Georgia Volun- 
teers. Later during the war between the states he was connect- 
ed with the Macon & Western railway till the close of the war. 
In 1859 he was in the grocery business, the style of the firm 
being Jones & Wood. Their store was situated near the 
southwest corner of Marietta and Whitehall — the present loca- 
tion of Jacob's Pharmac}'. Mr. Jones was married March 
12, 1863, to Miss Margaret A. Davis. 

Ambrose G. Forsyth was born August 12, 1812, in Meck- 
linburg County, X. C, his grandparents being of Scotch, Irish 
and Welsh descent, and of revolutionary fame. He settled at 
"Terminus" in March. 1843, and bought the first cotton ever 
sold in the place, being a merchant from his arrival, continu- 
ing as such until the civil war came on in 1861. After the 
cessation of hostilities Mr. Forsyth again resumed his calling, 
in which he had been very successful. He was several times 
elected to council, and often served as mayor pro tern. He 
was also city treasurer for a term, and quartermaster store- 
keeper for the state of Georgia during the war. 

Hugh ^IcSure Boyd was born in Chester District, S. C, 
about 1806, where he resided on a farm till the early '30's, 
when he moved to DeKalb County. Ga., here he taught school 
for awhile, and came to Atlanta in 1845. He engaged in 
bookkeeping for Thrasher & Xapier. Afterwards he was tax 
receiver until under President Pierce's administration he was 
appointed postmaster, but before serving his full term resigned 
to take a position with the Western & Atlantic railroad as 
bookkeeper, but died before beginning his duties. Mr. Boyd 
was married to Miss Martha Ann Barr in Favette Countv, Kv. 
March 13, 1836. 

LuciEN B. Davis. The subject of this sketch was l)orn in 
Gennessee county, X. Y., December 15, 1830. He came to 
Atlanta about 1860. engaging in merchandising. During the 
war between the states he was in the Confederate enlistment 
office in Atlanta, afterward was Captain of Co. A in the Geor- 

History of Atlanta. 385 

gia State Troops. ■ 'Mi;: Davisfis'jiow in the ministry. f{He is 

serving three Presbyterian churches situated outside of the 

t city. . He is well known as one' of Atlanta's- most respected citi- 

■ zqns, long identified with .the city's interests, eom^nercially and 

• otherwise. • : • . .. 


Major Geo. Shaw, a soldier of the war of 1812, waa 
bom in Henry County, Va., and came to Atlanta in 1847. He 
studied law and was adn^i|:ted tothe barin Jefferson, .Ga. He 
was one of the first trial justices in Atlanta, and served in the 
Georgia legisla|;ure in 1838. Mr. Shaw was a familiar figure 
in early days on the streets of Atlanta, genial and kindly, a 
model gentleman. He was married to Miss Louisa Troutt in 
Jefferson, Ga. He was the father of Mr. Augustus Shaw, now 
of Atlanta, also of George and Samuel H., now deceased. He 
died in 1851. 

Augustus D. Adair, was born in Telladega, Ala., July 17, 
1835, moved to Atlanta in 1858. During the war between the 
States he was a member of General X. B. Forrest's old escort, 
and made a good record as a fighter. He was one of Forrest's 
trusted couriers and commanded many detailed squads on spe- 
cial occasions. Mr. Adair has been in business constantly since 
the war ,in Atlanta, and is at present one of the oldest mer- 
chants, probably, now living, and still actively engaged. He 
was married to Miss Octavia Hammond in 1858 in this city. 

William G. Forsyth, the subject of this sketch, was born 
in Mecklenburg County, N". C. 

He came to ]\Iarthasville in March, 1843, connnencing the 
business of merchandizing, piincipally buj'ing cotton. Wlien 
the war came on he enlisted in Co. A, Georgia Eeserves, under 
General L. J. Gartrell the last twelve months of the war, 
Wlien the federals raided Athens, Ga., Mr. Forsyth intervened 
and maneged thereby in saving the State's property at that 
place from destruction. 

Jabez J. EiCHARDS was a noted man in his day. He was 
born in London, England, in 1821; came to Atlanta in 1853. 

386 PiONEEE Citizens' 

In connection with his brother, S. P. Richards, he published 
and edited "The Soldier's Friend." The firm also dealt in 
books and music and was one of the solid business houses of 
the day. The subject of this sketch some years since retired 
from business, and is now living a quiet life in this city and 
on his farm "Golden Gate," Fulton County. He spends much 
of his time in writing poetry — mostly of a religious nature. 

John W. Woodruff was bom in Fayetteville, Ga., Novem- 
ber 28, 1841. He came to Atlanta in October, 1858, where he 
has since resided. Mr. Woodruff was a soldier in the Con- 
federate army, serving six months in the Sixth Georgia State 
Troops, and over three years in the Ninth Georgia Battalion of 
Artillery — Leyden's command. After the war he entered the 
United States postal service which position he now holds. He 
was married in May, 1881, to Miss Julia B. Swanson, of La- 
Grange, Ga. 

John Glen was bom in Laurens, S. C, in the year 1809 ; 
came to Georgia in 1826, settling in Decatur, where he lived 
till 1850. He was a clerk of the superior court of DeKalb 
County ten years ; afterwards agent of the Georgia Eailroad at 
Decatur for a time, when he came to Atlanta in the interest of 
the road, remaining with it forty-five years. As a resident of 
Atlanta he was well known for his excellent qualities, and was 
honored several times in the city council by the people. 

Robert E. Eushton, Sr., Secretar}^ of the Winship Ma- 
chine compan}', was born in Atlanta January 8, 1849, where 
he has resided all his life. Being too young for service in the 
field, he was employed in the commi&sary department of the 
Southern Confederacy located in Atlanta during the Civil war. 
Mr. Eushton was a member of ^lechanic Fire company No. 
2 from the time of the formation of that company. He was 
married to Miss Ella Byron Wright October 12, 1876. 

Thomas Jefferson Boyd was born in Panthersville, De- 
Kalb county, Ga., March 11, 1839 : came to Atlanta in 1845, 
engaging in clerking in the post office, express business and in 

History of Atlanta. 387 

railroading. For several years previous to and including the 
war between the States he was railroad conductor. He has 
retired from business and is spending his remaining days in 
the home of his early adoption. Mr. Boyd was married July 
1, 18G7, to Miss Mary Eliza Bacon. 

Beverly Roper was born in South Carolina in 1824; he 
came to Atlanta in 1850, engaging in the railroad business, 
which he has followed continuously to the present. He enlist- 
ed in the 64th Georgia regiment and served during the civil 
war. He was married twice, first to Miss Susan Phillips, in 
1846, and after her death he married Miss Emma Morny, in 

Charles Robert Winship, president of the Winship Ma- 
chine Company, was born in Atlanta, December 18, 1863, 
where he has resided continuously since. His father, Robert 
Winship, was one of the pioneers in the machine business, 
which from a very humble beginning has grown to be one of 
the foremost of its kind in the South. The object of this 
sketch was married to Miss Ida D. Atkins, April 10, 1900. 

J. B. Lester, born at Halifax, C. H., Va., April 16, 1840. 
Came to Atlanta in 1869, engaging in the business of selling 
coal. He lived in Tennessee for several years after leaving 
Virginia, where he married Miss Sallie F. Emory. Mr. Lester 
has seen Atlanta grow to its wonderful proportions and is yet 
hale and hearty and is thoroughly in love with the home of 
his adoption. 

Thos. Sheridan, a son of the Emerald Isle, was one of 
the early railroad men of Atlanta. He moved here in 1854 
and connected himself with the Atlanta & West Point Railway 
as a locomotive engineer, remaining in that position nearly all 
of his life. He was a kindly Irishman and had many friends 
among all classes. He died in this city about 1882. 

Dr. Robert J. Massey was born in Morgan County, Ga., 
October 16, 1828. He cast his fortunes with Atlanta in 1858. 

388 Pioneer Citizens' 

He is a physician and druggist at Lj-thia Springs, Ga. — hav- 
ing practised medicine all his life in various places. He is a 
noted 'writer on Georgia and Confederate States Mstorv/ He 
was for three years in the medical department 'of the Con- 
federate government/ where he served with distinction. 

P. M. Hodge was horn in Jackson County, Ga., July 26, 
1815, and moved to Atlanta in 1845. He was a tinner by 
trade; his first place of business being on Decatur, between 
Peachtree and North Pryor streets. Was a soldier in the 
Mexican war and also in the Confederate army. He died 
November 6, 1899. 

Lee Walton was one of the earliest merchants in Atlanta, 
moving here in 1847. On his arrival he immediately engaged 
in merchandizing on the south side of Marietta street, near the 
corner of what is now North Broad. The once celebrated 
Walton spring was named after him. as was also the street of 
that name. About 1850 Mr. Walton moved to Brunswick, 

Winston Wood was born in Coweta County, Ga., February 
5, 1825, and moved to Marthasville in Januar}^ 1846. He 
was a man of much strength of character, a Mason and a good 
citizen. He was a good mechanic and for many years was 
foreman at Winship & Co.'s, where he was highly esteemed. 
He died August 14, 1878, in this city. 

Samuel H. Shaw was born in Jefferson, Ga., and moved 
to Atlanta in 1847. He was a printer by occupation. He 
was a Confederate soldier, with the Jo Thompson Artillery, 
Captain C. R. Hanleiter commanding. When the war ended 
he returned to his home, and for a number of years was con- 
nected with the Constitution. Mr. Shaw died in 1889. 

Addison Dulin was born in Mecklinburg County, N. C, 
and came to Marthasville in 1846. He began buying cotton 
on his arrival and continued the same for many years. He 

History of Atlanta. 389 

died about ten years after coming to this place, and was 
buried in Oakland Cemetery. 

A. W. Stone was born in New York and came to Atlanta 
about 1854. His occupation is that of lawyer. He left the 
city at the commencement of the war between the states, re- 
turning at its close. While residing in the west he was ap- 
pointed Judge of the Federal Court in Colorado. 

A. W. Jones was born in Gwinnett County, Ga.. May 3, 
1829, and came to Atlanta in May, 1850. His occupation was 
that of attorney at law for about eight years and then a banker. 
He settled in Griffin after the war, but returned to Atlanta in 
1897, where he now resides. 

George C. Shaw was born in Jefferson, Ga.,.and came to 
Atlanta in 1847. His occupation was that of printer, work- 
ing at his trade all his life in the various offices in this city. 
He died in 1891. 

On page 251, eighth line, "Camp McDonough," should 
read Camp McDonald. 

On page 270, second line, "South Georgia,^' should read 
South Carolina. 

On page 269, third line, "South Georgia," should read 
South Carolina. 

On page 220, twelfth line, "]\[cShuffrie" should read 

On page 65, sixth line, "S. W. Jones" should read A. W. 

390 Pioneer Citizens' 


The Hebrew Benevolent Congregation bears in its name 
the index to its origin. For years before the Jewish citizens 
of Atlanta were of numerical strength to form a congregation, 
there existed a charity organization which was called the He- 
brew Benevolent Society. On January 1, 1867, Eev. Dr. 
Leeser came to the city for the purpose of officiating at a 
wedding. His address at the supper table so stimulated the 
people that liefore many months had passed, the Society trans- 
formed itself into the Congregation. In lieu of an ordained 
minister, Mr. Jacob Steinheimor read the services. The fi- 
nances of the young congregation did not permit of the erec- 
tion of a permanent sanctuary, and so for eight years services 
were held and Sabbatli-school conducted in rooms temporar- 
ily rented for that purpose. The first services were held in 
the parlor of the home of Mr. Levi Cohen ; the first i^resident 
of the Congregation was Mr. L. Levy. 

The records for the years 1867-1875 being lost, it is not 
possible to give with any degree of certainty the inner life 
of the congregation during that period. Its status must have 
been healthy for on Monday, May 25, 1875, the corner-stone 
of the recently vacated Temple (corner of Garnett and For- 
syth streets) was laid. There were 58 members belonging 
to the congregation. These represented 75 families, while the 
Sabbath-school had on its enrollment sheet the names of 
sixty-five children. On August 31st, 1877, the Temple was 
dedicated. Since that time, the congregation has steadily 
increased in size and in importance. In September. 1900, it 
was decided that owing to the inadequacy of the Temple to 
accommodate its membership, that a new structure be erected. 
As a result of this resolution, the congregation will shortly 
move into its new home, at the corner of South Pryor and 
Kichardson streets. 

A few figures may not be iminteresting. The membership 
in 1877 was 58; in 1895, 156; in 1902, 225. The school 
shows to-day an enrollment of two hundred and twenty chil- 
dren as contrasted with 100 in 1880 and 69 in 1875. 

The ministers who have served the congregation are as 

History of Atlanta. 391 

follows: D. Burgheim, 1869; B. A. Burnheira, 1870-73; 
Henry Gersoni, 1875-1877; E. B. L. Brown, 1877-1881; J. 
S. Jacobson, 1881-1888 ; Leo Reich, 1888-1895 ; David Marx, 

The presidents of the Congregation since 1877 — Levi 
Cohen, Samuel Weil, Mr. Wellhouse, Jacob Haas, Isaac Lieb- 
man, Joseph Hirsch. 

The present officers of the Congregation are : 
Jos. Hirsch, president; Alb. Steiner, vice-president; Mor- 
ris Hirsch, treasurer; Alex Dittler, secretary; David Kant- 
man, Jos. Leinkart, A. Bluthenthal, M. Kutz, Sil. Benjamin, 
Levi Cohen, trustees. 


The founding of the Pioneer Citizen's Society of Atlanta 
in 1891 was brought about by a chance conversation between 
two of the old citizens on "old times." Recognizing the fact 
that many of the earlier settlers had passed away, and that 
in the course of time others would pay the same debt, they 
agreed that in order that history might be preserved before it 
was too late, an organization would be necessary. Consult- 
ing other friends, these gentlemen found sentiment ripe, and 
very soon a meeting of citizens was called which resulted in the 
forming of this society. The following minutes of the Pio- 
neer Citizens' Society of Atlanta are self-explanatory: 

"Atlanta, October 26, 1891. 

"The Pioneer Citizen's Society of Atlanta was organized 
this day by the adoption of the following Constitution and By- 
Laws and electing the Officers hereafter named in accordance 
with said Constitution, to serve for the term of one year from 
this date, or until their successors are elected and installed. 

Col. Dave U. Sloan presented the Society with his book 
"The Fogy Days and Now, or the World Has Changed," which 
was accepted with the thanks of the Society. 

393 Pioneer Citizens^ 

officers for the present tear. 


'President — Jonathan Xorcross; 1st Vice-president, 
Judge W. L. Calhoun ; 2d Vice-president, Judge John Collier ; 
3d Vice-president, John H. James; 4th Vice-president, Wm. 
H. Hulsey; Secretary, Maj. A. Ley den; Assistant Secretary, 
Jno. A. Doane; Treasurer, Col. E. F. Maddox; Historian, B. 
F. Abbott and W. H. Fuller; Chaplain, Eev. A. G. Thomas. 

"A committee, composed of Harry Krouse, W. H. Hulsey 
and B. F. Abbott was appointed to secure a meeting hall and 
provide lights for the next meeting." 



To the Superior Court of said County. 

The petition of J. N'orcross, J. H. Mecaslin, A. Ley den, 
John H. James, Anthony Murphy, E. C. Murphy, George 
Stewart, W. L. Calhoun, J. C. Hendrix, Hamilton Crankshaw, 

B. F. Bennett, Geo. W. Adair, John H. Ellsworth, L. H. Hall, 
George Winship, Jelf. Cain, E. E. Eawson, L. H. Clark, Frank 
Mills, W. H. Hulsey, John Blair, J. R. Ashworth, J. ^L Bos- 
worth, T. E. Walker, J. C. Beck, T. J. Boyd, E. A. Wemer, 
J. C. Armstead, Ed. Holland, Joel S. Yarbrough, A. Classett, 
W. M. Wilson, W. B. Eichards, C. E. Hanleiter,"L. Eichardson, 
Noah E. Fowler. John T. Glenn, Dr. T. T. Key, W. P. Harris, 
E. F. Maddox, C. Bridwell, W. L. Abbott, N. A. McLendon, 

C. Kernodle, John C. Whitner, A. Lambert, Dr. J. F. Alexan- 
der, J. W. Eucker, John Alexander, S. T. Johnson, H. W. 
Broxton, B. F. Abbott, E. A. Save, Dr. D'Alvignv, John 
Ficken, T. H. Williams, L. C. Wells," John A. Doane, L. L. Ab- 
bott, D. A. Cook, E. T. Hunnicutt. Dr. S. T. Biggers. J. E. 
Williams, W. L. Ezzard, William A. Fuller, G. W. McArthur, 
T. P. Flemming, S. E. Oatman, Ezra Andrews, J. T. Wood- 
ruff, A. J. Buchanan. Green B. Eoberts, Er Lawshe, B. IS". 
Williford, W. A. Havnes, C. W. Hunnicutt, Matt Walker, S. 
B. Hoyt, John G. Martin, W. G. Forsyth, D. B. Ladd. A. C. 
Ladd, W. A. Downs, John W. Wade, Sam Harris, E. Parsons, 
David Buice, Andrew Shaw, Harry Krouse, Augustias Shaw, 
John Classette, James Caldwell, Charles Heinz, James Craig, 

History of Atlanta. 393 

G. T. Dodd, Phil. Dodd, John Glenn, W. G. Herndon, Thos. 
Hayne, C. H. Strong, L. M. Dimmick, Wm. McConnell, S. B. 
Love, C. M. Payne, William Forsyth, J. S. Oliver, James Toy, 
M. L. Lichenstadt, C. W. Brannan, M. B. Berry, A. S. Talley, 
T. G. Healey, D. U. Sloan, Henry Gullatt, G. Johnson, A. G. 
Chisolm, F. M. Eichardson, shows that they have associated 
themselves together under the name of 


and they desire to become a body coi"porate under said name, 
with power to govern themselves by such constitution, rules 
and by-laws as they may from time to time make and ordain. 
The principal office of said Society to be in the City of At- 
lanta. The objects and aims of said Society is not pecuniary 
gain to its members, but are 

1. The collection and preservation of important historical 
facts and incidents connected with the founding of the City of 
Atlanta, its early and later growth ; and the publication from 
time to time of such narrations as may seem to instruct and 
interest the public. 

2. The establishment of a museum of interesting relics of 
the past. 

3. The cultivation of a social, charitable and benevolent 
feeling and sentiment among the members. 

Your petitioners pray that they may have authority to re- 
ceive donations, to make purchases and effect alienations of 
realty or personalty, not for purposes of trade or profit, but 
for promoting the general design of said Society, and to look 
after the general interest of said Society. 

Wherefore petitioners pray that they, their associates and 
successors be granted such corporate powers as may be suitable 
to said enterprise and not inconsistent with the laws of said 
State nor violative of private rights, and with such other 
rights as are conferred by the laws of said State, and that the 
Charter hereby sought shall continue in force for twenty 

Petitioners will ever pray, etc. 

B. F. Abbott, Attorney for Petitioners. 
Filed in office October 29th, 1891. 

39-i Pioneer Citizens' 

In consideration of fhe within petition, it is ordered by 
the Court that the petitioners, their associates and successors 
be and they are hereby incorporated under the name of The 
Pioneer Citizens' Society of Atlanta^ for the full term 
of twenty years, with all the rights, powers and privileges 
specified in the petition, and with such other powers, rights, 
and privileges conferred by law on corporations of like char- 
acter. Marshall J. Clark^ Judge. 

In open Court, October 29th, 1891. 


I, G. H. Tanner, Clerk of the Superior Court in and for 
said County, hereby certify that the within and foregoing is a 
true copy of the petition and order granting Charter to The 
Pioneer Citizens' Society of Atlanta, as appears of file 
and record in this oflBce. 

Witness my hand and the seal of said Court, this the 25th 
day of November, 1891. 

(Seal.) G. H. Tanner, Clerk Superior Court, 

Fulton County, Georgia. 

constitution. ■ 

1. This organization shall be called the Pioneer Citizens' 
Society, of Atlanta. 

2. All citizens who resided in Atlanta in 1860, and who 
have since resided continuously in said city shall be eligible to 
membership ; and Pioneer Citizens who resided in Atlanta in 
1860, but whose residence has been broken by residence in 
other places, provided they be bona fide citizens of Atlanta at 
the time the application for membership is made. 

3. There shall be a President and five Vice-Presidents, a 
Secretary and Treasurer, Historian and Chaplain of said So- 
ciety, whose duties shall be prescribed by the By-Laws. There 
shall also be a Board of Directors, which shall consist of seven 
members of the Society, whose duties shall likewise be pre- 
scribed by the By-Laws. All of said oflficers shall hold their 
respective offices for such period of time as the Society shall 
fix and determine. 

History of Atlanta. 395 

4. The objects and purposes of said Society shall be: 

(1) The collation and preservation of important historical 
facts and incidents connected with the founding, the early and 
later growth of the city, and the publication from time to 
time of such historical narrations as may serve to instruct and 
interest the public. 

(2) The establishment of a museum of interesting relics 
of the past. 

(3) The cultivation of a social, charitable and benevolent 
feeling and sentiment among the members. 

5. All citizens who shall have resided in the city of At- 
lanta or subiirbs for at least thirty years from the time they 
attained their majority shall be eligible to membership in 
the future, if otherwise qualified; and all citizens who have 
resided in Atlanta or suburbs for forty years (but who had 
not reached their majority in 1860) next proceeding their ap- 
plication shall be eligible to membership as junior members of 
the Society two third vote of the members present and voting. 

6. Amendments to this constitution may be made in the 
following manner: 

Any proposed amendment shall be first reduced to writ- 
ing and the same shall be read at a regular meeting, before 
action is taken thereon. If two-thirds of all members present 
and voting shall vote for such amendment it shall then be- 
come a part of this constitution. 


Abbott, B. F. Armstead, J. C. 

Abbott, L. L. Anderson, Jas. A. 

Abbott, W. L. Adams, A. Q. 

Adair, Geo. W.* Austell, W. W. 
Alexander, Dr. Jas. F.* Angler, Edgar A. 

Alexander, John* Baker, John 

Andrews, Ezra Bennett, B. F. 

Ashworth, J. R. Berry, M. R. 


PioxEER Citizens' 

Biggers, Dr. S. T. 
Bleckley. Judge Logan E. 
Boswortli, J. M. 
Boyd, J. T. 
Branan, C. W. 
Bridwell, C* 
Broxton, H. W.* 
Buchanan, A. J. 
Briiice, David* 
Bell, James 
Bosworth, J. L. 
Bellingrath, Albert 
Barnwell. V. T. 
Bender, C. H. 
Berry, E. M. 
Bray, W. M. 
Bain, Donald 
Buchanan, Jas. F. 
Boyd. Wallace W. 
Brown, Julius L. 
Bell, James L. 
Barker, George 
Collier. Jno. 
Cain. Jeff* 
Caldwell, Jas* 
Calhoun. Wm. Lowndes 
Chisolm, A. G.* 
Clarke. Lewis H.* 
Classett, Andrew* 
Classett, John 
Cook, David A. 
Craig. James 
Crankshaw. Hamilton 
Chase, Prof. Thos. M. 
Caldwell, John A. 
Clarke, Edward Y. 
Collier. John W. 
Crawford, E. H. 
Connally, Dr. E. L. 

Chisholm, J. Perry* 
Collins, Jas. D. 
Clarke, Thos. M. 
Cook, J. J. 
Capin, George* 
Corrigan. Michael* 
Clayton. T. A. 
D'Alvigny, Dr. Charles 
Dimick. L. M.* 
Dodd. Green T. 
Dood, Philip* 
Doane, John A.* 
Downs, Wm. A. 
Daniel, John B. 
Dooley Martin H.* 
Da\as, Eev. L. B. 
Deihl, Albert H. 
Daniel, J. C. 
Dunning. Volnev 
Durham. Dr. w" M. 
Delkin, A. L. 
Ellsworth, John H. 
Ezzard, Wm. L. 
Emmell, Jacob 
Everett, Wm. S. 
Ficken. Jolm* 
Fleming, T. P.* 
Forsvth, Wm.* 
Forsyth, Wm. G. 
Fowler, Xoah E. 
Fuller, Wm. A. 
Fox, Amos 
Farrar, Eobt. M. 
Frizzell, W. H. 
Glenn, John* 
Glenn. John T.* 
Gullatt, Henrv 
Grubb, W. L.^ 
Gaither. Frank T. 

History of Atlanta. 


Hall, Levi H.*_ . 
Hammond, TST. J.* 
Hanleiter, C, E *, 
Hanleiter, Wm. 
Hape, Samuel '., 
Harris, Sam 
Harris, W. P.,;. 
Hayne, Thomas* 
Haynes, W. A.* : 
Healey, Thos. G;* 
Heinz,. Charles 
Hendrix, John C. 
Hern don, Wm. G. 
Holland, Ed ' ; 
Hornady, Rev. H. C* 
Hoyt, Sam B.* 
Hoyt, Darius* 
Hulsev, Wm. H. 
Hunnicutt, E. T.* 
Hunnicutt, C. W. 
Hulbert, W. W. 
Hollida}', Geo. H. 
Howell, Evan P. 
Hillyer, George 
Havnes, Wm. A.* 
Hall, John T. 
Howell, Clark, Sr. 
Howell, Albert, Sr. 
Hammond, Geo. H. 
Houston, W. J. 
Hope, Geo. M. 
Ivy, B. S.* 
Inman, W. P. ' 
James, John H. 
Johnston, G. 
Johnston, S. T. 
Joyner, W. H. 
Johnson, John N. 
Johnson, Mark W. 

.Jordan, Warren 

Johnson, E. J. 
, Jones, Chas. — * 

■ ' f? ) -71; , ' . I 

Kernqdle^ C. • ', 
Key, Dr. TJ t-^'i! 
Kroiise, Harry, '," 

..Kontz, Anton L. 

.Ladd,-A. C:*" ,, 
Ladd, D. B.* 
Lambert, A.* 
Lawshe, JEr.* 
Leyden, Austin* 
Lichtenstadt, M. L.* 
Longley, B. F.* 
Love, S. B. 
Loyd, James W.* 
Larendon, W. S. 
Langston, T. L. 
Lowe, Wm. B.* 
Lowry, Eobert J. 
Love, J. E. 
La Fontaine, J. A. 
Langston, Jep. 
Lynch, James* 
McArthur, F. W. 
McConnell, Wm. 
McLendon, N. A. 
McLin, J. J.* 
McBride, A. J. 
McDuffie, B. F.* 
McAfee, W. W. 
McCarley, Thos. J. 
Maddox, Eobert F.* 
Martin, John G. 
Mayson, J. E. 
Mecaslin, John H. 
Mills, Frank* 
Murphy, Anthony 
Murphy, Ed. C. 





Middlebrooks, W. M. 

Richards, W. B.* 

Molley, E. D. L. 

Richardson, F. M.* 

Maddox, Chas. K. 

Richardson, Levi* 

Mitchell, I. S. 

Roberts, Green B. 

Mynatt, Pry or L.* 

Robinson, W. P. 

Marsh, Edward W.* 

Rucker, J. W.* 

McDaniel, Henry T.* 

Reeves, Jas. F. 

Mabra, Milus J. 

Roy, Dr. G. G.* 

Mayson, T. C. 

Robinson, R. J. 

Markham, Marcullus 

Renard, Joseph F. 

Morris, T. A. 

Rogers, John C. 

Moore, B. F.* 

Robertson, E. A. 

Mays, John P.* 

Reed, Wallace P. 

Norcross, Hon. Jonathan 

* Ryan, Frank T. 

Oatman, S. B. 

Reed, Thomas* 

Ogletree, Geo. T.* 

Root, Sidney* 

Oliver, J. S.* 

Saye, R. A. 

Overby, B. H. 

Shaw, Augustus 

Orme, A. J.* 

Shaw, Andrew* 

Pitchford, Daniel* 

Stewart. George* 

Parsons, Edward* 

. Sloan, D. W.* 

Parish, J. R. 

Strong, Cicero H.* 

Payne, C. M. 

Schwan. Jacob 

Peck, John C. 

Stewart. Andrew P. 

Parker, A. M, 

Saye, W. L. 

Porter, J. H.* 

Sterehi. Jas. H. 

Payne, Warren D. 

Shearer, W. C. 

Powell, Dr. Thos. S.* 

Scott, Rev. W. J.* 

Powell, J. J.* 

Simpson. F. M. 

Payne, Ed. T. 

Smith, J. W. 

Peck, Frank H. 

Shickan, J. J, 

Peck. John B.* 

Smith, Zack H. 

Pilgrim, Isaac B. 

Saunders. Wm. C* 

Perkins, J. 0. 

- Silvey, John* 

Pease, P. P.* 

Talley, A. S.* 

Eussell, W. A.* 

Toy, James M.* 

Eyan, John* 

Turner, W. H.* 


Eawson, Ed. E.* 

Thomas, Col. L. P. 

Eice, Frank P. 

Thurman. Dr. F. D.* 

History of Atlanta. 


Thrasher, J. S. 
Todd, J. C. 
Thurman, Ben* 
Thrower, J, L. 
Wade, John W. 
Walker, Matt* 
Walker, Thos. E. 
Welch, George* 
Wells, Levi C* 
Werner, E. A.* 
Whitner, John C. 
Williams, Jas. E.* 
Williams, Thos. H. 
Williford, Ben N. 
Wilson, A. N".* 
Woodruff, John T. 
Wilson, W. M. 

* Deceased. 

Winship, George 
Wilson, Dr. Henry L. 
Wallace, A. M.* 
West, A. J. 
Wylie, Jas. E. 
Winter, J. L. 
Walker, B. F.* 
Walker, J. F. 
Westmoreland, Eobt. W. 
Wood, Thomas 
Williams, W. F. 
Wells, A. P. 
Woodruff, J. W. 
Whidhj, W. G.* 
Winship, Eobert* 
Yarbrough, Joel S. 
Younge, John 


(By the President of the Society.) 

"Should auld acquaintance he forgot 

And never drought to min' ? 
Should auld acquaintance be forgot^ 

And days of o'lang syne ?" 

The sentiment expressed in the above lines of the immor- 
tal Burns inspired the preparation and publication of the 
foregoing imperfect history of the Pioneers of Atlanta. 

As one of the few survivors of the early settlers it has been 
to me a source of much pleasure, at the same time mingled 
with sadness, to call to mind, through the instrumentality of 
this little book, the old scenes of the past — some of them long 
since forgotten, and many of my old friends and companions, 
the most of whom, after life's labor fitly done, and are now 
sleeping their last sleep, awaiting the Resurrection. There are 

400 PioxEEK Citizens' 

certain elements of character absolutel}' essential in the Pion- 
eer who goes before to clear the way for others. Bravery, 
sturdiness, fidelity, strength and intelligence are indispensi- 
ble, and sacrifices of eyery kind must necessarily be made. It 
is apparent that these qualities were .possessed to an unusual 
degree by our old citizens, who overcame all obstacles in the 
laying of the foundations of this great city. It has been said 
that every citizen of Atlanta carries a horn with him and 
blows it on all occasions. This custom came by inheritance 
from the old settlers who in the forti,es proclaimed to the 
world the glories of Terminus and Marthasville. The history 
of Atlanta is remarkable in the fact that it may be said to have 
had two beginnings; one when the sturdy men of old cleared 
away the forest, builded the rough cabins, tilled the fields and 
inaugurated trade, manufacturing, professional and other 
business pursuits ; the other, when after its ruin and destruc- 
tion following the great war between the states, her citizens 
returned and with unconquerable spirits rebuilt her waste 
places. For the first should we not invoke rest and happiness 
and friendship and love for each other, during the years of 
their closing lives, and for the second, continued success in 
the great work of pressing on with undiminished energy and 
foresight in developing and governing this, already splendid 
young city, with the final injunction that whilst exercising 
their full energies and practical work, they should never for- 
get that they will ever have with them the aged, the suffering 
and the poor, and that charity, blessed charity, the Queen of 
Heaven and Earth, should rule in gracious majesty, and like 
the dews of Heaven, fail everywhere.